Classical Guitar
Classification

String instrument (plucked, nylon-stringed guitars usually played with fingerpicking, and steel-, etc. A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs Pizzicato (ˌpɪtsɪˈkɑːtoʊ is a playing technique that involves plucking the strings of a String instrument. usually with a pick. A guitar pick is a type of Plectrum designed for use on a Guitar. )

Playing range
(a regularly tuned guitar)
Related instruments

The guitar is a musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles. In Music, the range of a Musical instrument is the distance from the lowest to the highest pitch it can play A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs Plucked string instruments are a subcategory of String instruments that are played by plucking the strings Plucking is a way of pulling and releasing the string in A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified for the purpose of making Music. It typically has six strings, but four, seven, eight, ten, and twelve string guitars also exist. A string is the vibrating element that is the source of vibration in String instruments such as the Guitar, Harp, Piano, and members The tenor guitar is a slightly smaller four-string version of the steel-string acoustic guitar or Electric guitar. A seven-string guitar is a Guitar with seven strings instead of the usual six An eight-string guitar is a Guitar with eight strings instead of the commonly used six This article is about modern ten-string guitars For the five-course guitar with nine or ten strings see Baroque guitar.

Guitars are recognized as one of the primary instruments in blues, country, flamenco, rock music, and many forms of pop. The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. Flamenco is a Spanish term that refers both to a musical genre known for its intricate rapid passages and a dance genre characterized by its audible footwork Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Pop music as a genre features a noticeable rhythmic element catchy melodies and hooks, a mainstream style and conventional structure They can also be a solo classical instrument. Guitars may be played acoustically, where the tone is produced by vibration of the strings and modulated by the hollow body, or they may rely on an amplifier that can electronically manipulate tone. See also Acoustic Guitar (magazine An acoustic guitar is a Guitar that uses only acoustic methods to project the sound produced by its strings Generally an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes usually increases the amplitude of a signal. Such electric guitars were introduced in the 20th century and continue to have a profound influence on popular culture. An electric guitar is a type of Guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into an electrical current which is made louder Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance —

Traditionally guitars have usually been constructed of combinations of various woods and strung with animal gut, or more recently, with either nylon or steel strings. Guitars are made and repaired by luthiers.

## History

Figurines playing tanburs. The history of the classical guitar and its repertoire spans over four centuries including its ancestor the Baroque guitar. The term tanbūr ( Persian: تنبور) can refer to various long-necked Fretted Lutes originating in the Middle East Excavated in Susa, Elam, now Iran. Susa ( Biblical שושן ( Shushan) also Greek: Σοῦσα Transliterated as Sousa; Latin Susa) Elam is the name of an ancient civilization located in what is now southwest Iran. Dated 2000-1500 B. C. kept at the National Museum of Iran. The National Museum of Iran (in Persian: موزه ملي ايران Mūze-ye Millī-ye Irān, or موزه ایران باستان Muze-ye Irân-e Bâstân

Before the development of the electric guitar and the use of synthetic materials, a guitar was defined as being an instrument having "a long, fretted neck, flat wooden soundboard, ribs, and a flat back, most often with incurved sides". [1] Instruments similar to the guitar have been popular for at least 5,000 years. The six string classical guitar first appeared in Spain but was itself the product of a long and complex history of diverse influences. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Like virtually all other stringed European instruments, the guitar ultimately traces back thousands of years, via the Middle East, to a common ancient origin from instruments then known in central Asia and India. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. Ancient India and It is therefore very distantly related with contemporary instruments such as the Iranian tanbur and setar and the Indian sitar. The term tanbūr ( Persian: تنبور) can refer to various long-necked Fretted Lutes originating in the Middle East Setar ( Persian: سه ‌تار, from seh, meaning "three" and tār, meaning "string" is a Persian musical instrument The sitar ( Hindi: सितार Urdu: ستار Persian: سی تار) is a Plucked stringed instrument. The oldest known iconographic representation of an instrument displaying all the essential features of a guitar being played is a 3300 year old stone carving of a Hittite bard. [2] The modern word, guitar, was adopted into English from Spanish guitarra, derived from the Latin word cithara, which in turn was derived from the earlier Greek word kithara,[3] which perhaps derives from Persian sihtar. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The kithara was an Ancient Greek Musical instrument in the Lyre family [4] Sihtar itself is related to the Indian instrument, the sitar. The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of Scriptures part of the Hindu tradition the Vedas.

Illustration from a Carolingian Psalter from the 9th century, showing a guitar-like plucked instrument. The Carolingian dynasty (known variously as the Carlovingians, Carolings, or Karlings) was a Frankish noble family with its origins in the A Psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms and which often contains other devotional material

The modern guitar is descended from the Roman cithara brought by the Romans to Hispania around 40 AD, and further adapted and developed with the arrival of the four-string oud, brought by the Moors after their conquest of the Iberian peninsula in the 8th century. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Hispania was the name given by the Romans to the whole of the Iberian Peninsula (modern Portugal, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar The oud ( عود ʿūd, plural أعواد, a‘wād; kaban; Persian: بربط barbat; ud The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The Umayyad conquest of Hispania ( 711 – 718) began as an army of the Umayyad Caliphate consisting largely of Berbers inhabitants [5] Elsewhere in Europe, the indigenous six-string Scandinavian lut (lute), had gained in popularity in areas of Viking incursions across the continent. Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from Often depicted in carvings c. 800 AD, the Norse hero Gunther (also known as Gunnar), played a lute with his toes as he lay dying in a snake-pit, in the legend of Siegfried. [6] By 1200 AD, the four string "guitar" had evolved into two types: the guitarra morisca (Moorish guitar) which had a rounded back, wide fingerboard and several soundholes, and the guitarra latina (Latin guitar) which resembled the modern guitar with one soundhole and a narrower neck. [7]

The Spanish vihuela or "viola da mano", a guitar-like instrument of the 15th and 16th centuries is, due to its many similarities, usually considered the immediate ancestor of the modern guitar. Vihuela is a name given to two different Guitar -like String instruments one from 15th and 16th century Spain, usually with 12 paired strings and the It had lute-style tuning and a guitar-like body. Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from Its construction had as much in common with the modern guitar as with its contemporary four-course renaissance guitar. The vihuela enjoyed only a short period of popularity as it was superseded by the guitar; the last surviving publication of music for the instrument appeared in 1576. It is not clear whether it represented a transitional form or was simply a design that combined features of the Arabic oud and the European lute. In favor of the latter view, the reshaping of the vihuela into a guitar-like form can be seen as a strategy of differentiating the European lute visually from the Moorish oud. Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from

The Vinaccia family of luthiers is known for developing the mandolin, and may have built the oldest surviving six string guitar. A mandolin is a musical instrument in the Lute family (plucked or strummed Gaetano Vinaccia (1759 – after 1831)[8] has his signature on the label of a guitar built in Naples, Italy for six strings with the date of 1779. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the [9][10] This guitar has been examined and does not show tell-tale signs of modifications from a double-course guitar although fakes are known to exist of guitars and identifying labels from that period.

