Hay is grass or legumes that has been cut, dried, stored, and used for animal feed, particularly for grazing animals like cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. Poaceae or Gramineae is a family in the Class Liliopsida of the flowering plants. A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants In Agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any Foodstuff that is used specifically to feed Domesticated Livestock, such as Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe Small pets such as guinea pigs and rabbits also enjoy hay, though they only consume very small quantities. The Guinea pig (also commonly called the cavy after its scientific name Cavia porcellus) is a species of Rodent belonging to the family Caviidae Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world Pigs may be fed hay, but they do not digest hay very efficiently. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times
Hay is fed when or where there is not enough pasture or rangeland on which to graze an animal, when grazing is unavailable due to weather - such as during the winter, or when lush pasture by itself is too rich for easy digestion by the animal. Pasture is land with Herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of Ungulate Livestock as part of a Farm or Ranch. Grazing generally describes a type of Predation in which an Herbivore feeds on Plants (such as Grasses, or more broadly on a multicellular It is also fed during times when an animal is unable to access pasture, such as when animals are kept in a stable or barn. A stable is a Building in which Livestock, especially Horses are kept A barn is an agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace
Commonly used plants for hay include mixtures of grasses such as rye grass (Italian rye grass, Lolium multiflorum), timothy, brome, fescue, coastal bermuda, orchard grass, and other native species, depending on region. Pasture is land with Herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of Ungulate Livestock as part of a Farm or Ranch. Ryegrass ( Lolium) is a genus of nine species of tufted Grasses family Poaceae. Timothy-Bailey ( Phleum pratense) is an abundant perennial grass native to most of Europe except for the Mediterranean region Bromus is a large Genus of the true grass family ( Poaceae) with about 160 Species. Fescue ( Festuca) is a Genus of about 300 Species of perennial tufted Grasses belonging to the grass family Poaceae Not to be confused with the vertebrate clade " Cynodont " Cynodon ( Greek "Dog-tooth" is a genus of nine species of Dactylis glomerata ( Cocksfoot or Orchard Grass or Cocksfoot Grass) is a common grass, native to Europe, Asia Many types of hay may also include legumes, such as alfalfa (lucerne) and clovers (red, white and subterraneum). A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) is a flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop Alsike redirects here Alsike Sweden is also a town in the Knivsta Municipality, Sweden. The legume Subterranean clover ( Trifolium subterraneum) often shortened to sub clover, is a species of Clover native to northwestern Europe Pasture flowers are also sometimes a part of the mix, though other than legumes, which ideally are cut pre-bloom, flowers are not necessarily desired, and in some cases may be toxic to animals. A flower, also known as a bloom or Blossom, is the reproductive structure found in Flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also
Oat, barley, and wheat plant materials are occasionally seen in hay products, though usually in the form of straw, a harvest byproduct where only the stems are dried and baled after the grain is harvested. Oats redirects here It may mean either the common cereal oat discussed here or any cultivated or wild species of the Genus Avena. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Straw is an agricultural By-product, the dry stalk of a Cereal plant after the Grain or Seed has been removed Straw is used for animal bedding and generally is considered poor animal fodder, though sometimes it is used as a source of empty calories to give animals a feeling of fullness or satiety when on an otherwise restricted diet. In Agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any Foodstuff that is used specifically to feed Domesticated Livestock, such as Empty calories, in casual Dietary terminology are Calories present in high-energy foods with poor Nutritional profiles typically from processed Carbohydrates
It is the leaf and seed material in the hay that determines its quality. Farmers try to harvest hay at the point when the seed heads are not quite ripe and the leaf is at its maximum when the grass is mowed in the field. The cut material is allowed to dry so that the bulk of the moisture is removed but the leafy material is still robust enough to be picked up from the ground by machinery and processed into storage in bales, stacks or pits.
