February 22. This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne 1971 – June 10, 2000
|Preceded by||Ahmad al-Khatib|
|Succeeded by||Abdul Halim Khaddam (Interim)|
November 21, 1970 – April 3, 1971
|Preceded by||Nureddin al-Atassi|
|Succeeded by||Abdul Rahman Kleifawi|
|Born||6 October 1930|
|Died||June 10, 2000 (aged 69)|
|Political party||Baath Party|
Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: حافظ الأسد Ḥāfiẓ al-Asad) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria, for three decades. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Sayyed Ahmad al-Hasan al-Khatib (سيد أحمد الحسن الخطيب (born 1933 is a Syria politician Abdul Halim Khaddam (عبد الحليم خدام born 15 September, 1932 in Baniyas) is a Syrian politician and former Vice President of Syria This page lists prime ministers of Syria. Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Syria 1920 Rida Pasha al-Rikabi: March - May 1920 Events 164 BC - Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1043 - Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. Noureddin Mustafa al- Atassi (1930&mdash December 3, 1992) ( Arabic: نور الدين مصطفى الأتاسي Nūr ad-Dīn Muṣṭafā Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Qardaha (قرداحة is a city in northwestern Syria, in the mountains overlooking the coastal town of Latakia. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language Events 105 BC - Battle of Arausio: The Cimbri inflict the heaviest defeat on the Roman army of Gnaeus Mallius Maximus Year 1930 ( MCMXXX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1190 - Third Crusade: Frederick I Barbarossa drowns in the Sally River while leading an army to Jerusalem 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Assad's rule stabilized and consolidated the power of the country's central government after decades of coups and counter-coups. He was succeeded by his son and current president Bashar al-Assad in 2000. Dr Bashar al-Assad (بشار الأسد) (born 11 September, 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary
Hafez al-Assad was born in the town of Qardaha in the Latakia province of western Syria into a minority Alawite family. Qardaha (قرداحة is a city in northwestern Syria, in the mountains overlooking the coastal town of Latakia. Latakia Governorate (مُحافظة اللاذقية is one of the fourteen governorates (provinces of Syria. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see Alawi (sheikhdom The Alawites He was the first member of his family to attend high school. High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution He attended Jules Jammal High School in Lattakia from which he graduated. He joined the Baath Party in 1946 at the age of 16. The Arab Socialist Ba'th Party (also spelled Baath or Ba'ath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي was founded in Damascus Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Because his family had no money to send him to university, Assad went to the Syrian Military Academy (where he met Mustafa Tlass) and received a free higher education. A university is an institution of Higher education and Research, which grants Academic degrees in a variety of subjects Lt Gen Mustafa Tlass (مصطفى طلاس b 1932 is a Syrian politician and a long time minister of defense now retired He showed considerable talent and the military sent him for additional training in the Soviet Union. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 As a pilot during the 1950s, he flew the Gloster Meteor jet fighter, amongst other types. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout He rose through the ranks and became an important figure in the military.
He opposed the 1958 union between Syria and Egypt which created the United Arab Republic (UAR). Year 1958 ( MCMLVIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. The United Arab Republic ( الجمهورية العربية المتحدة al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah al-Muttaḥidah / al-Jumhūrīyah al-‘Arabīyah Stationed in Cairo, he worked with other officers to end the union, sticking to his pan-Arab ideals while arguing that the UAR concentrated too much power in the hands of Gamal Abdel Nasser's regime. Cairo () which means "the Vanquisher" or "the Triumphant" is the capital and largest city of Egypt. Pan-Arabism is a movement for Unification among the peoples and countries of the Arab World, from the Atlantic Ocean to the Gamal Abdel Nasser (جمال عبد الناصر Gamāl ‘Abd an-Nāṣir; - January 15 1918 September 28 1970) was the second President As a result, Assad was briefly imprisoned by the Egyptian authorities at the breakup of the union in 1961. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Tlass escorted his family to Syria, where he later rejoined them.
