Heaven may refer to the physical heavens, the sky or the seemingly endless expanse of the universe beyond. An atmosphere (from Greek ατμός - atmos, " Vapor " + σφαίρα - sphaira, " Sphere " The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy The term is used to refer to a plane of existence (sometimes held to exist in our own universe) in religions and spiritual philosophies, typically described as the holiest possible place, accessible by people according to various standards of divinity, goodness, piety, etc. In Metaphysics and Esoteric cosmology, a plane, other than the Physical plane, is conceived as a subtle state of Consciousness that transcends The Universe is defined as everything that Physically Exists: the entirety of Space and Time, all forms of Matter, Energy A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Spirituality, in a narrow sense concerns itself with matters of the Spirit, a concept closely tied to religious belief and Faith, a transcendent reality Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language An English Noun The English noun people has two distinct fields of application as a countable noun, a group of Humans Divinity and divine (sometimes 'the Divinity' or 'the Divine' are broadly applied but loosely defined terms used variously within different faiths and belief systems — In Religion, Ethics, and Philosophy, the phrase good and evil refers to the location of objects desires and Behaviors on a two-way In spiritual terminology piety is a Virtue. While different people may understand its meaning differently it is generally used to refer either to religious devotion
The modern English word Heaven derives from the word heven around 1150, which developed from the Old English heofon around 1000 referring to the Christianized "place where God dwells" but earlier meaning "sky, firmament" (attested from around 725 in Beowulf); this is cognate with other Germanic languages - Old Saxon heƀan ("sky, heaven"), Middle Low German heven ("sky"), Old Icelandic himinn ("sky, heaven"), Gothic himins, and possibly with the addition of an -l suffix; Old Frisian himel, himul ("sky, heaven"), Old Saxon himil, Middle Dutch and modern Dutch hemel, Old High German himil and modern German Himmel, all of which derive from the reconstructed Proto-Germanic *Hemina-. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The historical phenomenon of Christianization (or Christianisation &mdash see spelling differences) the conversion of individuals to Christianity Beowulf is an Old English Heroic epic poem of anonymous authorship dating as recorded in the Nowell Codex manuscript from between The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German ( ISO 639 -3 code osx) is the earliest recorded form of Low German, documented from the 9th century Middle Low German ( ISO 639 -3 code gml) is a Language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and is the ancestor of modern Low German. Old Norse is the North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements during the Viking Age Gothic is an extinct Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths. Old Frisian was the West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries by the people who had settled in the area between the Rhine Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German ( ISO 639 -3 code osx) is the earliest recorded form of Low German, documented from the 9th century Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) which were spoken and written between 1150 Dutch ( is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people 22 million of which are from the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. Linguistic reconstruction is the practice of establishing the features of the unattested ancestor ( Proto-language) of one or more given languages Proto-Germanic, or Common Germanic, is the hypothetical common ancestor ( Proto-language) of all the Germanic languages such as modern English 
While there are abundant and varied sources for conceptions of Heaven, the typical believer's view appears to depend largely on his religious tradition and particular sect. Some religions conceptualize Heaven as pertaining to some type of peaceful life after death related to the immortality of the soul. A religion is a set of Tenets and practices often centered upon specific Supernatural and moral claims about Reality, the Cosmos Heaven is generally construed as a place of happiness, sometimes eternal happiness. Happiness is an Emotion associated with feelings ranging from contentment and satisfaction to Bliss and intense Joy. While in the popular mind eternity often simply means existing for a limitless amount of Time, many have used it to refer to a timeless existence altogether outside of Happiness is an Emotion associated with feelings ranging from contentment and satisfaction to Bliss and intense Joy. A psychological reading of sacred religious texts across cultures and throughout history would describe it as a term signifying a state of "full aliveness" or wholeness.
In ancient Judaism, the belief in Heaven and afterlife was connected with that of Sheol (mentioned in Isaiah 38:18, Psalms 6:5 and Job 7:7-10). Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Sheol (pronounced "Sheh-ole" in Hebrew שאול (Sh'ol is the "abode of the dead" the " Underworld " "the common The Book of Isaiah ( Hebrew: Sefer Y'sha'yah ספר ישעיה is a book of the Bible traditionally attributed to the Prophet Isaiah, who lived Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included The Book of Job ( איוב) is one of the books of the Hebrew Bible. Some scholars asserted that Sheol was an earlier concept, but this theory is not universally held. One later Jewish sect that maintained belief in a Resurrection of the dead was known as the Pharisees. This article concerns itself with the belief in the final Resurrection at the End of time, commonly found in the Abrahamic religions. The word Pharisees ( lat. pharisæ|us, - i) comes from the Hebrew פרושים perushim from פרוש parush, meaning "separated" Opposed to them were the Sadducees who denied the doctrine of Resurrection (Matt. The Sadducees were members of a Jewish sect founded in the second century BC, possibly as a political party 22:23). In Christianity, heaven is either an eternally blessed life after death or a return to the pre-fallen state of humanity, a second and new Garden of Eden, in which humanity is reunited with God in a perfect and natural state of eternal existence and generally they believe this afterdeath reunion is accomplished through faith that Jesus Christ died for the sins of humanity on the cross, was resurrected and "bodily" ascended into heaven. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Not to be confused with Eden Gardens.The Garden of Eden ( Hebrew "pleasure" גַּן עֵדֶן Arabic: جنات عدن, Examples of the different terminology referencing the concept of "heaven", in the Christian Bible are:
the kingdom of heaven (Matthew 5:3), the kingdom of the Father (Matthew 13:43), life (Matthew 7:14), life everlasting (Matthew 19:16), the joy of the Lord (Matthew 25:21), great reward (Matthew 5:12), the kingdom of God (Mark 9:45), the kingdom of Christ (Luke 22:30), the house of the Father (John 14:2), city of God, the heavenly Jerusalem (Hebr. , xii), the holy place (Hebrews 9:12; D. V. holies), paradise (2 Corinthians 12:4), incorruptible crown (1 Corinthians 9:25), crown of life (James 1:12), crown of justice (II Timothy iv, 8), crown of glory (1 Peter 5:4)
The diversity of references make it probable that the term refers to a direct experience of full spiritual aliveness or unity with God.