Hay is very sensitive to weather conditions, particularly when it is harvested. In drought conditions, both seed and leaf production are stunted, making hay that has a high ratio of dry coarse stems that have very low nutritional values. If the weather is too wet, the cut hay may spoil in the field before it can be baled. The hay may also develop rot and mold after being baled, creating the potential for toxins to form in the feed, which could make the animals sick. It also has to be stored in a manner to prevent it from getting wet. Mold and spoilage reduce nutritional value and may cause illness in animals.
The successful harvest of maximum yields of high-quality hay is entirely dependent on the coincident occurrence of optimum crop, field, and weather conditions. When this occurs, there may be a period of intense activity on the hay farm while harvest proceeds until weather conditions become unfavourable. The "summer vacation" period when public schools would close was by tradition to enable farm children to assist in the family hay harvest, as well as the harvest of other crops. This tradition is entrenched to the present day, even though only a very small fraction of school-aged children today in developed countries live on livestock farms.
Hay or grass is the foundation of the diet for all grazing animals and can provide as much as 100% of the fodder required for an animal. Equine nutrition is the feeding of Horses ponies, Mules Donkeys and other equines Correct and balanced Nutrition is a critical Different cattle feeding production systems have separate advantages and disadvantages Sheep husbandry is the raising and breeding of Domestic sheep, and a subcategory of Animal husbandry. In Agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any Foodstuff that is used specifically to feed Domesticated Livestock, such as Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning Blind) is a pouch connected to the Ascending colon of the Large In Agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any Foodstuff that is used specifically to feed Domesticated Livestock, such as Hay is usually fed to an animal in place of allowing the animal to graze on grasses in a pasture, particularly in the winter or during times when drought or other conditions make pasture unavailable. Pasture is land with Herbaceous vegetation cover used for grazing of Ungulate Livestock as part of a Farm or Ranch. Animals that can eat hay vary in the types of grasses suitable for consumption, the ways they consume hay, and how they digest it. Therefore, different types of animals require hay that consists of similar plants to what they would eat while grazing, and likewise, plants that are toxic to an animal in pasture are also toxic if they are dried into hay.
Most animals are fed hay in two daily feedings, morning and evening. However, this schedule is more for the convenience of humans, as most grazing animals on pasture naturally consume fodder in multiple feedings throughout the day. In Agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any Foodstuff that is used specifically to feed Domesticated Livestock, such as Some animals, especially those being raised for meat, may be given enough hay that they simply are able to eat all day. Other animals, especially those that are ridden or driven as working animals, are only free to eat when not working, and may be given a more limited amount of hay in order to prevent them from getting too fat. A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks The proper amount of hay and the type of hay required varies somewhat between different species. Some animals are also fed concentrated feeds such as grain or vitamin supplements in addition to hay. In most cases, hay or pasture forage must make up 50% or more of the diet by weight. Forage is plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems eaten by grazing Livestock.
One of the most significant differences in hay digestion is between ruminant animals, such as cattle and sheep; and non-ruminant, hindgut fermentors, such as horses. Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Both types of animals can digest cellulose in grass and hay, but do so by different mechanisms. Cellulose is an Organic compound with the formula, a Polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to over ten thousand β(1→4 Because of the four-chambered stomach of cattle, they are often able to break down older forage and have more tolerance of mold and changes in diet. The single-chambered stomach and cecum or "hindgut" of the horse uses bacterial processes to break down cellulose that are more sensitive to changes in feeds and the presence of mold or other toxins, requiring horses to be fed hay of more consistent type and quality. The cecum or caecum (from the Latin caecus meaning Blind) is a pouch connected to the Ascending colon of the Large 
Different animals also utilize hay in different ways: Cattle evolved to eat forage in relatively large quantities at a single feeding, and then, due to the process of rumination, take a considerable amount of time for their stomachs to digest food, often accomplished while the animal is lying down, at rest. Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known Thus quantity of hay is important for cattle, who are able to effectively digest hay of low quality if fed in sufficient amounts. Sheep will eat between two and four percent of their body weight per day in dry feed, such as hay, and are very efficient at obtaining the most nutrition possible from three to five pounds per day of hay or other forage.  They require three to four hours per day to eat enough hay to meet their nutritional requirements. 
