to Apartheid in South Africa
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Halt All Racist Tours was a group set up in New Zealand in 1969 to protest rugby union tours to and from Apartheid South Africa. The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa Disinvestment (or divestment from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant The Academic boycotts of South Africa were a series of Boycotts of South African academic institutions and scholars initiated in the 1960s at the request of the Constructive engagement was the name given to the policy of the Reagan Administration towards the Apartheid regime in South Africa in the early 1980s and United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the Racist policies of Apartheid The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts The Gleneagles Agreement was unanimously approved by the Commonwealth of Nations at a meeting at Gleneagles, Auchterarder, Scotland. The Sullivan Principles are the names of two corporate codes of conduct, developed by the African-American preacher Rev The Comprehensive Anti-Apartheid Act () sponsored by US Representative Ron Dellums in 1972 was the first United States anti-apartheid legislation Anti-Apartheid Movement, originally known as the Boycott Movement, was a British organization that was at the center of the international movement opposing South Africa's United Nations General Assembly Resolution 1761 was passed on 6 November 1962 in response to the Racist policies of Apartheid Artists United Against Apartheid was a 1985 protest group founded by activist and performer Steven Van Zandt to protest Apartheid in South Africa The Organisation of African Unity ( OAU) or Organisation de l'Unité Africaine ( OUA) was established on 25 May 1963. Disinvestment (or divestment from South Africa was first advocated in the 1960s in protest of South Africa's system of Apartheid, but was not implemented on a significant The World Conference against Racism ( WCAR) are international events organized by the UNESCO in order to struggle against racism ideologies and behaviours United Nations Security Council Resolution 181, adopted on August 7, 1963, was concerned with an arms build-up by the Republic of South United Nations Security Council Resolution 191, adopted on June 18, 1964, after reiterating its previous requests of the Republic of South United Nations Security Council Resolution 282, adopted on July 23, 1970, concerned by violations of the arms embargo passed against South United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, passed on 4 November 1977 imposed a mandatory Arms embargo against Apartheid South Africa. Adopted on September 29, 1978, this resolution put forward proposals for a cease-fire and UN-supervised elections in South Africa controlled South-West Africa United Nations Security Council Resolution 591 strengthened the mandatory Arms embargo against Apartheid South Africa imposed by United Nations Security The International Day for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination is observed annually on 21 March. " Biko " is a Protest song by British rock musician Peter Gabriel. The Nelson Mandela 70th Birthday Tribute was a global broadcast event staged on June 11, 1988 at the Wembley Stadium, London New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island Overview See also Playing rugby union A rugby union match lasts for 80 minutes (plus stoppage time with a short The Republic of South Africa (also known by other official names) is a country located at the southern tip of the continent of Africa
Up until 1970, South Africa refused to allow mixed-race sports teams to tour South Africa, and they were "disgusted" at having to play against "natives" in New Zealand. A protest movement against the 1960 tour of South Africa used the slogan "No Maoris, No Tour", but it was unsuccessful at stopping the tour. In 1967, the New Zealand Rugby Union decided to cancel the proposed 1967 tour over the issue. The New Zealand Rugby Union (NZRU (formerly the New Zealand Rugby Football Union (NZRFU is the governing body of Rugby union in New Zealand.
Trevor Richards, Tom Newnham, John Minto and others formed HART in 1969 to protest against the proposed 1970 tour. Tom Newnham is a New Zealand political activist and former Educationalist. John Minto is a New Zealand based political activist known for his involvement in various left-wing groups and causes most notably Halt All Racist Tours. The tour went ahead after the South Africans agreed to accept a mixed-race team.
In 1973, HART promised a campaign of civil disruption if the Springboks toured New Zealand. The South Africa national Rugby union team (commonly referred to as the Springboks in English Springbokke in Afrikaans and Amabokoboko The Labour Prime Minister, Norman Kirk, cancelled the tour. The New Zealand Labour Party is a New Zealand political party Norman Eric Kirk ( 6 January 1923 &ndash 31 August 1974) was Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in Rugby supporters complained that politics should not interfere in sport.
The All Blacks were next due to tour South Africa in 1976. The All Blacks are New Zealand's national team in Rugby union, the country's National sport. Newly elected National Prime Minister Robert Muldoon refused to cancel the tour, which went ahead, in spite of the (then draft) Gleneagles Agreement where Commonwealth leaders agreed to discourage sporting contact with South Africa. The New Zealand National Party ("National" or "the Nats" currently forms the second-largest (in terms of parliamentary seats Political party Sir Robert David ("Rob" Muldoon, GCMG, CH ( 25 September 1921 &ndash 5 August 1992) served as Prime Minister The Gleneagles Agreement was unanimously approved by the Commonwealth of Nations at a meeting at Gleneagles, Auchterarder, Scotland. 21 African nations boycotted the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal in protest. The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were an International Multi-sport event held in Montreal, Quebec
HART merged with the National Anti-Apartheid Council in 1980 to become HART: NAAM. After ten years as National Chairperson, Richards was replaced by John Minto. John Minto is a New Zealand based political activist known for his involvement in various left-wing groups and causes most notably Halt All Racist Tours.
The high point of protest was around the 1981 Springbok Tour in which thousands of New Zealanders protested, invaded pitches and ended the tour. HART was not the leading body in these protests, as broader organisations were set up in each major centre to coordinate protests, but HART members played a leading role in these organisations.
In 1985, a planned All Black tour of South Africa was stopped by the New Zealand High Court after two lawyers sued the NZRFU, claiming such a tour would breach the NZRFU's constitution. The High Court of New Zealand was established in 1841 and known as the Supreme Court until 1980 An unofficial tour did take place in 1986 by a team including the majority of the All Blacks players selected for the previous year's cancelled tour. These were known as the New Zealand Cavaliers, but often advertised inside the Republic as the All Blacks or alternatively depicted with the Silver Fern. HART organised nationwide protests, but they were much smaller than the 1981 protests.
HART's reason for existence ended with the fall of apartheid.