Some Eastern religions and some Western traditions believe in reincarnation and moksha (liberation) instead of Heaven, but some still include a concept of Heaven similar (but not necessarily the same) as the concept held by Christianity. Eastern religion is a group of Religions originating in India, China, Japan and Southeast Asia. In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release" Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For example, in Buddhism there are several heavens, all of which are still part of Samsara (illusionary reality). Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Those who accumulate good karma may be reborn in one of them. Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" However, their stay in the heaven is not eternal—eventually they will use up their good karma and will undergo a different rebirth into another realm, as humans, animals, or other beings. Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" Rebirth in Buddhism is the doctrine that the consciousness of a person (as conventionally regarded upon the death or dissolution of the aggregates ( Skandhas Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Because Heaven is temporary and part of Samsara, Buddhists focus more on escaping the cycle of rebirth and reaching enlightenment (Bodhi). Bodhi (बोधि is both the Pāli and Sanskrit word traditionally translated into English as "enlightenment In the native Chinese Confucian traditions Heaven (Tian) is an important concept, where the ancestors reside and from which emperors drew their mandate to rule in their dynastic propaganda, for example. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Confucianism ( is a Chinese ethical and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of the fifth century B Tian ( is one of the oldest Chinese terms for the Cosmos and a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophy, and religion. In Hindu belief, likewise, heaven—called Swarga loka—is seen as a transitory place for souls who did good deeds but whose actions are not enough for moksha or merging (union) with Brahman. A Hindu ( Devanagari: हिन्दू is an adherent of the philosophies and scriptures of Hinduism, a set of religious, Philosophical In Hinduism, ( Sanskrit: स्वर्ग Svarga (or Swarga) is set of heavenly worlds located on and above Mt In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release"
Some faiths teach that one enters heaven at the moment of death, while others teach that this occurs at a later time. Some of Christianity along with other major religions maintain that entry into Heaven awaits such time as, "When the form of this world has passed away. " (*JPII)
Two related and often confused concepts of heaven in Christianity are better described as the "resurrection of the body", which is exclusively of Biblical origin, as contrasted with "the immortality of the soul", which is also evident in the Greek tradition. In the first concept, the soul does not enter heaven until the last judgement or the "end of time" when it (along with the body) is resurrected and judged. In the second concept, the soul goes to a heaven on another plane immediately after death. These two concepts are generally combined in the doctrine of the double judgement where the soul is judged once at death and goes to a temporary heaven, while awaiting a second and final physical judgement at the end of the world. (*" JPII, also see eschatology, afterlife)
The idea of Heaven as a physical place has existed since the dawn of religion and human civilization. Eschatology (from the Greek, Eschatos meaning "last" and -logy meaning "the study of" is a part of Theology AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between In some early religions (such as the Ancient Egyptian faith), Heaven was a physical place far above the Earth in a "dark area" of space where there were no stars, basically beyond the Universe. Ancient Egyptian religion encompasses the various religious beliefs and rituals practiced in Ancient Egypt from the predynastic period until the adoption of Christianity Departed souls would undergo a literal journey to reach Heaven, along the way to which there could exist hazards and other entities attempting to deny the reaching of Heaven.
One popular medieval view of Heaven was that it existed as a physical place above the clouds and that God and the Angels were physically above, watching over man. With the dawn of the Age of Reason, science began to challenge this notion; however Heaven as a physical place survived in the concept that it was located far out into space, and that the stars were "lights shining through from heaven". The Age of Enlightenment or The Enlightenment is a term used to describe a phase in Western philosophy and cultural life centered upon the eighteenth century
Several works of written and filmed science fiction have plots in which Heaven can be reached by the living through technological means. An example is Disney film The Black Hole, in which a manned spacecraft found both Heaven (or another dimension) and Hell located at the bottom of a black hole. For the 2006 film see Black Hole (2006 film The Black Hole is a 1979 Science fiction movie directed by Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering A black hole is a theoretical region of space in which the Gravitational field is so powerful that nothing not even Electromagnetic radiation (e 
In the modern age of science and space flight the idea that Heaven is a physical place in the observable universe has largely been abandoned. Religious views, however, still hold Heaven as having a dual status as a concept of mind or heart, but also possibly still physically existing in some way on another "plane of existence", dimension, or perhaps at a future time. The spiritual or (to Indian Theosophists atmic or (to Greek Theosophists 1st - 3rd Logoic planes or pneumatic planes (or Dimensions or n-spaces According to science there are unobservable areas of the universe (everywhere beyond earth's Particle horizon), although by their very nature it is not possible to observe them. In Physical cosmology, particle horizon is the maximum distance from which particles could have traveled to the observer in the Age of the universe In Christianity it is believed that Heaven is a spiritual place, unreachable by humans and only to be entered after death. As a spiritual location it could be located somewhere within the known universe and as humans we would be unaware of its presence and unable to see it, or it could be located in another dimension or plane of existence.
Many of today's Biblical scholars, such as N. T. Wright, in tracing the concept of Heaven back to its Jewish roots, see Earth and Heaven as overlapping or interlocking. Nicholas Thomas "Tom" Wright (born 1 December 1948) is the Bishop of Durham in the Church of England and a leading New Testament Heaven is known as God's space, his dimension, and is not a place that can be reached by human technology. This belief states that Heaven is where God lives and reigns whilst being active and working alongside people on Earth. One day when God restores all things, Heaven and Earth will be forever combined into the 'New Heavens' and 'New Earth'.
