|Caliph of Baghdad|
|Reign||14 September 786 - 24 March 809|
15 Rabi' al-awwal 170AH - 3 Jumada al-thani 193AH
|Born||March 17, 763|
|Birthplace||Rayy / Tehran, Iran|
|Died||24 March 809 (aged 46)|
|Place of death||modern day Mahshad|
|Predecessor||Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi|
|Successor||Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin|
|Father||Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi|
Hārūn al-Rashīd (Arabic: and Persian:هارون الرشيد ); also spelled Harun ar-Rashid, Haroun al-Rashid or Haroon al Rasheed; English: Aaron the Upright, Aaron the Just, or Aaron the Rightly-Guided; March 17, 763 – March 24, 809) was born in Rayy near Tehran, Iran and was the fifth and most famous Abbasid Caliph. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah Baghdad (بغداد) is the Capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate, with which it is also coterminous Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. For the processors see 80786 - 7th generation x86 like Athlon and Intel Pentium 4. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Events By Place Asia Emperor Saga succeeds Emperor Heizei as Emperor of Japan. Rabi' al-awwal (ar ربيع الأول is the third month in the Islamic calendar. The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری Jumada al-thani (ar جمادى الآخر أو جمادى الثاني is the sixth month in the Islamic Calendar. The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar ( Arabic: التقويم الهجري at-taqwīm al-hijrī; Persian: تقویم هجری قمری Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Events By Place Europe Ciniod succeeds Bridei V as king of the Picts. See Rayshahr for the Sassanid center of learning in Fars province Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Events By Place Asia Emperor Saga succeeds Emperor Heizei as Emperor of Japan. Abu Abdullah Musa ibn Mahdi al-Hadi (أبو عبد الله موسى بن المهدي الهادي (d Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin (787&ndash813 (محمد الأمين بن هارون الرشيد Abbasid Caliph. Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi ( محمد بن منصورالمهدى) (ruled 775&ndash785 was the third Abbasid Caliph. Al-Khayzuran bint Atta ( الخيزران بنت عطاء) (died 789 was the wife of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mahdi and mother of both Caliphs Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Events By Place Europe Ciniod succeeds Bridei V as king of the Picts. Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Events By Place Asia Emperor Saga succeeds Emperor Heizei as Emperor of Japan. See Rayshahr for the Sassanid center of learning in Fars province Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Caliph is the Head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Shari'ah
He ruled from 786 to 809, and his time was marked by scientific, cultural, and religious prosperity. For the processors see 80786 - 7th generation x86 like Athlon and Intel Pentium 4. Events By Place Asia Emperor Saga succeeds Emperor Heizei as Emperor of Japan. Art and music also flourished significantly during his reign. He established a library Bayt al-Hikma. The House of Wisdom ( Arabic: بيت الحكمة; Bait al-Hikma) was a library and translation institute in Abbassid -era Baghdad,
Since Harun was intellectually, politically and militarily resourceful, his life and the court over which he held sway have been the subject of many fictional tales: some are factual but most are believed to be fictitious. An example of what is known to be factual is the story of the Clock that was among various presents that Harun has delightfully sent to his friend Charlemagne. The presents were carried by the returning Frankish mission that came to offer Harun friendship in 779. Events By Place Europe Offa of Mercia defeats Cynewulf of Wessex and takes Bensington Charlemagne and his retinue deemed the clock to be a conjuration for the sounds it emanates and the tricks it displays every time an hour ticks. Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his For what is known to be fictional is the famous The Book of One Thousand and One Nights containing many stories that are fantasized by Harun's magnificent court, and even Harun al-Rashid himself.