Unlike ruminants, horses digest food in small portions throughout the day, and can only utilize approximately 2. 5 percent of their body weight in feed in any 24-hour period. They evolved to be continuously on the move while grazing, (covering up to 50 miles per day in the wild) and their stomach digests food quite rapidly. Thus, they extract more nutrition out of smaller quantities of feed.  However, when horses are fed low-quality hay, they may develop an unhealthy, obese, "hay belly" due to over-consumption of "empty" calories. If their type of feed is changed dramatically, or if they are fed moldy hay or hay containing toxic plants, they can become ill; colic is the leading cause of death in horses. Colic in Horses is defined as Abdominal pain, but it is a clinical sign rather than a diagnosis
Hay production and harvest, colloquially known as "making hay", "haymaking", or "doing hay," involves a multiple step process: cutting, drying or "curing," processing, and storing. Hayfields do not have to be reseeded each year in the way that grain crops are, but regular fertilizing is usually desirable, and overseeding a field every few years helps increase yield.
Methods and the terminology to describe the steps of making hay have varied greatly throughout history, and many regional variations still exist today. However, whether done by hand or by modern mechanized equipment, tall grass and legumes at the proper stage of maturity must be cut, then allowed to dry (preferably by the sun), then raked into long, narrow piles known as windrows. A windrow is a row of cut (mowed Hay or small grain crop It is allowed to dry before being baled combined or rolled Next, the cured hay is gathered up in some form (usually by some type of baling process) and placed for storage into a haystack or into a barn or shed to protect it from moisture and rot. A barn is an agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace
During the growing season, which is spring and early summer in temperate climates, grass grows at a fast pace. Climate encompasses the temperatures humidity rainfall atmospheric particle count and numerous other meteorogical factors in a given region over long periods of It is at its greatest nutritive value when all leaves are fully developed and seed or flower heads are just a bit short of full maturity. When growth is at a maximum in the pasture, if judged correctly, the pasture is cut. Hay cut too early will not cure as easily due to high moisture content, plus it will produce a lower yield per acre than longer, more mature grass. But hay cut too late is coarser, lower in resale value and has lost some of its nutrients. There is usually about a two-week "window" of time in which hay is at its ideal stage for harvesting.
Hay can be raked into rows as it is cut, then turned periodically to dry, particularly if a modern swather is used. A swather is a Farm implement that cuts Hay or small grain crops and forms them into a Windrow. Or, especially with older equipment or methods, the hay is cut and allowed to lie spread out in the field until it is dry, then raked into rows for processing into bales afterwards. During the drying period, which can take several days, the process is usually speeded up by turning the cut hay over with a hay rake or spreading it out with a tedder. A hay rake is an agricultural rake used to collect cut Hay into Windrows for later collection (e A tedder is a machine used in haying. It is used after cutting and before Windrowing to turn or scatter cut hay in the field so that the hay can dry ("cure" If it rains while the hay is drying, turning the windrow can also allow it to dry faster. However, turning the hay too often or too roughly can also cause drying leaf matter to fall off, reducing the nutrients available to animals. Drying can also be speeded up by mechanized processes, such as use of a hay conditioner, or by use of chemicals sprayed onto the hay to speed evaporation of moisture, though these are more expensive techniques, not in general use except in areas where there is a combination of modern technology, high prices for hay, and too much rain for hay to dry properly. A hay conditioner is a machine that crimps and crushes newly cut Hay to promote faster and more even drying Evaporation is the process by which Molecules in a Liquid state (e 
Once hay is cut, dried and raked into windrows, it is usually gathered into bales or bundles, then hauled to a central location for storage. In some places, depending on geography, region, climate, and culture, hay is gathered loose and stacked without being baled first.