Religions that teach about heaven differ on how (and if) one gets into it, typically in the afterlife. In Theology, salvation can mean three related things being saved from or Liberation from something such as Suffering or the punishment of Soteriology is the branch of theology that deals with Salvation. In most, entrance to Heaven is conditional on having lived a "good life" (within the terms of the spiritual system). A notable exception to this is the 'sola fide' belief of many mainstream Protestant sects, which teaches that not only do you have to live a "good life" and teaches that the entrance to heaven is conditional on belief and acceptance of Jesus Christ assuming the guilt of the sinner, rather than responsibility for one's own actions regardless of any good or bad 'works' one has participated in. Sola fide ( Latin: by Faith alone also historically known as the doctrine of justification by faith is a doctrine that distinguishes most Dual-covenant theology is a variant of this belief that exempts Jews from having to adopt Jesus as savior as a condition for entry to Heaven. Dual-covenant theology is a Christian belief which teaches that Jews can go to Heaven simply by keeping the Law of Moses, because of the "everlasting
Many religions state that those who do not go to heaven will go to a place of punishment, Hell, which is eternal (see annihilationism). Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering Annihilationism is the minority Christian Doctrine that Sinners are destroyed rather than tormented Forever in "hell" or Some religions believe that other afterlives exist in addition to Heaven and Hell, such as Purgatory. See also Intermediate state Limbo|Heaven|Sheol|Hades in Christianity|Hell in Christianity Purgatory, in the original sense is the condition or process of purification One religion, universalism, believes that everyone will go to Heaven eventually, no matter what they have done or believed on earth. Universalism can be classified as a Religion, Theology and Philosophy that generally holds all persons and creatures are related to God or the Divine and Some forms of Christianity, including Jehovah's Witnesses, believe Hell to be the termination of the soul. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination
The Bahá'í Faith regards the conventional description of heaven (and hell) as a specific place as symbolic. The Bahá'í Faith is a Religion founded by Bahá'u'lláh in nineteenth-century Persia, emphasizing the spiritual unity of all humankind Instead the Bahá'í writings describe heaven as a "spiritual condition" where closeness to God is defined as heaven; conversely hell is seen as a state of remoteness from God. Bahá'í literature, like much Religious text, covers a variety of topics and forms including scripture and inspiration interpretation history and biography Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering Bahá'u'lláh, the founder of the Bahá'í Faith, has stated that the nature of the life of the soul in the afterlife is beyond comprehension in the physical plane, but has stated that the soul will retain its consciousness and individuality and remember its physical life; the soul will be able to recognize other souls and communicate with them. Bahá'u'lláh ( ba-haa-ol-laa "Glory of God" ( November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892) born Mírzá Ḥusayn-`Alí Nuri 
For Bahá'ís, entry into the next life has the potential to bring great joy.  Bahá'u'lláh likened death to the process of birth. He explains: "The world beyond is as different from this world as this world is different from that of the child while still in the womb of its mother. The uterus (from the Latin word for womb) is the major Female reproductive organ of most Mammals including Humans One end the " The analogy to the womb in many ways summarizes the Bahá'í view of earthly existence: just as the womb constitutes an important place for a person's initial physical development, the physical world provides for the development of the individual soul. The soul, according to many religious and philosophical beliefs is the self-awareness, or Consciousness, unique to a particular living Accordingly, Bahá'ís view life as a preparatory stage, where one can develop and perfect those qualities which will be needed in the next life.  The key to spiritual progress is to follow the path outlined by the current Manifestations of God, which Bahá'ís believe is currently Bahá'u'lláh. The Manifestation of God is a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called Prophets The Manifestations of God are a series of personages Bahá'u'lláh wrote, "Know thou, of a truth, that if the soul of man hath walked in the ways of God, it will, assuredly return and be gathered to the glory of the Beloved. "
The Bahá'í teachings state that there exists a hierarchy of souls in the afterlife, where the merits of each soul determines their place in the hierarchy, and that souls lower in the hierarchy cannot completely understand the station of those above. AfterLife is a film drama set in Scotland directed by Alison Peebles made in 2003 about an ambitious Scottish journalist forced to choose between Each soul can continue to progress in the afterlife, but the soul's development is not entirely dependent on its own conscious efforts, the nature of which we are not aware of, but also augmented by the grace of God, the prayers of others, and good deeds performed by others on Earth in the name of that person. Prayer is the act of attempting to communicate with a Deity or spirit 
Historically, Christianity has taught "Heaven" as a generalized concept, a place of eternal life, in that it is a shared plane to be attained by all the elect (rather than an abstract experience related to individual concepts of the ideal). Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings The Christian Church has been divided over how people gain this eternal life. From the 16th to the late 19th century, Christendom was divided between the Roman Catholic view, the Orthodox view, the Coptic view, the Jacobite view, the Abyssinian view and Protestant views. The 19th century of the Common Era began on January 1, 1801 and ended on December 31, 1900, according to the Gregorian calendar Christendom usually refers to Christianity as a territorial phenomenon The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world History of the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria Apostolic foundation Egypt is identified in the Bible as the place of refuge that the The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation.