Modern dimensions of the classical instrument were established by Antonio Torres Jurado (1817-1892), working in Seville in the 1850s. Antonio de Torres Jurado ( June 13, 1817 – November 19, 1892) was a Spanish guitarist and guitar maker Torres and Louis Panormo of London (active 1820s-1840s) were both responsible for demonstrating the superiority of fan strutting over transverse table bracing. [11]

The electric guitar was patented by George Beauchamp in 1936. An electric guitar is a type of Guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into an electrical current which is made louder George D Beauchamp (1899 &ndash 1941 inventor of musical instruments and co-founder of National Stringed Instrument Corporation and Rickenbacker. Beauchamp co-founded Rickenbacher which used the horseshoe-magnet pickup. Rickenbacher may refer to Adolph Rickenbacher Karl Anton Rickenbacher See also However, it was Danelectro that first produced electric guitars for the wider public. Danelectro is a manufacturer of musical instruments and accessories specializing in Guitars Bass guitars amplifiers and Effects units

## Types of guitar

The guitar player (c. 1672), by Johannes Vermeer

Guitars can be divided into two broad categories, acoustic and electric:

### Acoustic guitars

An acoustic guitar is one not dependent on an external device to be heard but uses a soundboard which is a wooden piece mounted on the front of the guitar's body. Johannes or Jan Vermeer (baptized in Delft with the name Joannis on October 31 1632, and buried in the same city under the name Jan The acoustic guitar is quieter than other instruments commonly found in bands and orchestras so when playing within such groups it is often externally amplified. Many acoustic guitars available today feature a variety of pickups which enable the player to amplify and modify the raw guitar sound.

There are several notable subcategories within the acoustic guitar group: classical and flamenco guitars; steel string guitars, which include the flat top or "folk" guitar; twelve string guitars and the arch top guitar. The acoustic guitar group also includes unamplified guitars designed to play in different registers such as the acoustic bass guitar which has a similar tuning to that of the electric bass guitar.

Renaissance and Baroque guitars
These are the gracile ancestors of the modern classical guitar. The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Baroque art redirects here Please disambiguate such links to Baroque painting, Baroque sculpture, etc This article is about baroque guitars For the modern 10-string guitar see Ten-string guitar. They are substantially smaller and more delicate than the classical guitar, and generate a much quieter sound. The strings are paired in courses as in a modern 12 string guitar, but they only have four or five courses of strings rather than six. They were more often used as rhythm instruments in ensembles than as solo instruments, and can often be seen in that role in early music performances. Early music is commonly defined as European classical music from the Middle Ages, the Renaissance and the Baroque. (Gaspar Sanz' Instrucción de Música sobre la Guitarra Española of 1674 constitutes the majority of the surviving solo corpus for the era. Gaspar Sanz ( April 4, 1640 – 1710 was an Aragonese Spanish Composer and Priest born in Calanda in the area ) Renaissance and Baroque guitars are easily distinguished because the Renaissance guitar is very plain and the Baroque guitar is very ornate, with inlays all over the neck and body, and a paper-cutout inverted "wedding cake" inside the hole.
Classical guitars
These are typically strung with nylon strings, played in a seated position and are used to play a diversity of musical styles including classical music. Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music The classical guitar is designed to allow for the execution of solo polyphonic arrangements of music in much the same manner as the pianoforte can. The piano is a Musical instrument played by means of a keyboard that produces sound by striking steel strings with Felt covered hammers This is the major point of difference in design intent between the classical instrument and other designs of guitar. Flamenco guitars are very similar in construction, but are associated with a more percussive tone. A flamenco guitar is a type of Classical guitar, built for the purpose of playing Flamenco music In Mexico, the popular mariachi band includes a range of guitars, from the tiny requinto to the guitarron, a guitar larger than a cello, which is tuned in the bass register. MARIACHI, the Mixed Apparatus for Radar Investigation of Cosmic-rays of High Ionization, is an apparatus for the detection of Ultra-high-energy cosmic rays (UHECR The term requinto is used in both Spanish and Portuguese to mean a smaller higher-pitched version of another instrument The guitarrón (literally "large guitar" in Spanish, the suffix "-ón" denoting "large" is a very large deep-bodied Mexican 6-string acoustic In Colombia, the traditional quartet includes a range of instruments too, from the small bandola (sometimes known as the Deleuze-Guattari, for use when traveling or in confined rooms or spaces), to the slightly larger tiple, to the full sized classical guitar. The requinto also appears in other Latin-American countries as a complementary member of the guitar family, with its smaller size and scale, permitting more projection for the playing of single-lined melodies. Modern dimensions of the classical instrument were established by Antonio Torres Jurado (1817-1892). Antonio de Torres Jurado ( June 13, 1817 – November 19, 1892) was a Spanish guitarist and guitar maker Classical guitars are sometimes referred to as classic guitars. In recent years, the series of guitars used by the Niibori Guitar orchestra have gained some currency, namely:
• Sopranino guitar (an octave and a fifth higher than normal); sometimes known as the piccolo guitar
• Soprano guitar (an octave higher than normal)
• Alto guitar (a 5th higher than normal)
• Prime (ordinary classical) guitar
• Niibori bass guitar (a 4th lower than normal); Niibori simply calls this the "bass guitar", but this assigns a different meaning to the term than other parts of the community use, as his is only a 4th lower, and has 6 strings
• Contrabass guitar (an octave lower than normal)
The modern Ten-string guitar

The Modern/Yepes 10-string guitar (a classical guitar) adds four strings (resonators) tuned in such a way that they (along with the other three bass strings) can resonate in unison with any of the 12 chromatic notes that can occur on the higher strings; the idea behind this being an attempt at enhancing and balancing sonority. A contrabass guitar is a low-register plucked string instrument in the Guitar family which has six strings This article is about modern ten-string guitars For the five-course guitar with nine or ten strings see Baroque guitar.