Hārūn was born in the Tehran provence of Iran. Tehran (or Teheran) ( Persian: تهران Tehrān) is the capital and largest City of Iran, and the administrative center of For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. Hārūn was the son of al-Mahdi, the third 'Abbasid caliph (ruled 775–785), and al-Khayzuran, a former slave girl from Yemen and a woman of strong personality who greatly influenced affairs of state in the reigns of her husband and sons. Muhammad ibn Mansur al-Mahdi ( محمد بن منصورالمهدى) (ruled 775&ndash785 was the third Abbasid Caliph. Events By Place Asia Estimation Baghdad, capital of the Abbasid Empire, becomes the largest city of the world taking the lead Events By Place Europe Widukind and many other Saxons are baptized Al-Khayzuran bint Atta ( الخيزران بنت عطاء) (died 789 was the wife of the Abbasid Caliph Al-Mahdi and mother of both Caliphs Yemen ( Arabic: اليَمَن al-Yaman officially the Republic of Yemen ( Arabic: الجمهورية اليمنية al-Jumhuuriyya
Hārūn was strongly influenced by the will of his mother in the governance of the empire until her death in 789. Events By Place Asia An uprising in Japan leads to a major defeat for Emperor Kammu, alongside a severe Drought and His vizier (chief minister) Yahya the Barmakid, his sons, and other Barmakids generally controlled the administration. A Vizier ( - wazīr) (sometimes also spelled Vazir Vizir Vasir Wazir Vesir, or Vezir - grammatical vowel changes are common in many western Asian Yahya ibn Khalid (يحيى بن خالد yaḥyā bin ḫālid (d The Barmakids ( Persian: برمکیان Barmakīyān; Arabic: البرامكة al-barāmika, also called Barmecides
The Barmakids were a Persian family that had become very powerful under al-Mahdi. layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Yahya had aided Hārūn in obtaining the caliphate, and he and his sons were in high favor until 798, when the caliph threw them in prison and confiscated their land. Events By Place Europe Coenwulf of Mercia invades Kent, deposes and imprisons King Eadbert Praen, and makes his own Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari(v. Abu Ja'far Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari (838-923 أبو جعفر محمد بن جرير الطبري was one of the earliest most prominent and famous Persian Historians 30 p. 201f) dates this in 803 and lists various accounts for the cause: Yahya's entering the Caliph's presence without permission, Yahya's opposition to Muhammad ibn al Layth who later gained Harun's favour, Jafar's release of Yahya ibn Abdallah ibn Hasan whom Harun had imprisoned, Barmaki ostentatious wealth and the alleged romantic relationship between Jafar and Harun's sister Abasa.
Yahya's son, Ja'far, was the companion of Hārūn, who loved to have his own sister Abbasa and Jafar with him  at times of recreation. Ja'far bin Yahya Barmaki (جعفر بن يحيى ja`far ben yaḥyā (767-803 was the son of a Persian Vizier ( Yahya ibn Khalid) of the Arab But Muslim etiquette forbade their common presence; and, to allow this, Hārūn had the marriage ceremony performed between them, on the understanding that it was purely nominal. But the ban was too weak for Abbasa (some versions of the story have it that she entered Jafar's bedroom in the darkness, masquerading as one of his slave girls). A child given secret birth was sent by her to Mecca but a maid, quarreling with her mistress, made known the scandal. Mecca ˈmɛkə also spelled Makkah ˈmækə (in full Makkah Al-Mukarramah (Arabic mækːæ(t ælmʊkarˑamæ مكّة المكرمة, literally Honored Hārūn, while on a pilgrimage in Mecca, heard the story and ascertained that the tale was probably true.
This romantic story is highly doubted by Ibn Khaldun and most modern scholars. Ibn Khaldūn or Ibn Khaldoun (full name أبو زيد عبد الرحمن بن محمد بن خلدون,, ( May 27, 1332 AD/732 AH &ndash March 19 See the translator's note on page 215 of at Tabari v. 30.
On his return shortly after, he had Jafar executed, whose body was despatched to Baghdad, and there, divided in two, impaled on either side of the bridge. It stayed there for three years, when Harun, happening to pass through Baghdad from the East, gave command for the remains to be taken down and burned. On the death of Jafar, his father and brother were both cast into prison.
The aforementioned story is likely nothing more. The real reason for the fall of the Barmakids is far more likely due to the fact that Barmakids were behaving in a manner that Harun found disrespectful (such as entering his court unannounced) and were making decisions of the state without consulting him first.