Roman Catholics believe that entering Purgatory after death (physical rather than ego death) cleanses one of sin (period of suffering until one's nature is perfected), which makes one acceptable to enter heaven. See also Intermediate state Limbo|Heaven|Sheol|Hades in Christianity|Hell in Christianity Purgatory, in the original sense is the condition or process of purification Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation This is valid for venial sin only, as mortal sins can be forgiven only through the act of reconciliation and repentance while on earth. According to Roman Catholicism, a venial sin (meaning "forgivable" Sin) is a lesser sin that does not result in a complete separation from God Mortal sin, according to the beliefs of Roman Catholicism, and some Protestant denominations is a Sin that unless confessed and absolved (or at least Some within the Anglican Communion, notably Anglo-Catholics, also hold to this belief, despite their separate history. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism (or sometimes possibly incorrectly High Church &mdashsee below describe people However, in the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox Churches, it is only God who has the final say on who enters heaven. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. In the Eastern Orthodox Church, heaven is understood as union (Theosis) and communion with the Triune God (reunion of Father and Son through love). In Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholic theology theosis (written also theiosis, theopoiesis, theōsis Thus, Heaven is experienced by the Orthodox both as a reality inaugurated, anticipated and present here and now in the divine-human organism of the Christ's Body, the Church, and also as something to be perfected in the future. Body of Christ is a term of Christian Theology, implicitly traceable to Jesus 's statement at the Last Supper that "This is my body"
In Protestant Christian sects, eternal life depends upon the sinner receiving God's grace (unearned and undeserved blessing stemming from God's love) through faith in Jesus' death for their sins, his resurrection as the Christ, and accepting his Lordship (authority and guidance) over their lives. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Faith is a Belief in the trustworthiness of an Idea. Formal usage of the word "faith" is usually reserved for concepts of Religion, as in Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) Some Protestant sects also teach that a physical baptism, or obligatory process of transformation or experience of spiritual rebirth, is further required. Also, Protestantism is divided into groups who believe in the doctrine of eternal security (once a person becomes a Christian, s/he remains one forever, also referred to by the slogan "once saved, always saved") and those who believe that a person, through continued sinful activity and an unwillingness to repent, can "lose" or forfeit their salvation (with those groups further divided into those who believe that salvation can be regained, and those who do not). Perseverance of the saints is a controversial Christian teaching that none who are truly saved can be condemned for their Sins or finally fall away from the faith
According to the controversial website "Religioustolerance.org", "Conservative and mainline Protestant denominations tend to base their belief in heaven on the literal interpretation of certain passages of the Bible, and symbolic interpretations of others. The Ontario Consultants on Religious Tolerance ( OCRT) is a group in Ontario, Canada, formed with the stated purpose of They arrive at very different beliefs because they select different passages to read literally. "
From the early second century, we have a fragment of one of the lost volumes of Papias, a Christian bishop, who expounded that "heaven" was separated into three distinct layers. For the Genus of Grass skipper Butterflies, see Papias (butterfly. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight He referred to the first as just "heaven", the second as "paradise", and the third as "the city". Papias taught that "there is this distinction between the habitation of those who produce a hundredfold, and that of those who produce sixty-fold, and that of those who produce thirty-fold".
In the 2nd century CE, Irenaeus (a Greek bishop) wrote that not all who are saved would merit an abode in heaven itself. Saint Irenaeus (Greek Ειρηναίος (2nd century AD - c 202 was Bishop of Lugdunum in Gaul, Roman Empire (now Lyons France In Against Heresies, he wrote that only those deemed worthy would inherit a home in heaven, while others would enjoy paradise, and the rest live in the restored Jerusalem. Paradise is a word of Persian origin ( Persian: پردیس Pardìs) that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven.
The teachings of the Eastern Orthodox and Oriental Orthodox communions regarding the Kingdom of Heaven, or Kingdom of God, is basically taken from scripture, and thus many elements of this belief are held in common with other scriptural faiths and denominations. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world Oriental Orthodoxy is the communion of Eastern Christian Churches that recognize only three Ecumenical councils — the First Council of Nicaea, the Some specific descriptions of this Kingdom as given in the canon of scripture include— (this list is by no means comprehensive):
Eastern Orthodox cosmology percieves heaven as having different levels (John 14:2), the lowest of which is Paradise. Cosmology (from Greek grc κοσμολογία - grc κόσμος kosmos, "universe" and grc -λογία -logia) is study Paradise is a word of Persian origin ( Persian: پردیس Pardìs) that is generally identified with the Garden of Eden or with Heaven. At the time of creation, paradise touched the earth at the Garden of Eden after the Fall of man, paradise was seperated from the earth, and mankind forbidden entry, lest he partake of the Tree of Life and live eternally in a state of sinfulness (Genesis 3:22-24). Not to be confused with Eden Gardens.The Garden of Eden ( Hebrew "pleasure" גַּן עֵדֶן Arabic: جنات عدن, The Fall of Man, or simply the Fall, in Christian doctrine refers to the transition of the first humans from a state of innocent obedience to God, A tree of life is a mystical concept a Metaphor for common descent or a Motif in various world theologies and philosophies. At his death on the Cross, the Orthodox believe Jesus opened the door to Paradise to mankind again (Luke 23:43), and the Good Thief was the first to enter. The crucifixion of Jesus is an event recorded in all four Gospels (;;) which takes place after his arrest and trial and includes his scourging Saint Dismas (sometimes spelled Dysmas or only Dimas, or even Dumas) also known as the Good Thief or the Penitent Thief
Various saints have had visions of heaven (2 Corinthians 12:2-4). A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity In Spirituality including Religion, visions comprise Inspirational renderings generally of a Future state and/or of a mythical The Orthodox concept of life in heaven is described in one of the prayers for the dead: "…a place of light, a place of green pasture, a place of repose, whence all sickness, sorrow and sighing are fled away. Wherever there is a belief in the continued existence of Man 's personality through and after Death, Religion naturally concerns itself with the relations "
The Roman Catholic Church bases its belief in Heaven on some main biblical passages in the Hebrew and Christian Scriptures (Old and New Testaments) and also the books of the apocrypha and collected church wisdom. Heaven is the Realm of the Blessed Trinity, the Blessed Virgin Mary (also called the Queen of Heaven), the angels and the saints. SSC RF "Troitsk Institute of Innovative and Termonuclear Research" or TRINITY for shprt Троицкий Институт инновационных и термоядерных Queen of Heaven is a title given to the Blessed Virgin Mary by Christians, mainly Catholics and Orthodox, to whom the title is a consequence An angel is a Spiritual Supernatural being found in many Religions Although the nature of angels and the tasks given to them vary from tradition to tradition A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity According to the dogma of Assumption of the Virgin Mary, the Virgin Mary "having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory", which implies that heaven must have some facility to support human bodies as well as souls or that the experience of heaven is to be understood as a spiritual (soul) experience while still on earth. This article is about the theological concept For the works of art with this title see Assumption of the Virgin Mary in Art and Roman Catholic Marian art. This ecumenical article is about general Christian views on and veneration of the Virgin Mary
The essential joy of heaven is called the beatific vision, which is derived from the vision of God's essence. In Roman Catholic Theology, the beatific vision is the eternal and direct perception of God enjoyed by those who are in Heaven, imparting supreme The soul rests perfectly in God, and does not, or cannot desire anything else than God. After the Last Judgment, when the soul is reunited with its body, the body participates in the happiness of the soul. In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgment or Day of the Lord is the judgment by God of every human who ever lived It becomes incorruptible, glorious and perfect. Any physical defects the body may have laboured under are erased.