Main article: Ten-string guitar
António Chaínho and his Portuguese guitar
Portuguese guitar
The Portuguese guitar is a 12 string guitar used in Portugal for the traditional Fado song. This article is about modern ten-string guitars For the five-course guitar with nine or ten strings see Baroque guitar. The Portuguese guitar or Portuguese guitarra ( guitarra portuguesa) is a plucked string instrument with twelve steel strings strung in six courses comprising of two Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. FADO - False and Authentic Documents Online A computerised image-archiving system to help combat illegal immigration and organised crime ACT Council Joint Action 98/700/JHA Its true origins are somewhat uncertain but there is a general agreement that it goes back to the medieval period. It is often mistakenly thought to be based on the so-called "English guitar" – a common error as there is no such thing. For some time the best instruments of this and other types were made in England, hence the confusion. "English guitar" refers to a quality standard, not really an instrument type. This particular instrument is most likely a merge of medieval "cistre" or "citar" and the Arabic lute.
Flat-top (steel-string) guitars
Similar to the classical guitar, however, within the varied sizes of the steel-stringed guitar the body size is usually significantly larger than a classical guitar and it has a narrower, reinforced neck and stronger structural design. A steel-string acoustic guitar, is a modern form of Guitar descended from the Classical guitar, but strung with steel strings for a brighter louder sound This allows the instrument to withstand the additional tension of steel strings. The steel strings produce a brighter tone, and according to many players, a louder sound. The acoustic guitar is used in many kinds of music including folk, country, bluegrass,pop, jazz and blues.
Archtop guitars
These are steel string instruments which feature a violin-inspired f-hole design in which the top (and often the back) of the instrument are carved in a curved rather than a flat shape. An archtop guitar is a steel-stringed acoustic or semi-acoustic Guitar with a full body and a distinctive arched top whose sound is particularly Lloyd Loar of the Gibson Guitar Corporation invented this variation of guitar after designing a style of mandolin of the same type. Lloyd Allayre Loar (1886-1943 was a Gibson sound engineer and master Luthier in the early part of the 20th century The Gibson Guitar Corporation of Nashville Tennessee, USA is a manufacturer of acoustic and Electric guitars The company's most popular guitar A mandolin is a musical instrument in the Lute family (plucked or strummed The typical Archtop is a deep, hollow body guitar whose form is much like that of a mandolin or violin family instrument and may be acoustic or electric. Some solid body electric guitars are also considered archtop guitars although usually 'Archtop guitar' refers to the hollow body form. Archtop guitars were immediately adopted upon their release by both jazz and country musicians and have remained particularly popular in jazz music, usually with flatwound strings. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. The electric semi-hollow body archtop guitar has a distinct sound among electric guitars and is consequently appropriate for many styles of pop music. Many electric archtop guitars intended for use in rock and roll have a Tremolo Arm. Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African A tremolo arm or tremolo bar (also called a "whammy bar" or "wang bar" is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the Tailpiece of
Ellis 8 string baritone tricone resonator guitar. Ellis Guitars is a company based in Perth, Western Australia producing handmade Acoustic guitars and acoustic stompboxes. The baritone guitar is a variation on the standard guitar with a longer Scale length that allows it to be tuned to a lower range A resonator guitar or resophonic guitar is an acoustic guitar whose sound is produced by one or more metal cones ( Resonators ' instead of the
Resonator, resophonic or Dobro guitars
Similar to the flat top guitar in appearance, the sound of the resonator guitar is produced by a metal resonator mounted in the middle of the top. A resonator guitar or resophonic guitar is an acoustic guitar whose sound is produced by one or more metal cones ( Resonators ' instead of the Dobro is a Trade name now owned by Gibson Guitar Corporation and used for a particular design of Resonator guitar. The physical principle of the guitar is therefore similar to the banjo. The banjo is a Stringed instrument developed by enslaved Africans in the United States, adapted from several African instruments The original purpose of the resonator was to amplify the sound of the guitar. This purpose has been largely superseded by electrical amplification, but the resonator guitar is still played because of its distinctive sound. Resonator guitars may have either one resonator cone or three resonator cones. Three-cone resonators have two cones on the left above one another and one cone immediately to the right. The method of transmitting sound resonance to the cone is either a "biscuit" bridge, made of a small piece of hardwood, or a "spider" bridge, made of metal and larger in size. Three-cone resonators always use a specialized metal spider bridge. The type of resonator guitar with a neck with a square cross-section – called "square neck" – is usually played face up, on the lap of the seated player, and often with a metal or glass slide. Slide guitar or bottleneck guitar is a particular method or technique for playing the Guitar. The round neck resonator guitars are normally played in the same fashion as other guitars, although slides are also often used, especially in blues.
12 string guitars
The twelve string guitar usually has steel strings and is widely used in folk music, blues and rock and roll. Folk music can have a number of different meanings including Traditional music: The original meaning of the term "folk music" was synonymous The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African Rather than having only six strings, the 12-string guitar has six courses made up of two strings each, like a mandolin or lute. A mandolin is a musical instrument in the Lute family (plucked or strummed Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from The highest two courses are tuned in unison, while the others are tuned in octaves. The 12-string guitar is also made in electric forms.
Russian guitars
These are seven string acoustic guitars which were the norm for Russian guitarists throughout the 19th and well into the 20th centuries. The Russian guitar is a seven-string acoustic Guitar that arrived in Russia toward the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th century most probably The guitar is traditionally tuned to an open G major tuning.
Acoustic bass guitars
Have steel strings or gut strings and often the same tuning as an electric bass guitar. The acoustic bass guitar (also called ABG or acoustic bass) is a bass instrument with a hollow wooden body similar to though usually somewhat larger than a steel-string The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; ˈbeɪs as in "base" is a Stringed instrument played primarily with the
Tenor guitars
There is very sketchy background information about tenor guitars on the Internet. The tenor guitar is a slightly smaller four-string version of the steel-string acoustic guitar or Electric guitar. A number of classical guitarists call the Niibori prime guitar a "Tenor Guitar" on the grounds that it sits in pitch between the alto and the bass. Elsewherethe name is taken for a 4-string guitar with a scale length of 23" (585 mm) – about the same as a Terz Guitar. The tenor guitar is tuned in fifths, C G D A, as is the tenor banjo and the cello. It is generally accepted that the tenor guitar was created to allow a tenor banjo player to follow the fashion as it evolved from Dixieland Jazz towards the more progressive Jazz that featured guitar. It allows a tenor banjo player to provide a guitar-based rhythm section with little to learn. A small minority of players (such as Nick Reynolds of the Kingston Trio) close tuned the instrument to D G B E to produce a deep instrument that could be played with the 4-note chord shapes found on the top 4 strings of the guitar or ukulele. The deep pitch warrants the wide-spaced chords that the banjo tuning permits, and the close tuned tenor does not have the same full, clear sound.
Harp guitars
Harp Guitars are difficult to classify as there are many variations within this type of guitar. The harp guitar (or "harp-guitar" is a stringed instrument with a history of well over two centuries They are typically rare and uncommon in the popular music scene. Most consist of a regular guitar, plus additional 'harp' strings strung above the six normal strings. The instrument is usually acoustic and the harp strings are usually tuned to lower notes than the guitar strings, for an added bass range. Normally there is neither fingerboard nor frets behind the harp strings. Some harp guitars also feature much higher pitch strings strung below the traditional guitar strings. The number of harp strings varies greatly, depending on the type of guitar and also the player's personal preference (as they have often been made to the player's specification). [2] The Pikasso guitar; 4 necks, 2 sound holes, 42 strings] and also the Oracle Harp Sympitar; 24 strings (with 12 sympathetic strings protruding through the neck) are modern examples. A Sympitar is a modern form of Guitar combining functional aspects of the guitar and the Indian Sitar.
Extended-range guitars
For well over a century guitars featuring seven, eight, nine, ten or more strings have been used by a minority of guitarists as a means of increasing the range of pitch available to the player. A seven-string guitar is a Guitar with seven strings instead of the usual six An eight-string guitar is a Guitar with eight strings instead of the commonly used six This article is about modern ten-string guitars For the five-course guitar with nine or ten strings see Baroque guitar. Usually, it is bass strings that are added. Classical guitars with an extended range are useful for playing lute repertoire, some of which was written for lutes with more than six courses. Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from
Guitar battente
The battente is smaller than a classical guitar, usually played with four or five metal strings. The Guitar battente ( Chitarra battente) is an important string instrument in Italian popular music. It is mainly used in Calabria (a region in southern Italy) to accompany the voice. Calabria ( Latin: Brutium) is a region in southern Italy, south of Naples, located at the "toe" of
This Fender Stratocaster has features common to many electric guitars: multiple pickups, a whammy bar, volume and tone knobs. The Fender Stratocaster, often referred to as the Strat, is a model of Electric guitar designed by Leo Fender, George Fullerton and Freddie Tavares

