Gustave Caillebotte (August 19, 1848–February 21, 1894), was a French painter, member and patron of the group of artists known as Impressionists, though he painted in a much more realistic manner than many other artists in the group. Events 43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul. Year 1848 ( MDCCCXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap Events 362 - Athanasius returns to Alexandria. 1245 - Thomas, the first known Bishop of Finland Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s Caillebotte was noted for his early interest in photography as an artform.
Gustave Caillebotte was born on August 19, 1848 to an upper-class Parisian family. His father, Martial Caillebotte (1799-1874), was the inheritor of the family's military textile business and was also a judge at the Seine department's Tribunal de Commerce. Caillebotte's father was twice widowed before marrying Caillebotte's mother, Céleste Daufresne (1819-1878), who had two more sons after Gustave, René (1851-1876) and Martial (1853-1910). 
Caillebotte was born at home on rue du Faubourg-Saint-Denis in Paris, and lived on that street until 1866 when his father had a home built on rue de Miromesnil. Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city Beginning in 1860, the Caillebotte family began spending many of their summers in Yerres, a town on the Yerres River about 12 miles south of Paris, where Martial Caillebotte, Sr. Yerres is a commune in the southeastern suburbs of Paris, France. had purchased a large property. It was around this time that Caillebotte probably began to draw and paint.
Caillebotte earned a law degree in 1868 and a license to practice law in 1870. Shortly afterwards, he was drafted to fight in the Franco-Prussian war, and served in the Garde Nationale Mobile de la Seine. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 
After the war, Caillebotte began visiting the studio of painter Léon Bonnat, where he began to seriously study painting. Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat ( 20 June 1833 &ndash September 8, 1922) was a French painter. He developed an accomplished style in a relative short time and had his first studio in his parents home. In 1873, Caillebotte entered into the École des Beaux-Arts, but apparently did not spend much time there. École des Beaux-Arts ("School of Fine Arts" refers to a number of influential Art schools in France.  He inherited his father’s fortune in 1874 and the three sons divided the family fortune after their mother’s death in 1878.  Around 1874, Caillebotte met and befriended several artists working outside the official French Academy, including Edgar Degas and Giuseppe de Nittis, and attended (but did not participate in) the first Impressionist exhibition of 1874. Giuseppe De Nittis ( February 25, 1846 – August 12, 1884) was an Italian painter whose work merges the styles of Salon Impressionism was a 19th-century Art movement that began as a loose association of Paris -based Artists exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s 
The "Impressionists” also called the “Independents”, “Intransigents”, and “Intentionalists” had broken away from the academic painters showing in the annual Salons.  Caillebotte did make his debut in the second Impressionist exhibition in 1876 showing eight paintings including Floor-scrapers (1875), his earliest masterpiece.  Its subject matter, the depiction of laborers preparing a wooden floor, was considered “vulgar” by some critics and is the probable reason why it was rejected by the Salon of 1875. At the time, the art establishment only deemed rustic peasants or farmers as acceptable subjects from the working class.  The painting now resides at the Musée d’Orsay. A second version, in a more realistic style resembling that of Degas, was also exhibited, demonstrating Caillebotte’s range of technique and his adept restatement of the same subject matter.
Caillebotte's style belongs to the School of Realism but was strongly influenced by his Impressionist associates. Realism in the Visual arts and Literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in Everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation As did his predecessors Jean-Francois Millet and Gustave Courbet, as well his contemporary Degas, Caillebotte aimed to paint reality as it existed and as he saw it, hoping to reduce painting's inherent theatricality. Jean-François Millet ( October 4, 1814 &ndash January 20, 1875) was a French painter and one of the founders of the Barbizon For the French Admiral see Admiral Courbet (1828-1885 Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet ( 10 June 1819 &ndash Perhaps because of his close relationship with so many of his peers, his style and technique varies considerably among his works, as if “borrowing” and experimenting, but not really sticking to any one style. At times, he seems very much in the Degas camp of rich-colored realism (especially his interior scenes) and at other times, he shares the Impressionists' commitment to "optical truth" and employs an impressionistic pastel-softness and loose brush strokes most similar to Renoir and Pissarro, though with a less vibrant palette. Pierre-Auguste Renoir ( February 25, 1841 &ndash December 3, 1919) was a French Artist who was a leading painter in Camille Pissarro ( July 10 1830 &ndash November 13 1903) was a French Impressionist painter. 