The Roman Catholic teaching regarding Heaven is found in the Catechism of the Catholic Church: "Those who die (generally understood as physical death as opposed to "body level," ego identity) in God's grace and friendship and are perfectly purified, live forever (defined as immortality of the body as opposed to eternal aliveness in the psychological sense). The Catechism of the Catholic Church, or CCC, is an official exposition of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church and the twenty-two This perfect (divine) life with [God] (Father Deity rather than concept of "perfect goodness") is called heaven. [It] is the ultimate end and fulfilment of the deepest human longings, the state of supreme, definitive happiness, full aliveness. The Catholic Church teaches that only those baptized by water (symbol of purification/internal cleansing), blood (symbol of martyrdom), or desire (explicit or implicit desire for purification) may enter heaven and those who have died in a state of grace may enter heaven. 
Upon dying, each soul goes to what is called "the particular judgement" where its own afterlife is decided (i. e. Heaven after Purgatory, straight to Heaven, or Hell. Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering ) This is different from "the general judgement" also known as "the Last judgement" which will occur when Christ returns to judge all the living and the dead. In Christian eschatology, the Last Judgment or Day of the Lord is the judgment by God of every human who ever lived Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed "
It is a common Roman Catholic belief that St. Michael the Archangel carries the soul to Heaven. Michael (מִיכָאֵל Micha'el or Mîkhā'ēl; Μιχαήλ Mikhaíl; Michael or Míchaël; ميخائيل Mikhā'īl) is an The belief that Saint Peter meets the soul at the "Pearly Gates" is an artistic application of the belief that Christ gave Peter, believed by Catholics to be the first Pope, the keys to Heaven. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and
As Heaven is a place where only the pure are permitted, no person who dies in a state of sin can enter Heaven. "Those who die in God's grace and friendship and are perfectly purified live for ever with Christ. They are like God for ever, for they "see Him as he is," face to face. " (Catechism of the Catholic Church §1023) "Those who die in God's grace and friendship imperfectly purified, although they are assured of their eternal salvation, undergo a purification after death, so as to achieve the holiness necessary to enter the joy of God. " (Catechism of the Catholic Church §1054)
If one were baptized validly and then died, one would go directly to heaven (in the Roman Catholic belief, the sacrament of baptism dissolves the eternal and temporal punishment of all sins). In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted If one never committed a mortal sin and were absolved of all his venial sins just before death, one would go directly to Heaven. Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation
Most people who enter Heaven do so through Purgatory (or "place of purification"). See also Intermediate state Limbo|Heaven|Sheol|Hades in Christianity|Hell in Christianity Purgatory, in the original sense is the condition or process of purification In Purgatory, a soul pays off all temporal punishment one deserved for the sins he committed in life. This does not always happen though. If one receives the Sacrament of Penance validly, as well as gains a plenary indulgence, and dies, one would directly go to heaven. Penance is repentance of Sins as well as the proper name of the Catholic and Orthodox Christian Sacrament of Penance and Reconciliation/Confession There are many ways to get an indulgence, in various Papal decrees or publications. To receive a plenary indulgence, one must receive the sacrament of Confession validly, do one's penance, validly receive Communion, say some specified number of Lord's Prayers, Angelic Salutations and Minor Doxologies for the intentions of the Pope, and then perform some act of gaining the indulgence. The Lord's Prayer, also known as the Our Father or Pater noster, is probably the best-known Prayer in Christianity. The Hail Mary or Ave Maria ( Latin) is a traditional Christian Prayer asking for the Intercession of the Virgin Mary, the Glory Be to the Father, also known as Gloria Patri, is a Doxology, a short Hymn of praise to God in various Christian liturgies Of course, one must remain free from all sin, mortal and venial, while doing all these things.
The intermediate state (between death and the resurrection) is unclear in Protestant Christian thought (see the article on soul sleep), but the following is generally concluded about the eternal life which Jesus promised those who believed in him:
The term Heaven (which differs from "The Kingdom of Heaven" see note below) is applied by the Biblical authors to the realm in which God currently resides. See also Intermediate state In Christian theology, soul sleep is a belief that the Soul sleeps unconsciously between the Death of the Eternal life, however, occurs in a renewed, unspoilt and perfect creation, which can be termed Heaven since God will choose to dwell there permanently with his people, as seen in Revelation 21:3. There will no longer be any separation between God and man. The believers themselves will exist in incorruptible, resurrected and new bodies; there will be no sickness, no death and no tears. Death is not a natural part of life, but was allowed to happen after Adam and Eve disobeyed God (see original sin) so that mankind would not live forever in a state of sin and thus a state of separation from God. Adam (אָדָם ʼĀḏām, "dust man mankind" آدم; Ge'ez: አዳ and Eve (חַוָּה Ḥawwā, "living God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. Original sin is according to a doctrine in Catholic theology, humanity's state of Sin resulting from the Fall of Man. Sin is a term used mainly in a religious context to describe an act that violates a moral Rule, or the state of having committed such a violation  Not only will the believers spend eternity with God, they will also spend it with each other. John's vision recorded in Revelation describes a New Jerusalem which comes from Heaven to the new earth, which is a seen to be a symbolic reference to the people of God living in community with one another. In The Bible, the New Jerusalem (also called the tabernacle of God, holy city, city of God, celestial city, and heavenly Jerusalem 'Heaven' will be the place where life will be lived to the full, in the way that the designer planned, each believer 'loving the Lord their God with all their heart and with all their soul and with all their mind' and 'loving their neighbour as themselves'(adapted from Matthew 22:37-38) —a place of great joy, without the negative aspects of earthly life.