### Electric guitars

Main article: Electric guitar

Electric guitars can have solid, semi-hollow, or hollow bodies, and produce little sound without amplification. An electric guitar is a type of Guitar that uses pickups to convert the vibration of its steel-cored strings into an electrical current which is made louder Electromagnetic pickups convert the vibration of the steel strings into electrical signals which are fed to an amplifier through a cable or radio transmitter. Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar In the fields of communications, Signal processing, and in Electrical engineering more generally a signal is any time-varying or spatial-varying quantity Generally an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes usually increases the amplitude of a signal. A cable is one or more Wires or Optical fibers bound together typically in a common protective jacket or sheath Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. For biologic transmitters see Transmitter substance. A transmitter is an electronic device which usually with the aid of an antenna The sound is frequently modified by other electronic devices or the natural distortion of valves (vacuum tubes) in the amplifier. A distortion is the alteration of the original shape (or other characteristic of an object image sound waveform or other form of information or representation This article is about the electronic device not an evacuated pipe used for experiments in Free-fall. There are two main types of pickup, single and double coil (or humbucker), each of which can be passive or active. A single coil pickup is a type of magnetic Transducer for the Electric guitar and the electric bass. A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of Electric guitar pickup that uses two coils both generating string signal A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar The electric guitar is used extensively in jazz, blues, and rock and roll, and was commercialized by Gibson in collaboration with Les Paul, and independently by Leo Fender of Fender Music. Jazz is an American Musical art form which originated in the beginning of the 20th century in African American communities in the Southern United States The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Rock and roll (also known as rock 'n' roll) is a form of Music that evolved in the United States in the late 1940s and early 1950s with roots in mostly African The Gibson Guitar Corporation of Nashville Tennessee, USA is a manufacturer of acoustic and Electric guitars The company's most popular guitar Les Paul (born Lester William Polsfuss on June 9 1915) is an American Jazz guitarist and Inventor. Clarence Leonidas Fender ( August 10, 1909 - March 21, 1991) also known as Leo Fender, was an American inventor who Fender Musical Instruments Corporation of Quincy Illinois is a manufacturer of stringed instruments such as solid-body Electric guitars including the The lower fretboard action (the height of the strings from the fingerboard) and its electrical amplification lend the electric guitar to some techniques which are less frequently used on acoustic guitars. These include tapping, extensive use of legato through pull-offs and hammer-ons (also known as slurs), pinch harmonics, volume swells, and use of a tremolo arm or effects pedals. Tapping is a playing technique generally associated with the Electric guitar, although the technique may be performed on almost any String instrument. In Musical notation the Italian word legato (literally meaning "tied together" indicates that musical notes are played or sung smoothly A pull-off is a stringed instrument technique performed by plucking a string by "pulling" the string off the Fingerboard with one of the fingers being used Hammer-on is a Stringed instrument playing technique performed (especially on Guitar) by sharply bringing a fretting-hand finger down on the Fingerboard A pinch harmonic, also known as a squealie or squealer is a Guitar technique (typically Electric guitar) pioneered by Roy Buchanan For other uses see Crescendo. A volume swell is a Musical Crescendo commonly associated with the Electric guitar A tremolo arm or tremolo bar (also called a "whammy bar" or "wang bar" is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the Tailpiece of An effects pedal (or a " Stomp Box " is an electronic Effects unit housed in a small metal or plastic chassis used by musicians usually Electric

Seven-strings were popularized in the 1980s and 1990s in part due to the release of the Ibanez Universe guitar, endorsed by Steve Vai. A seven-string guitar is a Guitar with seven strings instead of the usual six The Ibanez Universe is the world's first modern commercial seven-string Electric guitar, developed by Steve Vai and manufactured by Ibanez. Steven "Steve" Siro Vai (born June 6 1960 in Carle Place New York) is an American Instrumental rock Guitarist Other artists go a step further, by using an 8 string guitar with two extra low strings. An eight-string guitar is a Guitar with eight strings instead of the commonly used six Although the most common 7-string has a low B string, Roger McGuinn (of The Byrds and Rickenbacker) uses an octave G string paired with the regular G string as on a 12 string guitar, allowing him to incorporate chiming 12 string elements in standard 6 string playing. James Roger McGuinn (known professionally as Roger McGuinn, previously as Jim McGuinn, and born James Joseph McGuinn III on July 13, The Byrds were a popular American rock band formed in Los Angeles, California in 1964 For the American WWI fighter pilot see Eddie Rickenbacker. For the airport see Rickenbacker International Airport.