In the chaos that followed the dissolution of the UAR, a coalition of left-wing groups led by the Baath Party seized power in Syria. Assad was appointed head of the airforce in 1964. The Syrian Air Force (القوّات الجوية العربية السورية Al Quwwat al-Jawwiya al Arabiya as-Souriya) is the Aviation branch of the Syrian Year 1964 ( MCMLXIV) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the 1964 Gregorian calendar. The state was officially ruled by Amin Hafiz, a Sunni Muslim, but was in practice dominated by a coterie of young Alawite Baathists. Gen Amin al-Hafiz (or Hafez; born 1911 (أمين الحافظ was a Syrian politician military officer and a member of the Ba'th Party. Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam. Sunni Islam is also referred to as Ahl as-Sunnah wa’l-Jamā‘h (Arabic
In 1966, the Baath launched a coup d'etat within the regime and cleared out the other parties from the government. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Assad became Minister of Defence and wielded considerable influence over government policy. Syria's current Minister of Defence is General Hasan Turkmani, born in Aleppo on 1933 However, there was much tension between the dominant radical wing of the Baath Party, which promoted an aggressive foreign policy and rapid social reform, and Assad's more pragmatic, military-based faction. After being discredited by the failure of the Syrian military in the Six-Day War in 1967, and enraged by the aborted Syrian intervention in the Jordanian-Palestinian Black September war, the government faced conflict within its ranks. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. September 1970 is known as the Black September ( in Arab history and sometimes is referred to as the "era of regrettable events By the time President Nureddin al-Atassi and the de facto leader, deputy secretary general of the Baath Party Salah Jadid, realized the threat and ordered Assad and Tlass be stripped of all party and government power, it was too late. Noureddin Mustafa al- Atassi (1930&mdash December 3, 1992) ( Arabic: نور الدين مصطفى الأتاسي Nūr ad-Dīn Muṣṭafā Salah Jadid (1926? &mdash August 19, 1993, Arabic: صلاح جديد was a Syrian General and Political figure in the Assad swiftly launched a bloodless intra-party coup, The Corrective Revolution of 1970. The Corrective Revolution (الثورة التصحيحية is an expression used by some self-described Revolutionary governments to describe an internal political or bureaucratic Year 1970 ( MCMLXX) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The party was purged, Atassi and Jadid jailed, and Assad loyalists installed in key posts throughout the government.
Al-Assad inherited a dictatorial regime shaped by years of unstable military rule, and lately organized along one-party lines after the Baathist coup. He increased repression and attempted to secure his domination of every sector of society through a vast web of police informers and agents. Under his rule, Syria turned genuinely authoritarian. Authoritarianism describes a Form of government characterized by an emphasis on the Authority of the State in a republic or union He was made the object of a state-sponsored cult of personality, which depicted as a wise, just, and strong leader of Syria and of the Arab world in general. A cult of personality or personality cult arises when a country's leader uses Mass media to create a heroic public image through unquestioning flattery and praise
Syria under Assad never quite reached the levels of repression practiced in neighboring Iraq, ruled by a rivaling Baathist faction. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Where Saddam Hussein's policies of perpetual state terrorism aimed to secure his rule through fear, Hafez al-Assad took a more sophisticated approach: rather than immediately brutalizing restive communities, his regime often bribed or threatened dissidents. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 State terrorism refers to acts of Terrorism conducted by governments Only after milder forms of persuasion had failed would swords come out. Then, the regime could be counted on to act with unflinching cruelty in order to intimidate all would-be dissidents.