(The Greek "hê basileia tou ouranou", usually translated as "the Kingdom of Heaven", is indeed more literally "the rule of the skies", with "the skies" a codeword for God. God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity. )
Within Christianity, there are several notable belief structures on the means by which Man may enter heaven. See:
The Seventh-day Adventist understanding of heaven is based on Biblical writings which set out the following:
Jehovah's Witnesses hold the belief that Heaven is the dwelling place of Jehovah God and all of His spirit creatures, the seat of His power as Sovereign of the Universe, and the place where 144,000 chosen faithful followers of Christ will reside ruling over the resurrected Earth alongside the anointed King, Jehovah's son Jesus Christ. Jehovah's Witnesses is a restorationist, millenialist Christian denomination Yahweh|God in Abrahamic religions Jehovah is an English reading of, the most frequent form of the Tetragrammaton, the name of God in the Hebrew Bible, in 
Revelation 14:1, 3: And I saw, and look! the Lamb standing upon the Mount Zion, and with him a hundred and forty-four thousand having his name and the name of his Father written on their foreheads. . . . . And they are singing as if a new song before the throne and before the four living creatures and the elders; and no one was able to master that song but the hundred and forty-four thousand, who have been bought from earth.
Not all good people go to heaven and the ones who remain on earth can look forward to a happy life in the future.
Acts 2:34: “David [whom the Bible refers to as being ‘a man agreeable to Jehovah God’s heart’] did not ascend to the heavens. ”
Matt. 11:11: “Truly I say to you people, Among those born of women there has not been raised up a greater than John the Baptist; but a person that is a lesser one in the kingdom of the heavens is greater than he is. ” (So John did not go to heaven when he died. )
Ps. 37:9, 11, 29: “Evildoers themselves will be cut off, but those hoping in Jehovah are the ones that will possess the earth . . . The meek ones themselves will possess the earth, and they will indeed find their exquisite delight in the abundance of peace. The righteous themselves will possess the earth, and they will reside forever upon it. ”
Rev. 21:1-4: “I saw a new heaven and a new earth . . . I heard a loud voice from the throne say: ‘Look! The tent of God is with mankind, and he will reside with them, and they will be his peoples. And God himself will be with them. And he will wipe out every tear from their eyes, and death will be no more, neither will mourning nor outcry nor pain be anymore. The former things have passed away. ’”
Mic. 4:3, 4: “They will not lift up sword, nation against nation, neither will they learn war anymore. And they will actually sit, each one under his vine and under his fig tree, and there will be no one making them tremble; for the very mouth of Jehovah of armies has spoken it. ”
Matt. 5:5: “Happy are the mild-tempered ones, since they will inherit the earth. ”
Matt. 6:9, 10: “Our Father in the heavens, let your name be sanctified. Let your kingdom come. Let your will take place, as in heaven, also upon earth. ”
The view of heaven according to the Latter-Day Saint movement is based on Section 76 of the Doctrine and Covenants. A Latter The Doctrine and Covenants (sometimes abbreviated and cited as D&C) is a part of the open scriptural canon of several denominations of the The afterlife is divided first into two levels until the Last Judgement; afterwards it is divided into four levels, the upper three of which are referred to as "degrees of glory" that, for illustrative purposes, are compared to heavenly bodies.
Before the Last Judgment, spirits separated from their bodies at death go either to Paradise or to Spirit Prison based on their merits earned in life. Spirit prison is believed by some Christians including most notably Latter-day Saints, to be a place where people who have not had the opportunity to learn and accept Paradise is a place of rest while its inhabitants continue learning in preparation for the Last Judgement. Spirit Prison is a place of anguish and suffering for the wicked and unrepentant; however, missionary efforts done by spirits from Paradise enable those in Spirit Prison to repent, accept the Gospel and the atonement and receive baptism through the practice of baptism for the dead. The atonement is a doctrine found within both Christianity and Judaism. Baptism for the dead, vicarious baptism or proxy baptism is the religious practice of baptizing a living person on behalf of an individual who is dead 
After the resurrection and Last Judgement, people are sent to one of four levels:
In Hinduism, with its emphasis on reincarnation, the concept of Heaven is not as prominent. While heaven is temporary (until the next birth), the permanent state that Hindus aspire to is Moksha. In Indian religions, Moksha ( Sanskrit: sa मोक्ष mokṣa) or Mukti ( Sanskrit: sa मुक्ति literally "release" Moksha is seen as the soul's liberation from the cycle of life and death, a re-establishment in one's own fundamental divine nature and may include union with or joining God.
Entry into heaven (swarga loka) or hell (Naraka) is decided by the Lord of death Yama and his karmic accountant, Chitragupta, who records the good and bad deeds of a person during his lifetime. In Hinduism, ( Sanskrit: स्वर्ग Svarga (or Swarga) is set of heavenly worlds located on and above Mt Naraka is the Sanskrit word for the Underworld; literally of man. This article is about the deity Yama in Hinduism For yama in the sense of a code of conduct see Yamas. Karma ( Sanskrit: कर्म, kárman - "act action performance" Pali: kamma) is the concept of "action" Chitragupta (Sanskrit चित्रगुप्त rich in secrets is a Hindu god assigned with the task of keeping complete records of actions of human beings on the earth It must be noted that Yama and Chitragupta are subordinate to the supreme Lord Ishwara (God) and work under his direction. Ishvara ( Sanskrit: Īśvara sa ईश्वर Malay: Iswara, Thai: Phra Isuan) is a philosophical concept in Hinduism Entry into heaven is only dependent on one's actions in the previous life and is not restricted by faith or religion. The ruler of heaven, where one enjoys the fruits of one's good deeds, is known as Indra, and life in that realm is said to include interaction with many celestial beings (gandharvas). Indra ( Sanskrit: इन्द्र or इंद्र Indra, Malay: Indera, Thai: พระอินทร์ Phra-Intra
According to Buddhist Cosmology the universe is undergoing cycles and beings are spread over a number of existential "planes" in which this human world is only one (though important) "realm" of life. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Buddhist cosmology is the description of the shape and evolution of the universe according to the canonical Buddhist scriptures and commentaries In Buddhism the gods are not immortal, though they may live much longer than the earthly beings. They also are subject to decay and change, and the process of becoming. The intensity and the manner in which these processes take place however may be different and involve longer periods of time. But like any other beings, they are with a beginning and an end.