The electric bass guitar is similar in tuning to the traditional double bass viol. The electric bass guitar (also called electric bass, or simply bass; ˈbeɪs as in "base" is a Stringed instrument played primarily with the The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. Hybrids of acoustic and electric guitars are also common. There are also more exotic varieties, such as guitars with two, three,[12] or rarely four necks, all manner of alternate string arrangements, fretless fingerboards (used almost exclusively on bass guitars, meant to emulate the sound of a stand-up bass), 5.1 surround guitar, and such. A double neck guitar is a Guitar that has two necks Double neck guitars The most common type has 12 strings on the top neck while the bottom neck A fretless guitar is a Guitar without Frets It operates in the same manner as most other Stringed instruments and traditional Guitars but does The double bass is the largest and lowest-pitched bowed String instrument used in the modern symphony orchestra. Andreas Paolo Perger (*1970 Munich Germany is an Austrian/ German/ Italian Guitarist, Improvisor, and Composer.

Some electric guitar and electric bass guitar models feature Piezoelectric pickups, which function as transducers to provide a sound closer to that of an acoustic guitar with the flip of a switch or knob, rather than switching guitars. Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably Crystals and certain Ceramics including bone to generate an Electric potential in response to A transducer is a device usually electrical, electronic, Electro-mechanical, Electromagnetic, Photonic, or Photovoltaic

## Guitar construction and components

2. Nut
3. Machine heads (or pegheads, tuning keys, tuning machines, tuners)
4. Frets
5. Truss rod
6. Inlays
7. Neck
8. Heel (acoustic) – Neckjoint (electric)
9. Body
10. Pickups
11. Electronics
12. Bridge
13. Pickguard
14. Back
15. Soundboard (top)
16. Body sides (ribs)
17. Sound hole, with Rosette inlay
18. Strings
20. Fretboard (or Fingerboard)

### General

Guitars can be constructed to meet the demands of both left and right-handed players. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles A machine head, also called a tuner, gear head, or tuning machine, is part of a string instrument ranging from guitars to double basses a geared apparatus The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The sounding board or soundboard is the part of a String instrument that transmits the vibrations of the strings to the air greatly increasing the Loudness A sound hole is an opening in the upper Sounding board of a stringed Musical instrument. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles Traditionally the dominant hand is assigned the task of plucking or strumming the strings. For the majority of people this entails using the right hand. This is because musical expression (dynamics, tonal expression and colour etc) is largely determined by the plucking hand, whilst the fretting hand is assigned the lesser mechanical task of depressing and gripping the strings. This is similar to the convention of the violin family of instruments where the right hand controls the bow. The violin is a bowed String instrument with four strings usually tuned in Perfect fifths It is the smallest and highest-pitched member A minority, however, believe that left-handed people should learn to play guitars strung in the manner used by right-handed people, simply to standardise the instrument.

### Nut

Main article: Nut (instrumental)

The nut is a small strip of bone, plastic, brass, corian, graphite, stainless steel, or other medium-hard material, at the joint where the headstock meets the fretboard. The nut of a String instrument is a small piece of hard material which supports the strings at the end closest to the Headstock or scroll. Bones are rigid organs that form part of the Endoskeleton of Vertebrates They function to move support and protect the various organs of the body produce Plastic is the general common term for a wide range of synthetic or semisynthetic organic solid materials suitable for the manufacture of industrial products Brass is any Alloy of Copper and Zinc; the proportions of zinc and copper can be varied to create a range of brasses with varying properties Corian is the registered Trademark of one of many building materials collectively known as solid surface and is composed of acrylic Polymer and The Mineral graphite, as with Diamond and Fullerene, is one of the Allotropes of carbon. In Metallurgy, stainless steel is defined as a Steel Alloy with a minimum of 11 Its grooves guide the strings onto the fretboard, giving consistent lateral string placement. It is one of the endpoints of the strings' vibrating length. It must be accurately cut, or it can contribute to tuning problems due to string slippage, and/or string buzz.

### Fretboard

Main article: Fingerboard

Also called the fingerboard, the fretboard is a piece of wood embedded with metal frets that comprises the top of the neck. The fingerboard (also known as a fretboard on fretted instruments is a part of most Stringed instruments It is a thin long strip of Wood that is The fingerboard (also known as a fretboard on fretted instruments is a part of most Stringed instruments It is a thin long strip of Wood that is It is flat on classical guitars and slightly curved crosswise on acoustic and electric guitars. The curvature of the fretboard is measured by the fretboard radius, which is the radius of a hypothetical circle of which the fretboard's surface constitutes a segment. The smaller the fretboard radius, the more noticeably curved the fretboard is. Most modern guitars feature a 12" neck radius, while older guitars from the '60's and '70's usually feature a 6" – 8" neck radius. Pinching a string against the fretboard effectively shortens the vibrating length of the string, producing a higher pitch. Fretboards are most commonly made of rosewood, ebony, maple, and sometimes manufactured or composite materials such as HPL or resin. Ebony ( Diospyros ebenum) also known as India Ebony or Ceylon Ebony depending on its origin is a Tree in the genus Diospyros Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or See below on section 'Neck" for the importance of the length of the fretboard in connection to other dimensions of the guitar.

### Frets

Main article: Fret

Frets are metal strips (usually nickel alloy or stainless steel) embedded along the fretboard and located at exact points that divide the scale length in accordance with a specific mathematical formula. A fret is a raised portion on the neck of a Stringed instrument, that extends generally across the full width of the neck Pressing a string against a fret determines the strings' vibrating length and therefore its resultant pitch. The pitch of each consecutive fret is defined at a half-step interval on the chromatic scale. The chromatic scale is a Musical scale with twelve pitches each a Semitone or Half step apart Standard classical guitars have 19 frets and electric guitars between 21 to 24 frets.