Hārūn became caliph when he was in his early twenties. On the day of accession, his son al-Ma'mun was born, and al-Amin some little time later: the latter was the son of Zubaida, a granddaughter of al-Mansur (founder of the city of Baghdad); so he took precedence over the former, whose mother was a Persian slave-girl. Abu Jafar al-Ma'mun ibn Harun (also spelled Almamon and el-Mâmoûn) ( September 14, 786 &ndash August 9, 833) (المأمون Muhammad ibn Harun al-Amin (787&ndash813 (محمد الأمين بن هارون الرشيد Abbasid Caliph. Zubaida redirects here see also Sami Zubaida Zubayda bint Ja`far ibn Mansur ( Arabic: زبيدة بنت جعفر بن المنصور Al-Mansur Almanzor or Abu Ja'far Abdallah ibn Muhammad al-Mansur (712&ndash775 Arabic: ابو جعفر عبدالله ابن محمد المنصور was the second He began his reign by appointing very able ministers, who carried on the work of the government so well that they greatly improved the condition of the people.
It was under Hārūn ar-Rashīd that Baghdad flourished into the most splendid city of its period. Tribute was paid by many rulers to the caliph, and these funds were used on architecture, the arts and a luxurious life at court. The term architecture (from Greek αρχιτεκτονικήarchitektoniki) can be used to mean a process a profession or documentation The arts is a broad subdivision of Culture, composed of many expressive disciplines.
In 796 the Caliph Hārūn ar-Rashīd decided to move his court and the government to Ar Raqqah at the middle Euphrates. Ar-Raqqah ( الرقة, also spelled Rakka) is a city in north central Syria located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת Here he spent 12 years, most of his reign. Only once he returned to Baghdad for a short visit. Several reasons might have influenced the decision to move to al-Raqqa. It was close to the Byzantine border. The communication lines via the Euphrates to Baghdad and via the Balikh river to the north and via Palmyra to Damascus were excellent. Palmyra ( Arabic: تدمر Tadmor) was in ancient times an important city of central Syria, located in an Oasis 215 km northeast of Damascus The agriculture was flourishing to support the new Imperial center. And from Raqqa any rebellion in Syria and the middle Euphrates area could be controlled. Abu al-Faraj al-Isfahani pictures in his anthology of poems the splendid life in his court. `Ali ibn al-Husayn ul-Isbahānī (أبو الفرج الأصفهاني also known as Abu-l-Faraj or in the West as Abulfaraj (897-967 was an Iranian In ar-Raqqah the Barmekids managed the fate of the empire, and there both heirs, al-Amin and al-Ma'mun grew up. Ar-Raqqah ( الرقة, also spelled Rakka) is a city in north central Syria located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km
Hārūn gave great encouragement to learning, poetry and music. Music is an Art form in which the medium is Sound organized in Time. He was a scholar and poet himself and whenever he heard of learned men in his own kingdom, or in neighboring countries, he invited them to his court and treated them with respect. Scholarly method &mdash or as it is more commonly called scholarship &mdash is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as A poet is a person who writes Poetry. Etymology From the Ancient greek: ποιέω, poieō: "I make or compose" The name of Hārūn, therefore, became known throughout the world. At Tabari (v. 30 p. 313) refers to the physician Mankah coming from India to treat Harun. Harun had diplomatic relations with China and with Charlemagne. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Charlemagne (ˈʃɑrlɨmeɪn Carolus Magnus or Karolus Magnus meaning Charles the Great) (747 – 28 January 814 was King of the Franks from 768 to his