However, all heavenly beings are regarded as inferior in status to the Arhats who have attained Nirvana. In the sramanic traditions of ancient India (most notably those of Mahavira and Gautama Buddha) arhat ( Sanskrit) or arahant In sramanic philosophy Nirvana (निर्वाण| Nirvāṇa; निब्बान Nibbāna; Prakrit: णिव्वाण The gods were also from the lower worlds originally, but slowly and gradually graduated themselves into higher worlds by virtue of their past deeds and cultivation of virtuous qualities. Since there are many heavens and higher worlds of Brahma, these gods may evolve progressively from one heaven to another through their merit or descend into lower worlds due to some misfortune or right intention. One notable Buddhist paradise is the Pure Land of Pure Land Buddhism. Pure Land Buddhism ( Jìngtǔzōng; 浄土教 Jōdokyō; Korean: ko-Hang 정토종 jeongtojong; Vietnamese: 浄土宗 vi
The gods of Buddhism are therefore not immortal. Neither their position in the heavens is permanent. They may however live for longer durations of time. One of the Buddhist Sutras states that a hundred years of our existence is equal to one day and one night in the world of the thirty three gods. Thirty such days add up to their one month. Twelve such months become their one year, while they live for a thousand such years.
The Qur'an contains many references to an afterlife in Eden for those who do good deeds. Jannah (جنّة is the Islamic conception of Paradise. The Arabic form Jannah is a shortened version meaning simply "Garden" The Qur’an ( القرآن, literally "the recitation" also sometimes transliterated as Qur’ān, Koran, Alcoran Heaven itself is commonly described in the Qu'ran in verse 35 of Surah Al-Ra’d: "The parable of the Garden which the righteous are promised! Beneath it flow rivers. Perpetual is the fruits thereof and the shade therein. Such is the End of the Righteous; and the end of the unbelievers is the Fire. " Since Islam rejects the concept of original sin, Muslims believe that all human beings are born pure. Original sin is according to a doctrine in Catholic theology, humanity's state of Sin resulting from the Fall of Man. In Islam, therefore, a child who dies automatically goes to heaven, regardless of the religion of his or her parents. The highest level of heaven is Firdaws (فردوس)- Pardis (پردیس), which is where the prophets, the martyrs and the most truthful and pious people will dwell. In ancient astronomy before the telescope was invented people referred to the Sun, Moon, and the five planets visible with the naked eye as the Seven heavenly objects See Pardis Sabeti, the Harvard geneticist' Pardis is a new Planned city in the Tehran Province of Iran
Although sharing some similarities, the concept of heaven in Islam is different in many respects to that found in Judaism and Christianity. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Judaism (from the Greek Ioudaïsmos, derived from the Hebrew יהודה Yehudah, " Judah " in Hebrew יַהֲדוּת Yahedut Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Chiefly, Heaven (Jannah) is described in physical terms, using jewellery, and food The Islamic texts describes life for its immortal inhabitants, one that is happy — without hurt, sorrow, fear or shame — where every wish is fulfilled. Jannah (جنّة is the Islamic conception of Paradise. The Arabic form Jannah is a shortened version meaning simply "Garden" Traditions relate that inhabitants will be of the same age (32 years for men as the same age when Jesus ascended), and of the same stature. Their life is one of bliss including: wearing costly robes, bracelets, perfumes; partaking in exquisite banquets, served in priceless vessels by immortal youths; reclining on couches inlaid with gold or precious stones. Other foods mentioned include meats, scented wine and clear drinks bringing neither drunkenness nor rousing quarreling. Inhabitants will rejoice in the company of their parents, wives, and children (provided they were admitted to paradise) — conversing and recalling the past. Texts also relate "pure consorts" (houris), created in perfection, with whom carnal joys are shared — "a hundred times greater than earthly pleasure". In Islam, the ḥūr or ḥūrīyah ( are described as "(splendid companions of equal age (well-matched" "lovely eyed" of "modest Female inhabitants admitted to paradise will rank 70,000 times greater than houris through the merit of their good deeds.
Judaism offers no clear teaching about the destiny which lies in wait for the individual after death and its attitude to life after death has been expressed as follows: "For the future is inscrutable, and the accepted sources of knowledge, whether experience, or reason, or revelation, offer no clear guidance about what is to come. The only certainty is that each man must die - beyond that we can only guess. "
While the concept of heaven (malkuth hashamaim מלכות השמים—The Kingdom of Heaven) is well-defined within the Christian and Islamic religions, the Jewish concept of the afterlife, sometimes known as "olam haba", the world to come, seems to have been disputed between various early sects such as the Sadducees, and thus never set forth in a systematic or official fashion as was done in Christianity and Islam. Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Jewish eschatology is concerned with the Jewish Messiah, Afterlife, and the revival of the dead. The Sadducees were members of a Jewish sect founded in the second century BC, possibly as a political party The Torah has little to say on the subject of survival after death, but by the time of the rabbis two ideas had made inroads among the Jews: one, which is probably derived from Greek thought, is that of the immortal soul which returns to its creator after death; the other, which is thought to be of Persian origin, is that of resurrection. term " Torah " ( Hebrew: תּוֹרָה "teaching" or "instruction" sometimes translated as "Law" most commonly refers to Jewish writings refer to a "new earth" as the abode of mankind following the resurrection of the dead. Originally, the two ideas of immortality and resurrection were different but in rabbinic thought they are combined: the soul departs from the body at death but is returned to it at the resurrection. This idea is linked to another rabbinic teaching which is not found in the Bible, that men's good and bad actions are rewarded and punished not in this life but after death, whether immediately or at the subsequent resurrection. 
Some Jews believe in reincarnation, in which case the soul of the dead passes into the body of a newborn person, with no memory of its previous existence. Judaism does, however, have a belief in Heaven, not as a future abode for "good souls", but as the "place" where God "resides". God is the principal or sole Deity in Religions and other belief systems that worship one deity.