Hay must be kept dry in storage or it may rot. A paddy field is a flooded parcel of Arable land used for growing Rice and other semiaquatic crops. Uttara Kannada ( Kannada ಉತ್ತರ ಕನ್ನಡ) is a district in the southern Indian state of Karnataka. The moisture content of stacked hay must be kept lower than 22% to avoid a significant risk of spontaneous combustion. Spontaneous combustion is a type of Combustion which occurs without an external ignition source  Hay stored outside must be stacked in such a way that moisture contact is minimal. Some stacks are arranged in such a manner that the hay itself "sheds" water when it falls. Other methods of stacking use the first layers or bales of hay as a cover to protect the rest. To completely keep out moisture, outside haystacks can also be covered by tarps, and many round bales are partially wrapped in plastic as part of the baling process. Hay is also stored under a roof when resources permit. It is frequently placed inside sheds, or stacked inside of a barn. A barn is an agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace Care must be taken that hay stored inside is never exposed to any possible source of heat or flame, both dry hay and the dust it produces are highly flammable
Early farmers noticed that growing fields produced more fodder in the spring than the animals could consume, and that cutting the grass in the summer, allowing it to dry and storing it for the winter provided their domesticated animals with better quality nutrition than simply allowing them to dig through snow in the winter to find dried grass. Flammability is the ease with which a substance will ignite causing Fire or Combustion. In Agriculture, fodder or animal feed is any Foodstuff that is used specifically to feed Domesticated Livestock, such as Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Therefore, some fields were "shut up" for hay.
Up to the end of the 19th century, grass and legumes were not often grown together because crops were rotated. By the 20th century, however, good forage management techniques demonstrated that highly productive pastures were a mix of grasses and legumes, so compromises were made when it was time to mow. Later still, some farmers grew crops, like straight alfalfa (lucerne), for special-purpose hay such as that fed to dairy cattle. Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) is a flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop Dairy Cattle, generally of the species Bos taurus, are Domesticated Animals bred to produce large quantities of Milk
Much hay was originally cut by scythe by teams of workers and gathered up into sheaves by hand. For the ancient Sicilian tyrant see Scythes. A scythe (ˈsaɪð from Old English siðe. It was placed into stooks or "shocks" in the field until it could be gathered up for storage. A stook, also referred to as a shock is a circular or rounded arrangement of swathes of cut Grain stalks placed on the ground in a field Later, haying would be done by horse-drawn implements such as mowers and binders. A mower is a machine for cutting crops or plants that grow on the ground The reaper-binder, or binder, was a farm implement that improved upon the Reaper. With the invention of agricultural machinery such as the tractor and the baler, most hay production became mechanized by the 1930s. Agricultural machinery is one of the most Revolutionary and impactful applications of modern Technology. A tractor is a Vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high Tractive effort at slow speeds for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used This article describes the farm machinery For the municipality in Aurora, Philippines, see Baler Aurora. Mechanization or mechanisation ( BE) is providing human operators with machinery to assist them with the physical requirements of work
After hay was cut and had dried, the hay was raked or "rowed up" by raking it into a linear heap by hand or with a horse-drawn implement. Turning hay, when needed, originally was done by hand with a fork or rake. Once the dried hay was rowed up, it was gathered into a type of wagon called a hay rack (or "hay rick"). A wagon (in British English, sometimes waggon) or dray is a heavy four-wheeled Vehicle. In early days, this was done by forking it into a horse-drawn cart or dray or onto a truck, later by a sweep attached to a truck or tractor. "CARTS" redirects here For the transportation system see Capital Area Rural Transportation System, or Chautauqua CARTS. A wagon (in British English, sometimes waggon) or dray is a heavy four-wheeled Vehicle. This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. This article is about the semi-truck For the North American use of the word see Pickup truck. A tractor is a Vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high Tractive effort at slow speeds for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used Alternatively, the loose hay could be put into stooks or shocks before being collected. A stook, also referred to as a shock is a circular or rounded arrangement of swathes of cut Grain stalks placed on the ground in a field
Loose hay was taken to an area designated for storage—usually a slightly raised area for drainage — and built into a hay stack. The stack was made waterproof as it was built (a task of considerable skill) and the hay would compress under its own weight and cure by the release of heat from the residual moisture in the hay and from the compression forces. The stack was fenced from the rest of the paddock. When needed the haystack would be cut open, using a hay-knife, and some would be fed out to animals each day.