Whilst dictatorial, the government of al-Assad initially achieved some popularity for bringing stability to the country, which had experienced dozens of attempted coups since 1948. Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He also implemented many social reforms and infrastructure projects, notably the Thawra (Revolution) dam on the Euphrates River. The Euphrates ( ( Arabic: ar نهر الفرات; Turkish: tr Fırat Syriac: syr ܦܪܬ; Hebrew: he פרת It was built with Soviet assistance, and still supplies much of Syria's electricity. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Public schooling and other reforms were extended to larger segments of the population, and a notable rise in living standards occurred. The government's secularism meant that many members of religious minorities, such as the Alawites, Druze, and Christians, naturally supported Assad, fearing a return to historic persecution under a Sunni Islamist successor government to Assad. Secularism is generally the assertion that governmental practices or institutions should exist separately from Religion or religious beliefs For the Alaouite dynasty of Morocco see Alaouite Dynasty, for the former state now in Yemen see Alawi (sheikhdom The Alawites The Druze ( Arabic: درزي derzī or durzī, plural دروز durūz) are a religious community found primarily in Syria, Lebanon A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth
Assad also continued previous Baath policies by overseeing massive increases in Syria's military strength (again with Soviet support) and by maintaining a strong Arab nationalist position. Arab nationalism ( Arabic: القومية العربية is a Nationalist ideology which rose to prominence amongst Arabs from the early 20th century onwards School curricula and the state-controlled media gave much attention to the glorious past of Syria and the Arabs, and portrayed al-Assad's government as the lone uncorrupted champion of the Arab nation against Western imperialism and aggression. The term Western world, the West or the Occident ( Latin: occidens -sunset -west as distinct from the Orient) can have multiple meanings Imperialism has two meanings one describing an action and the other describing an attitude This propaganda aimed to legitimize the government, but also to unify the diverse and fractured Syrian society, and instill a sense of national pride among the populace. Propaganda is a concerted set of messages aimed at influencing the opinions or behaviors of large numbers of people
In 1979 the Syrian public was taken by surprise when a chain of assassinations took place starting from the artillery school in Aleppo to the assassination of some scientists and intellectuals. When the movement started its violent bloody action no one could identify it, as well as they did not distribute any pamphlets telling what they want or who they are. After almost a year one of their insurgents was severely injured and fell in the hand of intelligent system and identified as a member in Muslim Brotherhood party. Their impact was deep, caused the death of so many innocents while angry government security forces were willing to kill thousands of innocents to capture them. In one incident a group of M. Brotherhood ambushed a car for security companies, as a result, a full section in Aleppo about 10,000 individuals yield to a siege and all men including doctors, PhDs in Aleppo university and one member in the Syrian Army, they could not identify him, executed. Some resources estimate the number of men executed in that incident exceeded 1000. The Syrian security forces were so reckless in dealing with the uprising. Two years later while the conflict kept going the movement weakened while more of its members were surrendering to the government telling minor or major information about the M. Brotherhood party that what led eventually to collapse of the party and be prohibited in Syria. The country lived in nightmare till 1986 when everything seemed quiet and secure. During that period a lot of people were beaten in Syrian cities for unknown reasons and so many others disappeared. The M. Brotherhood party movement had caused a lot of damage to the Syrian economy and to the national growth. In that period Assad and the minority alwites were under tremendous pressure and fears from losing the rudder of ruling, these fears showed themselves clearly in Assad's health when he entered the hospital suffering heart attack. The movement aimed to make the regime insecure and to shake it by accusing it for treason against Islam doubting the regime have had backed the Christians in Lebanon over the Sunni and Shiite Muslims. They hoped the Syrian army, Sunni members, will uprise returning Syria to the Sunni ruling as it was before 1971.