Caillebotte painted many domestic and familial scenes, interiors, and portraits. Many of his paintings depict members of his family; Young Man at His Window (Jeune Homme à sa fenêtre) (1875) shows René in the home on rue de Miromesnil; The Orange Trees (Les orangers) (1878), depicts Martial Jr. and his cousin Zoë in the garden of the family property at Yerres; and Portraits in the Country (Portraits à la campagne) (1875) includes Caillebotte's mother along with his aunt, cousin, and a family friend. There are scenes of dining, card playing, piano playing, reading and sewing all done in an intimate, unobtrusive manner which observes the quiet ritual of upper-class indoor life. 
His country scenes at Yerres, focus on pleasure boating on the leisurely stream as well as fishing and swimming, and domestic scenes around his country home. Often, he used a soft impressionistic technique reminescent of Renoir to convey the tranquil nature of the countryside, in sharp contrast to the flatter, smoother strokes of his urban paintings. Pierre-Auguste Renoir ( February 25, 1841 &ndash December 3, 1919) was a French Artist who was a leading painter in In Oarsman in a Top Hat (1877), he effectively manages the perspective of a passenger in the back of a row boat facing his rowing companion and the stream ahead, in a manner much more realistic and involving than Manet’s Boating (1874). 
But Caillebotte is most well known for his paintings of urban Paris, such as The Pont de l'Europe (Le pont de l'Europe) (1876), and Paris Street; Rainy Day (Rue de Paris; temps de pluie, also known as La Place de l'Europe, temps de pluie) (1877). The latter is almost unique among his works for its particularly flat colors and photo-realistic effect which gives the painting its distinctive and modern look, almost akin to American Realists such as Edward Hopper. Edward Hopper ( July 22, 1882 &ndash May 15, 1967) was an American painter and Printmaker. Many of his urban paintings were quite controversial due to their exaggerated, plunging perspective. In Man on a Balcony (1880), he invites the viewer to share the balcony with his subject and join in observing the scene of the city reaching into the distance, again by using unusual perspective.  Showing little allegiance to any one style, many of Caillebotte's other urban paintings done in the same period are considerably more impressionistic, such The Place Saint-Augustin (1877). 
The tilted ground common to these paintings is very characteristic of Caillebotte's work, which may have been strongly influenced by Japanese prints and the new technology of photography, though evidence of his actual use of photography is lacking.  Cropping and "zooming-in," techniques which are also commonly found in Caillebotte's oeuvre, may also be the result of his interest in photography, but just as likely from his intense interest in perspective effects. A large number of Caillebotte's works also employ a very high vantage point, including View of Roooftops (Snow) (Vue des toits, effet de neige) (1878), Boulevard Seen from Above (Boulevard vu d'en haut) (1880), and A Traffic Island (1880). 
Caillebotte's still life paintings focus primarily on food, some at table ready to be eaten and some ready to be purchased, as in a series of paintings he made of meat at a butcher shop. He also produced some floral still life paintings particularly in the 1890’s. Rounding out his subject matter, he painted a few nudes, most notably Nude on a Couch (1882), which though provocative in its realism, is ambivalent in its mood—neither overtly erotic nor suggestive of mythology—themes common to many female nude paintings of that era. 
Caillebotte acquired a property at Petit-Gennevilliers, on the banks of the Seine near Argenteuil, in 1881, and moved there permanently in 1888. Argenteuil is a commune in the northwestern suburbs of Paris, France.  He ceased showing his work at age 34 and devoted himself to gardening and to building and racing yachts, and spent much time with his brother, Martial, and his friend Renoir, who often came to stay at Petit-Gennevilliers, and engaged in far ranging discussions on art, politics, literature, and philosophy. Never married, he appears to have had a serious relationship with Charlotte Berthier, a woman eleven years his junior and of the lower class, to whom he left a sizable annuity. 
Caillebotte's painting career slowed dramatically in the early 1890’s, when he stopped making large canvases. Caillebotte died while working in his garden at Petit-Gennevilliers in 1894 of pulmonary congestion at age 45, and was interred at Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. Year 1894 ( MDCCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common lung is the essential Respiration organ in air-breathing Animals including most Tetrapods a few Fish and a few Snails The most primitive Père Lachaise Cemetery (Cimetière du Père-Lachaise officially cimetière de l'Est, "East Cemetery" is the largest Cemetery in the city of Paris 
For many years, Caillebotte's reputation as a painter was superseded by his reputation as a supporter of the arts. Seventy years after his death, however, art historians began reevaluating his artistic contributions. His striking use of varying perspective is particularly admirable and sets him apart from his peers who may have exceeded him in other artistic areas. His art was largely forgotten until the 1950’s when his descendents began to sell the family collection. In 1964, The Art Institute of Chicago acquired Paris Street; Rainy Day, spurring American interest in the artist. Paris Street Rainy Day (also known as Paris A Rainy Day) is an 1877 oil painting by the French artist Gustave Caillebotte. By the 1970’s, his works were being exhibited again and critically reassessed.