Both Einhard and Notker the Stammerer refer to envoys travelling between Harun's and Charlemagne's courts, amicable discussions concerning Christian access to the Holy Land and the exchange of gifts. Notker (p. 147) mentions Charlemagne sent Harun Spanish horses, colourful Frisian cloaks and impressive hunting dogs. Harun sent gifts in return. In 802 Harun sent Charlemagne a present consisting of silks, brass candelabra, perfume, slaves, balsam, ivory chessmen, a colossal tent with many-colored curtains, an elephant named Abul-Abbas, and a water clock that marked the hours by dropping bronze balls into a bowl, as mechanical knights — one for each hour — emerged from little doors which shut behind them. This article is about the year 802 For other uses see IEEE 802 networking standard Silk is a natural Protein Fiber, some forms of which can be woven into Textiles The best-known type of silk is obtained from cocoons Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties Candelabra is the term traditionally referring to a pair (or more of large decorative candlesticks often shaped as a Column or pedestal and having several Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another Balsam of Mecca (or balsam of Gilead or balm of Gilead) is a Resinous gum of the tree Commiphora gileadensis (syn Ivory is formed from Dentine and constitutes the bulk of the Teeth and Tusks of animals such as the Elephant, Hippopotamus, Elephants ( family: Elephantidae) are large land Mammals of the order Proboscidea. Abul-Abbas was an Asian Elephant given to Emperor Charlemagne by the Caliph of Baghdad, Harun al-Rashid, in 798 Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. The presents were unprecedented in Western Europe and may have influenced Carolingian art. The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the
The following text is paraphrased from and parts copied directly from Famous Men of the Middle Ages By John H. Haaren, LL. John Henry Haaren (August 13 1855 &ndash September 23 1916 was an American educator and historian D.
In military matters, Hārūn was an excellent soldier and showed this ability at a young age when his father was still caliph. He later commanded an army of 95,000 Arabs and Persians sent by his father to invade the Byzantine Empire, formerly the Eastern Roman Empire, which was then ruled by the Empress Irene. The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding layout and formatting it should ensure no clashes with the top of the infobox Irene Serantapechaina, known as Irene of Athens or Irene the Athenian ( Greek: Ειρήνη η Αθηναία Eirēnē) (c After defeating Irene's famous general, Nicetas, Harun marched his army to Chrysopolis (now Üsküdar in Turkey) on the Asiatic coast, opposite Constantinople. Üsküdar is a large and densely populated suburb of Istanbul, on the Anatolian shore of the Bosphorus right opposite the heart of the great city next Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Constantinople (Κωνσταντινούπολις Konstantinoúpolis, or gr ἡ Πόλις hē Polis, Latin: la CONSTANTINOPOLIS He encamped on the heights in full view of the Byzantine capital.
The Empress saw that the city would certainly be taken by the Muslims. She therefore sent ambassadors to Harun to arrange terms; but he sternly refused to agree to anything except immediate surrender. It is reported that then one of the ambassadors said,
These flattering words were pleasing to Hārūn. He walked to and fro in front of his tent and then spoke again to the ambassadors.
The Empress agreed to these terms. She paid the first year's tribute; and soon the great Muslim army set out on its homeward march. The tribute of gold that the Empress Irene agreed to pay Hārūn was sent regularly for many years. It was always received at Baghdad with great ceremony. The day on which it arrived was made a holiday. The Byzantine soldiers who came with it entered the gates in procession. Muslim troops also took part in the parade. When the gold had been delivered at the palace, the Byzantine soldiers were hospitably entertained, and were escorted to the main gate of the city when they set out on their journey back to Constantinople.
When empress Irene was deposed, Nicephorus became emperor and refused to pay tribute to Harun, saying that Irene should have been receiving the tribute the whole time. Then Harun became angry and said that Nicephorus would soon see his answer.
Harun sent and led other expeditions against the Byzantines, a notable one in 806 in which he commanded an army 135,000 men and forced the Byzantine Empire to pay him 50,000 gold pieces immediately and 30,000 gold pieces annually. In A. H. 181 (797-798) he took a fortress called "The Willows" beyond the Cilician Gates. In A. H. 190 (806-807) he captured Heraklia.