On some farms the loose hay was stored in a shed or barn, normally in such a way that it would compress down and cure. A shed is typically a simple single- story structure in a Back garden or on an allotment that is used for Storage, hobbies, or A barn is an agricultural building used for storage and as a covered workplace Hay could be stored in the second floor of the barn above the animals or in a specially designed barn with little internal structure to allow more room for the hay.
Depending on region, the term "hay rick" could refer to the machine for cutting hay, the hay stack or the wagon used to collect the hay.
Modern mechanized hay production today is usually performed by a number of machines. While small operations use a tractor to pull various implements for mowing and raking, larger operations use specialized machines such as a mower or a swather, which are designed to cut the hay and arrange it into a windrow in one step. A tractor is a Vehicle specifically designed to deliver a high Tractive effort at slow speeds for the purposes of hauling a trailer or machinery used A mower is a machine for cutting crops or plants that grow on the ground A swather is a Farm implement that cuts Hay or small grain crops and forms them into a Windrow. Balers are usually pulled by a tractor, with larger balers requiring more powerful tractors. This article describes the farm machinery For the municipality in Aurora, Philippines, see Baler Aurora.
Mobile balers, machines which gather and bale hay in one process, were first developed around 1940. This article describes the farm machinery For the municipality in Aurora, Philippines, see Baler Aurora. The first balers produced rectangular bales small enough for a person to lift, usually between 70 and 100 pounds each. The size and shape made it possible for people to pick bales up, stack them on a vehicle for transport to a storage area, then build a haystack by hand. However, to save labor and increase safety, loaders and stackers were also developed to mechanise the transport of small bales from the field to the haystack. Later, balers were developed capable of producing large bales that weigh up to 3000 pounds. 
Small bales are still produced today. While balers for small bales are still manufactured, as well as loaders and stackers, there are some farms that still use equipment manufactured over 50 years ago, kept in good repair. The small bale remains part of overall ranch lore and tradition with "hay bucking" competitions still held for fun at many rodeos and county fairs. A ranch is an area of landscape including various structures given primarily to the practice of ranching the practice of raising grazing livestock such as Cattle A hay buck, or "bucking hay" is a type of manual labor where hay bales, usually 85 lb Rodeo (ˈroʊdioʊ or /roʊˈdeɪoʊ/ is a sport which arose out of the working practices of cattle herding in Spain, Mexico, and later the United States A fair is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated Carnival or Funfair entertainment
Small bales are stacked in a criss-crossed fashion sometimes called a "rick" or "hayrick. " Since rain washes nutrition out of the hay and can cause spoilage or mold, hay in small bales is often stored in a hayshed or protected by tarpaulins. A tarpaulin or tarp is a large sheet of strong flexible Water resistant or Waterproof material often Cloth such as Canvas or polyester If this is not done, the top two layers of the stack are often lost to rot and mold, and if the stack is not arranged in a proper hayrick, moisture can seep even deeper into the stack.
People who own small numbers of livestock, particularly horses, still prefer small bales that can be handled by one person without machinery. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. There is also a risk that hay baled while still too damp can produce mold inside the bale, or decaying carcasses of small creatures that were accidentally killed by baling equipment and swept up into the bales can produce toxins such as botulism. Botulism ( Latin, botulus, "sausage" is a rare but serious Paralytic illness caused by Botulin Toxin. Both can be deadly to non-ruminant herbivores, such as horses, and when this occurs, the entire contaminated bale should be thrown out, another reason some livestock owners continue to support the market for small bales. Physiologically a ruminant is a Mammal of the order Artiodactyla that digests plant-based food by initially softening it within the animal's first stomach known The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae.
Many farmers, particularly those who feed large herds, have moved to balers which produce much larger bales, maximizing the amount of hay which is protected from the elements. Large bales come in two types, round and square. "Large Square" bales, which can weigh up to 1000 kg (2,200 lb), can be stacked and are easier to transport on trucks. Round bales, which are typically weigh 300–400 kg (700–900 lb), are more moisture-resistant, and pack the hay more densely (especially at the center). Round bales are quickly fed with the use of mechanized equipment.