Frets are laid out to a mathematical ratio that results in equal tempered division of the octave. Equal temperament is a Musical temperament, or a system of tuning in which every pair of adjacent notes has an identical Frequency ratio. The ratio of the spacing of two consecutive frets is the twelfth root of two $\sqrt[12]{2}$, whose numeric value is about 1. A ratio is an expression which compares quantities relative to each other The twelfth root of two or \sqrt{2} is an algebraic Irrational number, representing the Frequency Ratio between any two consecutive 059463. The twelfth fret divides the scale length in two exact halves and the 24th fret position divides the scale length in half yet again. For the musical (rather than instrumental scale, see Pythagorean tuning. For the musical (rather than instrumental scale, see Pythagorean tuning. Every twelve frets represents one octave. In practice, luthiers determine fret positions using the constant 17. 817, which is derived from the twelfth root of two. The twelfth root of two or \sqrt{2} is an algebraic Irrational number, representing the Frequency Ratio between any two consecutive The scale length divided by this value yields the distance from the nut to the first fret. For the musical (rather than instrumental scale, see Pythagorean tuning. That distance is subtracted from the scale length and the result is divided in two sections by the constant to yield the distance from the first fret to the second fret. For the musical (rather than instrumental scale, see Pythagorean tuning. Positions for the remainder of the frets are calculated in like manner. [13]

There are several different fret gauges, which can be fitted according to player preference. Among these are "jumbo" frets, which have much thicker gauge, allowing for use of a slight vibrato technique from pushing the string down harder and softer. "Scalloped" fretboards, where the wood of the fretboard itself is "scooped out" between the frets allows a dramatic vibrato effect. Fine frets, much flatter, allow a very low string-action but require other conditions such as curvature of the neck to be well maintained in order to prevent buzz. Frets worn down from heavy use can be replaced or, to a certain extent, re-shaped as required.

### Truss rod

Main article: Truss rod

The truss rod is a metal rod that runs along the inside of the neck. A truss rod is a Guitar part used to stabilize and adjust the lengthwise forward curvature (also called relief) of the neck It is used to correct changes to the neck's curvature caused by the neck timbers aging, changes in humidity or to compensate for changes in the tension of strings. The tension of the rod and neck assembly is adjusted by a hex nut or an allen-key bolt on the rod, usually located either at the headstock, sometimes under a cover, or just inside the body of the guitar underneath the fretboard and accessible through the sound hole. Some truss rods can only be accessed by removing the neck. The truss rod counteracts the immense amount of tension the strings place on the neck, bringing the neck back to a straighter position. Turning the truss rod clockwise will tighten it, counteracting the tension of the strings and straightening the neck or creating a backward bow. Turning the truss rod counter-clockwise will loosen it, allowing string tension to act on the neck and creating a forward bow. Adjusting the truss rod affects the intonation of a guitar as well as the height of the strings from the fingerboard, called the action. Some truss rod systems, called "double action" truss systems, tighten both ways, allowing the neck to be pushed both forward and backward (standard truss rods can only be released to a point beyond which the neck will no longer be compressed and pulled backward). Classical guitars do not require truss rods as their nylon strings exert a lower tensile force with lesser potential to cause structural problems.

### Inlays

Main article: Inlay (guitar)

Inlays are visual elements set into the exterior surface of a guitar. Inlays on Guitar or similar Fretted instrument are visual elements set into the exterior wood The typical locations for inlay are on the fretboard, headstock, and on acoustic guitars around the soundhole, known as the rosette. Inlays range from simple plastic dots on the fretboard to intricate works of art covering the entire exterior surface of a guitar (front and back). Some guitar players have used LEDs in the fretboard to produce a unique lighting effects onstage.

Fretboard inlays are most commonly shaped like dots, diamond shapes, parallelograms, or large blocks in between the frets. Dots are usually inlaid into the upper edge of the fretboard in the same positions, small enough to be visible only to the player. Some older or high-end instruments have inlays made of mother of pearl, abalone, ivory, coloured wood or other exotic materials and designs. Simpler inlays are often made of plastic or painted. High-end classical guitars seldom have fretboard inlays as a well trained player is expected to know his or her way around the instrument.

In addition to fretboard inlay, the headstock and soundhole surround are also frequently inlaid. The manufacturer's logo or a small design is often inlaid into the headstock. Rosette designs vary from simple concentric circles to delicate fretwork mimicking the historic rosette of lutes. Bindings that edge the finger and sound boards are sometimes inlaid. Some instruments have a filler strip running down the length and behind the neck, used for strength and/or to fill the cavity through which the trussrod was installed in the neck.

Elaborate inlays are a decorative feature of many limited edition, high-end and custom-made guitars. Guitar manufacturers often release such guitars to celebrate significant or historic milestones.

### Neck

Main article: Neck (music)

A guitar's frets, fretboard, tuners, headstock, and truss rod, all attached to a long wooden extension, collectively constitute its neck. The neck is the part of certain String instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the Fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings The neck is the part of certain String instruments that projects from the main body and is the base of the Fingerboard, where the fingers are placed to stop the strings The wood used to make the fretboard will usually differ from the wood in the rest of the neck. The bending stress on the neck is considerable, particularly when heavier gauge strings are used (see Tuning), and the ability of the neck to resist bending (see Truss rod) is important to the guitar's ability to hold a constant pitch during tuning or when strings are fretted. The guitar is a Musical instrument with ancient roots that is used in a wide variety of musical styles The rigidity of the neck with respect to the body of the guitar is one determinant of a good instrument versus a poor one. The shape of the neck can also vary, from a gentle "C" curve to a more pronounced "V" curve. There are many different types of neck profiles available, giving the guitarist many options. Some aspects to consider in a guitar neck may be the overall width of the fingerboard, scale (distance between the frets), the neck wood, the type of neck construction (for example, the neck may be glued in or bolted on), and the shape (profile) of the back of the neck. Other type of material used to make guitar necks are graphite (Steinberger guitars), aluminium (Kramer Guitars, Travis Bean and Veleno guitars), or carbon fiber (Modulus Guitars and ThreeGuitars). Steinberger refers to a series of distinctive Electric guitars and Bass guitars designed and originally manufactured by Ned Steinberger. Kramer Guitars is an American manufacturer of Electric guitars and basses Travis Bean is an American Luthier and machinist from California. The Veleno guitar is a highly-regarded series of aluminum guitars built by metal craftsman John Veleno Modulus Guitars is an American manufacturer of Musical instruments, most notably Bass guitars built with Carbon fiber necks ThreeGuitars is the brand of an Italian manufacturing company specialized to the production of high-end Electric guitars and electric bass made

### Neck joint or 'Heel'

See also: Set-in neck, Bolt-on neck, and Neck-through

This is the point at which the neck is either bolted or glued to the body of the guitar. Set-in neck is a method of Guitar (or similar stringed instrument construction that involves joining guitar neck and body pressing them tightly together using some sort of Bolt-on neck is a method of Guitar (or similar stringed instrument construction that involves joining a guitar neck and body using Screws as opposed to glue as Neck-through or neck-thru (or in full form neck through body) is a method of Electric guitar or Bass guitar construction that involves extending Almost all acoustic guitars, with the primary exception of Taylors, have glued (otherwise known as set) necks, while electric guitars are constructed using both types.