In 1983, Assad suffered a heart attack and was confined to hospital. Year 1983 ( MCMLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar) Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply He named a six-man governing council to run the country in his absence, among them long-time Defense Minister Mustafa Tlass. Curiously, all of the six were Sunnis, possibly because that meant they had no independent power over his Alawite-dominated government, and were thus less likely to try to seize power. Despite this, rumors spread that Assad was dead or nearly so, and indeed his condition was very serious. In 1984, Rifaat al-Assad attempted to use the security forces under his control to seize power. Year 1984 ( MCMLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1984 Gregorian calendar) His Defence Company troops of some 50,000 men, complete with tanks and helicopters, began putting up roadblocks throughout Damascus, and tensions between Hafez loyalists and Rifaat supporters came close to all-out war. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. The stand-off was not ended until Hafez, still severely ill, rose from his bed to reassume power and speak to the nation. He then transferred command of the Defence Company and, without formal accusations, sent Rifaat on an indefinite "work visit" to France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Al-Assad's foreign policy was shaped by the relation of Syria to Israel, although this conflict both preceded him and persists after his death. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. During his presidency, Syria played a major role in the 1973 Arab-Israeli war. The Yom Kippur War, Ramadan War or October War (מלחמת יום הכיפורים transliterated: Milkhemet Yom HaKipurim or מלחמת יום The war is, despite heavy losses and Israeli advances, presented by the Syrian government as a victory, as Syria regained some territory that had been occupied in 1967 through peace negotiations headed by Henry Kissinger. Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German -born American bureaucrat diplomat and 1973 Since then Assad-led Syria has carefully respected the UN-monitored ceasefire line in the occupied Golan Heights. The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous The Syria regime has denied the state of Israel any recognition, and long preferred to refer to it as a "Zionist Entity". Only in the mid-1990s did Hafez moderate his country's policy towards Israel, as he realized the loss of Soviet support meant a different balance of power in the Middle East. The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999 The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Pressed by the United States, he engaged in negotiations on the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights, but these talks ultimately failed. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Borders of Israel The Golan Heights ( الجولان al-Jawlān, הגולן ha-Golan) is a strategic Plateau and mountainous
Syria deployed troops to Lebanon in 1976, officially in response to a request from the Lebanese government for Syrian military intervention during the Lebanese Civil War. The Syrian occupation of Lebanon (sometimes called the Syrian military presence in Lebanon) is the period 1976-2005 when Syria had a military presence in and Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990 was a multifaceted Civil war whose antecedents can be traced back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end It is alleged that the Syrian presence in Lebanon began earlier with its involvement in as-Saiqa, a Palestinian militia composed primarily of Syrians. As-Sa'iqa (also transliterated as al-Saika, Saeqa, etc from Arabic: الصاعقة meaning storm or thunderbolt; also The Arab League agreed to send a peacekeeping force mostly formed by Syrian troops. The Arab League ( الجامعة العربية) officially called the League of Arab States ( جامعة الدول العربية The initial goals were to save the Lebanese government from being overun by the Left and the Palestinian militancy. Critics allege that this eventually turned into an occupation by 1982, which is more or less not disputed within the Lebanese community. The Syrian presence ended in 2005, due to the UN resolution 1559 after the Rafiq Hariri assassination and the March 14 protests. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
The hostile attitude to Israel meant vocal support for the Palestinians, but that did not translate into friendly relations with their organizations. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Hafez al-Assad was always wary of independent Palestinian organizations, as he aimed to bring the Palestinian issue under Syrian control in order to use it as a political tool. He soon developed an implacable animosity towards Yassir Arafat's PLO, against which Syria fought bloody battles in Lebanon. Mohammed Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini ( Arabic: محمد عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني (August 24 1929 – November 11 The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary
As Arafat allegedly moved the PLO in a more moderate direction, supposedly seeking compromise with Israel, al-Assad also feared regional isolation, and he resented the PLO underground's operations in Palestinian refugee camps in Syria. Arafat was depicted by Syria as a rogue madman and an American marionette, and after accusing him of supporting the Hama revolt, al-Assad backed the 1983 Abu Musa rebellion inside Arafat's Fatah-movement. This is a geographical article For the Palestinian leader see Said al-Muragha, for the Sahaba, see Abu-Musa al-Asha'ari. Fatah (فتح literally opening, is a reverse Acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (حركة التحرير A number of unsuccessful Syrian attempts to kill Arafat were also made. In 1999, Assad had his right-hand man, Mustafa Tlass, make an on-the-record statement labelling Arafat "the son of 60,000 whores and 60,000 dogs", in addition to comparing him to a strip-tease dancer and a black cat, calling him a coward and, finally, pointing out that the Palestinian leader was getting uglier. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
An effective strategy was undermining Arafat through support for radical groups both outside and inside the PLO. This way, Syria secured some influence over PLO politics, and was also able to literally blow up any attempts at negotiation with the US and Israel through pushing for terrorist attacks. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion The PLO's As-Sa'iqa faction was and is completely controlled by Syria, and under Hafez, groups such as the PFLP-GC were also turned into clients. As-Sa'iqa (also transliterated as al-Saika, Saeqa, etc from Arabic: الصاعقة meaning storm or thunderbolt; also The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة In later years, Syria focused on supporting non-PLO Islamist groups such as Hamas and Islamic Jihad. Islamism ( Islam + ism; Arabic: al-'islāmiyya) a set of ideologies holding that Islam is not only Ḥamas (ar حركة حماس acronym ar حركة المقاومة The Islamic Jihad Movement in Palestine (حركة الجهاد الإسلامي في فلسطين - Harakat al-Jihād al-Islāmi fi Filastīn
Even though Iraq was ruled by another branch of the Baath Party, Assad's relations with Saddam Hussein were extremely strained. Hostile rhetoric was intense, and until Saddam's fall in 2003, Iraq was listed in Syrian passports as one of the two countries no Syrian citizen could visit (the other being Israel). But with the exception of a few border guard skirmishes and mutual support for cross-border raids by opposition groups, no heavy fighting broke out until 1991, when Syria joined the US-led UN coalition to expel Iraq from Kuwait. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed
Assad was president until his death in 2000 from a heart attack while speaking on the telephone with Lebanese President Émile Lahoud. Myocardial infarction ( MI or AMI for acute myocardial infarction) also known as a heart attack, occurs when the blood supply General Émile Jamil Lahoud ( اميل لحود; born 12 January 1936 is a former President of Lebanon. Assad had originally groomed his son, Basil al-Assad as his successor, but he died in a car accident in 1994. Basil al-Assad (1961– January 21, 1994; Arabic باسل الأسد Bāsil al-Asad was the son of the late Syrian President Hafez al-Assad Assad then called back a second son, Bashar, and put him in intensive military and political training. Despite some concerns of unrest within the government, the succession ultimately went smoothly, and Bashar holds office today. Hafez al-Assad is buried together with Basil in a mausoleum in his hometown of Qardaha. A mausoleum ( plural: mausolea is an external free-standing building constructed as a monument enclosing the interment space or burial chamber of a deceased person or persons
Family connections are presently an important part of Syrian politics. Several members of Hafez al-Assad's closest family have held positions within the government since his ascent to power. Most of the al-Assad and Makhlouf families have also grown tremendously wealthy, and parts of that fortune has reached their Alawite tribe in Qardaha and environs.
|Prime Minister of Syria|
Abdul Rahman Khleifawi
(Head of State)
|President of Syria|
Abdul Halim Khaddam (acting)
Noureddin Mustafa al- Atassi (1930&mdash December 3, 1992) ( Arabic: نور الدين مصطفى الأتاسي Nūr ad-Dīn Muṣṭafā This page lists prime ministers of Syria. Prime Ministers of the Kingdom of Syria 1920 Rida Pasha al-Rikabi: March - May 1920 Sayyed Ahmad al-Hasan al-Khatib (سيد أحمد الحسن الخطيب (born 1933 is a Syria politician This page lists presidents and other Heads of State of Syria. Abdul Halim Khaddam (عبد الحليم خدام born 15 September, 1932 in Baniyas) is a Syrian politician and former Vice President of Syria