Caillebotte's sizable allowance with the inheritance he received after the death of his father in 1874 and his mother in 1878 allowed him to paint without the pressure to sell his work. It also allowed him to help fund Impressionist exhibitions and support his fellow artists and friends (including Claude Monet, Auguste Renoir, and Camille Pissarro among others) by purchasing their works and, at least in the case of Monet, paying the rent for their studios. Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder Pierre-Auguste Renoir ( February 25, 1841 &ndash December 3, 1919) was a French Artist who was a leading painter in Camille Pissarro ( July 10 1830 &ndash November 13 1903) was a French Impressionist painter.
Caillebotte bought his first Monet in 1876 and was especially helpful to that artists career and financial survival. He was precise in his sponsorship; notably absent are works by Georges Seurat and Paul Gauguin, or any of the Symbolists. Georges-Pierre Seurat ( December 2, 1859  &ndash March 29, 1891) was a French painter and Draftsman. Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903 was a leading Post-Impressionist painter.  He played a major role in convincing the Louvre to purchase Manet’s Olympia for their greater good. The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France 
In addition, Caillebotte used his wealth to fund a variety of hobbies for which he was quite passionate, including stamp collecting (his collection is now in the British Museum), orchid horticulture, yacht building, and even textile design (the women in his paintings Madame Boissière Knitting, 1877, and Portrait of Madame Caillebotte, 1877, may be working on patterns created by Caillebotte). The British Museum is a Museum of human history and culture in London. 
In his will, Caillebotte donated a large collection to the French government. This collection included sixty-eight paintings by various artists: Camille Pissarro (nineteen), Claude Monet (fourteen), Pierre-Auguste Renoir (ten), Alfred Sisley (nine), Edgar Degas (seven), Paul Cézanne (five), and Édouard Manet (four). Camille Pissarro ( July 10 1830 &ndash November 13 1903) was a French Impressionist painter. Claude Monet ( French klod mɔnɛ also known as Oscar-Claude Monet or Claude Oscar Monet (14 November 1840 &ndash 5 December 1926 was a founder Pierre-Auguste Renoir ( February 25, 1841 &ndash December 3, 1919) was a French Artist who was a leading painter in Alfred Sisley ( October 30, 1839 &ndash January 29, 1899) was an English Impressionist landscape painter who 
At the time of Caillebotte's death, the Impressionists were still largely condemned by the art establishment in France, which was dominated by Academic art and specifically the Académie des beaux-arts. Academic art is a style of Painting and Sculpture produced under the influence of European academies or universities The Académie des Beaux-Arts (Academy of Fine Arts is a French Learned society. Because of this, Caillebotte realised that the cultural treasures in his collection would likely disappear into "attics" and "provincial museums". He therefore stipulated that they must be displayed in the Luxembourg Palace (devoted to the work of living artists), and then in the Louvre. The Palais du Luxembourg in the VIe arrondissement of Paris, north of the Jardin du Luxembourg, is where the French Senate meets The Louvre Museum (Musée du Louvre located in Paris is the world's most visited art museum a historic monument and a national museum of France 
Unfortunately, the French government would not agree to these terms. In February 1896, they finally negotiated terms with Renoir, who was the will's executor, under which they took thirty-eight of the paintings to the Luxembourg. The installation constituted the first presentation of the Impressionists in a public venue in France. The remaining twenty-nine paintings (one was taken by Renoir in payment for his services as executor) were offered to the French government twice more, in 1904 and 1908, and were both times refused. Year 1904 ( MCMIV) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting on Year 1908 ( MCMVIII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year When the government finally attempted to claim them in 1928, the bequest was repudiated by the widow of Caillebotte's son. Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Most of the remaining works were purchased by Albert C. Barnes, and are now held by the Barnes Foundation. For the American theologian see Albert Barnes Albert Coombs Barnes ( January 2 1872 – July 24 1951 The Barnes Foundation is an educational art institution in Lower Merion Township, a suburb of Philadelphia Pennsylvania in the United States. 
Forty of Caillebotte's own works are now held by the Musée d'Orsay. The Musée d'Orsay is a Museum in Paris, France, on the left bank of the Seine, housed in the former railway station the Gare His Man on a Balcony, Boulevard Haussmann (Homme au balcon, boulevard Haussmann) (1880), sold for more than US$14. 3 million in 2000.
Indiana Art Museum, Bloomington
Musée d'Orsay, Paris
Musée Baron Gérard, Bayeux
Petit Palais, Geneva
Art Institute of Chicago
Milwaukee Art Museum
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rennes
Musée d'Orsay, Paris
Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen
Museum of Fine Art, Boston
Montgomery Gallery, Kemper Corporation
Musée d'Orsay, Paris