Commonly used set neck joints include mortise and tenon joints (such as those used by CF Martin & Co. Simple and strong the mortise and tenon joint has been used for millennia by Woodworkers around the world to join pieces of Wood, usually when the pieces guitars), dovetail joints (also used by CF Martin on the D28 and similar models) and Spanish heel neck joints which are named after the shoe they resemble and commonly found in classical guitars. All three types offer stability. Bolt-on necks, though they are historically associated with cheaper instruments, do offer greater flexibility in the guitar's set-up, and allow easier access for neck joint maintenance and repairs.

Another type of neck, only available for solid body electric guitars, is the neck-through-body construction. Neck-through or neck-thru (or in full form neck through body) is a method of Electric guitar or Bass guitar construction that involves extending These are designed so that everything from the machine heads down to the bridge are located on the same piece of wood. The sides (also known as wings) of the guitar are then glued to this central piece. Some luthiers prefer this method of construction as they claim it allows better sustain of each note. Some instruments may not have a neck joint at all, having the neck and sides built as one piece and the body built around it.

### Strings

Modern guitar strings are manufactured in either metal or organo-carbon material. String Construction When a standing wave vibrates its physical components the incident and reflected waves interfere with each other A string is the vibrating element that is the source of vibration in String instruments such as the Guitar, Harp, Piano, and members Instruments utilising "steel" strings may have strings made of alloys incorporating steel, nickel or phosphor bronze. Classical and flamenco instruments have historically used gut strings but these have been superseded by nylon and carbon-fibre materials. Bass strings for both instruments are wound rather than monofilament.

Guitar strings are strung almost parallel to the neck, whose surface is covered by the fingerboard (fretboard). The fingerboard (also known as a fretboard on fretted instruments is a part of most Stringed instruments It is a thin long strip of Wood that is The fingerboard (also known as a fretboard on fretted instruments is a part of most Stringed instruments It is a thin long strip of Wood that is By depressing a string against the fingerboard, the effective length of the string can be changed, which in turn changes the frequency at which the string will vibrate when plucked. A Vibration in a string is a Wave. Usually a vibrating string produces a Sound whose Frequency in most cases is constant Guitarists typically use one hand to pluck the strings and the other to depress the strings against the fretboard.

The strings may be plucked using either the fingers or a pick (or plectrum).

### Body (acoustic guitar)

In acoustic guitars, string vibration is transmitted through the bridge and saddle to the body via sound board. A sound box or sounding box, (sometimes written soundbox) is an open chamber in the body of a Musical instrument which alters the instrument's tone quality The sounding board or soundboard is the part of a String instrument that transmits the vibrations of the strings to the air greatly increasing the Loudness The sound board is typically made of tone woods such as spruce or cedar. Timbers for tone woods are chosen for both strength and ability to transfer mechanical energy from the strings to the air within the guitar body. Sound is further shaped by the characteristics of the guitar body's resonant cavity.

In electric guitars, transducers known as pickups convert string vibration to an electric signal, which in turn is amplified and fed to speakers, which vibrate the air to produce the sound we hear. A transducer is a device usually electrical, electronic, Electro-mechanical, Electromagnetic, Photonic, or Photovoltaic A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar A Vibration in a string is a Wave. Usually a vibrating string produces a Sound whose Frequency in most cases is constant Generally an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes usually increases the amplitude of a signal. Nevertheless, the body of the electric guitar still performs a role in shaping the resultant tonal signature.

In an acoustic instrument, the body of the guitar is a major determinant of the overall sound quality. The guitar top, or soundboard, is a finely crafted and engineered element made of tonewoods such as spruce and red cedar. Tonewood is the term generally used to designate wood with recognized and consistent acoustic qualities when used in the making of musical instruments Spruce refers to Trees of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of Coniferous Evergreen trees in the Family Pinaceae This thin piece of wood, often only 2 or 3mm thick, is strengthened by differing types of internal bracing. The top is considered by many luthiers to be the dominant factor in determining the sound quality. The majority of the instrument's sound is heard through the vibration of the guitar top as the energy of the vibrating strings is transferred to it.

Body size, shape and style has changed over time. 19th century guitars, now known as salon guitars, were smaller than modern instruments. Differing patterns of internal bracing have been used over time by luthiers. Torres, Hauser, Ramirez, Fleta, and C. F. Martin were among the most influential designers of their time. The CF Martin & Company is a US Guitar manufacturer established in 1833 by Christian Frederick Martin. Bracing not only strengthens the top against potential collapse due to the stress exerted by the tensioned strings, but also affects the resonance characteristics of the top. The back and sides are made out of a variety of timbers such as mahogany, Indian rosewood and highly regarded Brazilian rosewood (Dalbergia nigra). Each one is primarily chosen for their aesthetic effect and can be decorated with inlays and purfling.

The body of an acoustic guitar has a sound hole through which sound is projected. The sound hole is usually a round hole in the top of the guitar under the strings. Air inside the body vibrates as the guitar top and body is vibrated by the strings, and the response of the air cavity at different frequencies is characterised, like the rest of the guitar body, by a number of resonance modes at which it responds more strongly.

Instruments with larger areas for the guitar top were introduced by Martin in an attempt to create louder volume levels. The popularity of the larger "dreadnought" body size amongst acoustic performers is related to the greater sound volume produced. The CF Martin & Company is a US Guitar manufacturer established in 1833 by Christian Frederick Martin.