At Tabari describes Harun as devout, charitable, munificent, patron of poets and averse to religious disputes. His justice is extolled. In A. H. 189 (804-805) during his stay in Rayy, Iran he investigated complaints against his Khurasani governor in Iran, Ali ibn Isa. See Rayshahr for the Sassanid center of learning in Fars province For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. On that occasion the governor satisfied him. In A. H. 191 (806-807) further complaints against Ali ibn Isa resulted in the dispatch of a new governor, Harthamah, who arrested Isa, his sons and agents and returned Isa's excessive acquisitions to those wronged.
Harun made the pilgrimage to Mecca several times, e. g. A. H. 177 (793-794), A. H. 179 (795-796), A. H. 181 (797-798), A. H. 186 (802) and last in A. H. 188 (803-804).
At Tabari concludes his account of Harun's reign with these words: "It has been said that when Harun al-Rashid died, there were nine hundred million odd (dirhams) in the state treasury. " v. 30 p. 335.
In 808 when Harun al-Rashid was passing through there to settle down the insurrection of "Rafi ibn Leith" in Transoxania, he became ill and died. Events By Place Asia The Abbasid capital is moved north from Baghdad to Samarra. Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania "河中“Chinese / Ma Wara'un-Nahr ( Arabic: ما وراء النهر / Farārood (فرارود He was buried under the palace of "Hamid ibn Qahtabi", the governor of Khorasan,Iran. Greater Khorasan (خراسان بزرگ (also written Khorasaan, Khurasan and Khurasaan) is a modern term for eastern territories of ancient Persia For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The place later became known as Mashhad(the place of martyrdom) because of the martyrdom of Imam Reza in 818. Mashhad ( literally the place of martyrdom) is the second largest city in Iran and one of the holiest cities in the Shia Ali ibn Musa al-Rida ( علي بن موسى الرضا) (Commonly known as Ali ar-Ridha Ali Reza (Eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH – Seventeenth of 
Al-Masudi relates a number of interesting anecdotes in The Meadows of Gold illuminating the character of this famous caliph. TemplateInfobox Muslim scholars --> Abu al-Hasan Ali ibn al-Husayn íbn Ali al-Mas'udi (transl) (born c Meadows of Gold and Mines of Gems ( Muruj adh-dhahab wa ma'adin al-jawahir) is a historical account in Arabic of the beginning of the world For example, he recounts (p. 94) Harun's delight when his horse came in first, closely followed by al-Ma'mun's, at a race Harun held at Raqqa. Al-Masudi tells the story of Harun setting his poets a challenging task. When others failed to please him, Miskin of Medina succeeded superbly well. The poet then launched into a moving account of how much it had cost him to learn that song. Harun laughed saying he knew not which was more entertaining, the song or the story. He rewarded the poet.
There is also the tale of Harun asking Ishaq ibn Ibrahim to keep singing. The musician did until the caliph fell asleep. Then, strangely, a handsome young man appeared, snatched the musician's lute, sang a very moving piece (al-Masudi quotes it), and left. On awakening and being informed of this, Harun said Ishaq ibn Ibrahim had received a supernatural visitation.
Harun, like a number of caliphs, is given an anecdote connecting a poem with his death. Shortly before he died he is said to have been reading some lines by Abu al-Atahiya about the transitory nature of the power and pleasures of this world. Abū l-ˤAtāhiyya ( أبو العتاهية, full name Abu Isħaq Ismā'īl ibn Qāsim al-ˤAnazī إسماعيل بن القاسم العنزي، بن سويد
Hārūn is widely considered the greatest of the Abbasid caliphs, presiding over the Arab Empire at its political and cultural peak. Consequently, Islamic literature (the work of ibn Kather, for example) has raised him to the level of an ideal figure, a great military and intellectual leader, even a paragon for future rulers to emulate. Ismail ibn Kathir (ابن كثير (1301&ndash1373 was an Islamic scholar and renowned commentator on the Qur'an. His best-known portrayal in the West, in the stories of the Thousand and One Nights, has little basis in historical fact, but does show the mythic stature he has attained over time.
Harun al-RashidBorn: 763 Died: 809
|Sunni Islam titles|
|Caliph of Islam|
786 – 809