Jewish mysticism recognizes seven heavens. Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה lit "receiving" is a discipline and school of thought discussing the mystical aspect of Judaism. In ancient astronomy before the telescope was invented people referred to the Sun, Moon, and the five planets visible with the naked eye as the Seven heavenly objects
In order from lowest to highest, the seven Heavens are listed alongside the angels who govern them:
In the creation stories of Polynesian mythology are found various concepts of the heavens and the underworld. Polynesian mythology is the oral traditions of the people of Polynesia (meaning "many islands" in Greek a grouping of Central and South Pacific Ocean island These differ from one island to another. What they share is the view of the universe as an egg or coconut that is divided between the world of humans (earth), the upper world of heavenly gods, and the underworld. Each of these is subdivided in a manner reminiscent of Dante's Divine Comedy, but the number of divisions and their names differs from one Polynesian culture to another. The Divine Comedy
Among the Māori, the heavens are divided into a number of realms. Different tribes number the heaven differently, with as few as two and as many as fourteen levels. One of the more common versions divides heaven thus:
The Māori believe these heavens are supported by pillars. The Hauora, is a Maori Philosophy of Health and Well-being unique to New Zealand. In some versions of the Māori legend of Tāwhaki, Ngā Atua is the sixth of the twelve layers of the heavens (Craig 1989183 White 1887-1891 IApp Kaha'i (specifically Hawaii; elsewhere Tafaki, Tafa'i, Tahaki, Tava'i, Tāwhaki) is a handsome Polynesian Māori mythology, Rehua is a very sacred personage who lives in Te Putahi-nui-o-Rehua in Rangi-tuarea the tenth and highest of the heavens in some versions of Māori Other Polynesian peoples see them being supported by gods (as in Hawai'i). In one Tahitan legend, heaven is supported by an octopus.
The Polynesian conception of the universe and its division is nicely illustrated by a famous drawing made by a Tuomotuan chief in 1869. Here, the nine heavens are further divided into left and right, and each stage is associated with a stage in the evolution of the earth that is portrayed below. The lowest division represents a period when the heavens hung low over the earth, which was inhabited by animals that were not known to the islanders. In the third division is shown the first murder, the first burials, and the first canoes, built by Rata. For the Tibetan village see Laka Tibet. For Polish place names see Łąka. In the fourth division, the first coconut tree and other significant plants are born.
Atheists reject the existence of heaven. Atheism They are generally more concerned with the effect that such a belief has on society.
Some atheists have viewed the notion of heaven as a sort of "opiate of the masses"—a tool employed by humans to cope with their lives' misery—or "opiate for the masses"—a tool employed by authorities to bribe their subjects into a certain way of life by promising a reward after death.  The anarchist Emma Goldman expressed this view when she wrote, "Consciously or unconsciously, most theists see in gods and devils, heaven and hell; reward and punishment, a whip to lash the people into obedience, meekness and contentment. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i Emma Goldman (June 27 1869 – May 14 1940 was an anarchist known for her political activism writing and speeches "
Many people consider George Orwell's use of Sugarcandy Mountain in his novel Animal Farm to be a literary expression of this view. Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950 who used the Pseudonym George Orwell, was an English writer Animal Farm is a Novel by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical Allegory of Soviet Totalitarianism In the book, the animals were told that after their miserable lives were over they would go to a place in which "it was Sunday seven days a week, clover was in season all the year round, and lump sugar and linseed cake grew on the hedges".  Fantasy author Phillip Pullman echoes this idea in the fantasy series His Dark Materials, in which the characters finally come to the conclusion that people should make life better on Earth rather than wait for heaven (this idea is known as the Republic of Heaven). Philip Pullman CBE (born October 19, 1946) is an English writer. His Dark Materials is a Trilogy of Fantasy Novels by Philip Pullman comprising Northern Lights (1995 The Republic of Heaven, in Philip Pullman 's philosophical / Fantasy trilogy His Dark Materials, refers to the idea that humans must build their
Some atheists have argued that a belief in a reward after death is poor motivation for moral behavior while alive , arguing that "It is rather more noble to help people purely out of concern for their suffering than it is to help them because you think the Creator of the Universe wants you to do it, or will reward you for doing it, or will punish you for not doing it. [The] problem with this linkage between religion and morality is that it gives people bad reasons to help other human beings when good reasons are available. "
Others have further argued that an irrational belief in heavenly rewards may actually motivate believers to do horrible things while on Earth. Richard Dawkins summed up this view by stating "Promise a young man that death is not the end and he will willingly cause disaster. Clinton Richard Dawkins, FRS, FRSL (born 26 March 1941 is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and Popular science "  In his television programme The Root of All Evil? Dawkins states,
Robert L. Short, in his book Something to Believe in: Is Kurt Vonnegut the Exorcist of Jesus Christ Superstar? argues that the typical portrayal of God - and the ideas of heaven and hell- by mainstream churches is incorrect and not in line with Biblical teachings. Robert L Short (born 1932) is a former Presbyterian minister, best known as the author of the bestselling 1965 book The Gospel According Something to Believe in Is Kurt Vonnegut the Exorcist of Jesus Christ Superstar? is a 1977 book by Robert L Hell, according to many Religious beliefs, is a location in the Afterlife, which may be described as a place of suffering
Short also argues that, atheists tend not to focus upon the concept of existence beyond life, because, if one dies with nothing beyond one's life, then whether someone is good or bad, they get the same result, and the only logical course of action for any person to live would be nihilism, to live for oneself without regard to how it affects others. Nihilism (from the Latin nihil, nothing is a philosophical position that argues that Existence is without objective meaning Purpose It would mean that someone like Hitler, or Stalin would, at the end of their life, receive the same result as Mother Theresa; no matter how bad or rotten you were, you get the same result as someone who was the holiest of holies. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party Mother Teresa, Blessed Teresa of Calcutta, (born August 26, 1910 – September 5, 1997) was an Albanian ref>Spink Also, he points out that if human beings have no existence beyond this life, "then the murder of six million Jews during The Holocaust is of no more significance than the killing of six million cockroaches when a tenement is fumigated. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as Cockroaches (or simply "roaches" are Insects of the order Blattaria. "