The ratio of volume to surface area makes it possible for many dry-area farmers to leave large bales outside until they are consumed. Wet-area farmers and those in climates with heavy snowfall either stack round bales under a shed or tarp, but have also developed a light but durable plastic wrap that partially encloses bales left outside. The wrap repels moisture, but leaves the ends of the bale exposed so that the hay itselt can "breathe" and does not begin to ferment. However, when possible to store round bales under a shed, they last longer and less hay is lost to rot and moisture. 
For animals that eat silage, a Bale wrapper may be used to seal a round bale completely and trigger the fermentation process. For the Christian Alternative band please see Silage (band Silage is fermented, high-moisture Fodder that can A bale wrapper is a farm implement for Wrapping Bales in plastic for them to turn into Silage. It is a technique used as a money-saving process by producers who do not have access to a silo, and for producing silage that is transported to other locations. A silo is a structure for storing bulk materials. Silos are used in Agriculture to store grain (see Grain elevators or fermented feed However, a silo is still a preferred method for making silage.  In very damp climates, it is a legitimate alternative to drying hay completely and when processed properly, the natural fermentation process prevents mold and rot. Round bale silage is also sometimes called "haylage," and is seen more commonly in Europe than in either the USA or Australia. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. However, hay stored in this fashion must remain completely sealed in plastic, as any holes or tears can stop the preservation properties of fermentation and lead to spoilage. 
Haystacks produce internal heat due to bacterial fermentation. If the hay was baled from moist grass, the heat produced can be enough to set the haystack on fire. Even today, farmers have to be careful about moisture levels to avoid this "spontaneous combustion", because haystack fires can be very dangerous. A farmer is a person who raises living organisms for food or raw materials 
Due to its weight, hay in general can cause a number of injuries to humans related to lifting and throwing bales, as well as risks related to stacking and storing, such as the danger of having a poorly-constructed stack collapse, causing either falls to people on the stack or injuries to people on the ground who are struck by falling bales. Large round hay bales present a particular danger to those who handle them because they can weigh over a thousand pounds and cannot be moved without specialized equipment. Nonetheless, because they are cylindrical in shape, and thus can roll easily, it is not uncommon for them to fall from stacks or roll off from equipment used to handle them. From 1992 to 1998, 74 farm workers in the United States were killed in large round hay bale accidents, usually when bales were being moved from one location to another, such as when feeding livestock. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
Hay is generally one of the safest feeds to provide to domesticated grazing herbivores. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals Herbivory is a form of Predation in which an Organism, known as a herbivore, consumes principally Autotrophs ref name=Campbell>Campbell However, some precautions are needed. Amount must be monitored so that animals do not get too fat or too thin. Supplemental feed may be required for working animals with high energy requirements. A working animal is an animal that is kept by humans and trained to perform tasks Animals who eat spoiled hay may develop a variety of illnesses, from coughs related to dust and mold, to various other illnesses, the most serious of which may be botulism, which can occur if a small animal, such as a rodent or snake, is killed by the baling equipment then rots inside the bale, causing a toxin to form. WikipediaManual_of_Style#National_varieties_of_English --> Molds (or Botulism ( Latin, botulus, "sausage" is a rare but serious Paralytic illness caused by Botulin Toxin. Some animals are sensitive to particular fungi or molds that may grow on living plants. A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ For example, an endophytic fungus that sometimes grows on fescue can cause abortion in pregnant mares. An endophyte is an Endosymbiont, often a Bacterium or Fungus, that lives within a Plant for at least part of its life without causing apparent A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ Fescue ( Festuca) is a Genus of about 300 Species of perennial tufted Grasses belonging to the grass family Poaceae An  Some plants themselves may also be toxic to some animals. For example, Pimelea, a native Australian plant, also known as flax weed, is highly toxic to cattle. Pimelea (often seen spelled Pimelia) is a genus of plants belonging to the family Thymelaeaceae.