### Body (electric guitar)

Most electric guitar bodies are made of wood and include a plastic pick guard. A solid body electric instrument is a String instrument such as a guitar, bass or Violin built without its normal Sound box and relying Boards wide enough to use as a solid body are very expensive due to the worldwide depletion of hardwood stock since the 70's, so the wood is rarely one solid piece. Most bodies are made of two pieces of wood with some of them including a seam running down the centre line of the body. The most common woods used for electric guitar body construction include maple, basswood, ash, poplar, alder, and mahogany. Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or Tilia is a Genus of about 30 species of Trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families; most commonly in a combined form (e Populus is a genus of between 25–35 species of Flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. Alder is the common name of a Genus of Flowering plants ( Alnus) belonging to the Birch family (Family Betulaceae) The name mahogany is used when referring to numerous varieties of dark-colored wood originally the wood of the species Swietenia mahagoni, known as West Many bodies will consist of good sounding but inexpensive woods, like ash, with a "top", or thin layer of another, more attractive wood (such as maple with a natural "flame" pattern) glued to the top of the basic wood. Guitars constructed like this are often called "flame tops". The body is usually carved or routed to accept the other elements, such as the bridge, pickup, neck, and other electronic components. Most electrics have a polyurethane or nitrocellulose lacquer finish. Nitrocellulose (also cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by Nitrating Cellulose through exposure to Other alternative materials to wood, are used in guitar body construction. Some of these include carbon composites, plastic material (such as polycarbonate) and aluminium alloys.

### Pickups

Main article: Pickup (music)

Pickups are transducers attached to a guitar that detect (or "pick up") string vibrations and convert the mechanical energy of the string into electrical energy. A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar A pickup device acts as a Transducer that captures mechanical vibrations (usually from suitably equipped Stringed instruments such as the Electric guitar A transducer is a device usually electrical, electronic, Electro-mechanical, Electromagnetic, Photonic, or Photovoltaic The resultant electrical signal can then be electronically amplified. Generally an amplifier or simply amp, is any device that changes usually increases the amplitude of a signal. The most common type of pickup is electromagnetic in design. Electromagnetism is the Physics of the Electromagnetic field: a field which exerts a Force on particles that possess the property of These contain magnets that are tightly wrapped in a coil, or coils, of copper wire. Such pickups are usually placed right underneath the guitar strings. Electromagnetic pickups work on the same principles and in a similar manner to an electrical generator. In Electricity generation, an electrical generator is a device that converts Mechanical energy to Electrical energy, generally using Electromagnetic The vibration of the strings causes a small voltage to be created in the coils surrounding the magnets, this signal voltage is later amplified.

Traditional electromagnetic pickups are either single-coil or double-coil. A single coil pickup is a type of magnetic Transducer for the Electric guitar and the electric bass. Single coil pickups are susceptable to noise induced from electric fields, usually mains-frequency (60 or 50 hertz) hum. The introduction of the double-coil humbucker in the mid-50's did away with this problem through the use of two coils, one of which is wired in a reverse polarity orientation. A conventional humbucker (or Humbucking pickup) is a type of Electric guitar pickup that uses two coils both generating string signal

The type and model of pickups used can greatly affect the tone of the guitar. Typically, humbuckers, which are two magnet/coil assemblies attached to each other are traditionally associated a heavier sound. Single coil pickups, one magnet wrapped in copper wire, are used by guitarists seeking a brighter, twangier sound with greater dynamic range.

Modern pickups are tailored to the sound desired. A commonly applied approximation used in selection of pickup is that less wire (lower dc resistance) = brighter sound, more wire = "fat" tone. Other options include specialized switching that produces coil-splitting, in/out of phase and other effects. Guitar circuits are either active, needing a battery to power their circuit, or, as in most cases, equipped with a passive circuit.

Fender Stratocaster type guitars generally utilize 3 single coil pickups, while most Gibson Les Paul types use humbucker pickups. The Fender Stratocaster, often referred to as the Strat, is a model of Electric guitar designed by Leo Fender, George Fullerton and Freddie Tavares The Gibson Les Paul is a solidbody Electric guitar originally developed in the early 1950s

Piezoelectric, or piezo, pickups represent another class of pickup. These employ piezoelectricity to generate the musical signal and are popular in hybrid electro-acoustic guitars. Piezoelectricity is the ability of some materials (notably Crystals and certain Ceramics including bone to generate an Electric potential in response to A crystal is located under each string, usually in the saddle. When the string vibrates, the shape of the crystal is distorted, and the stresses associated with this change produce tiny voltages across the crystal that can be amplified and manipulated.

Some piezo equipped guitars use what is known as a hexaphonic pickup. "Hex" is a prefix meaning six. In a hexaphonic pickup separate outputs are obtained from discrete piezoelectric pickups for each of the six strings. This arrangement allows the signal to be easily modified by on-board modelling electronics, as in the Line 6 Variax brand of electric guitars, the guitars allow for a variety of different sounds to be obtained by digitally manipulating the signal. This allows a guitar to mimic many vintage models of guitar, as well as output alternate tunings without the need to adjust the strings.

Another use for hexaphonic pickups is to send the output signals to a MIDI interpretation device, which determines the note pitch, duration, attack and decay characteristics and so forth. The MIDI (Musical Instrument Digital Interface) interpreter then sends the note information to a sound bank device. MIDI ( Musical Instrument Digital Interface, ˈmɪdi is an industry-standard protocol that enables Electronic musical instruments Computers The resulting sound can closely mimic numerous types of instrument.

### Electronics

On guitars that have them, these components and the wires that connect them allow the player to control some aspects of the sound like volume or tone. These at their simplest consist of passive components such as potentiometers and capacitors, but may also include specialized integrated circuits or other active components requiring batteries for power, for preamplification and signal processing, or even for assistance in tuning. A potentiometer is a three-terminal Resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable Voltage divider. A capacitor is a passive electrical component that can store Energy in the Electric field between a pair of conductors Microchipsjpg|right|thumb|200px|Microchips ( EPROM memory with a transparent window showing the integrated circuit inside In electronics a battery is a combination of two or more Electrochemical cells which store chemical Energy which can be converted into electrical energy In many cases the electronics have some sort of shielding to prevent pickup of external interference and noise.

### Lining, Binding, Purfling

The top, back and ribs of an acoustic guitar body are very thin (1-2 mm), so a flexible piece of wood called lining is glued into the corners where the rib meets the top and back. This interior reinforcement provides 5 to 20 mm of solid gluing area for these corner joints. Solid linings are often used in classical guitars, while kerfed lining is most often found in steel string acoustics. Kerfed lining is also called kerfing (because it is scored, or kerfed to allow it to bend with the shape of the rib).

During final construction, a small section of the outside corners is carved or routed out and then filled with binding material on the outside corners and decorative strips of material next to the binding, which are called purfling. This binding serves to seal off the endgrain of the top and back. Purfling can also appear on the back of an acoustic guitar, marking the edge joints of the two or three sections of the back.

Binding and purfling materials are generally made of either wood or plastic.

### Bridge

Main article: Bridge (instrument)

The main purpose of the bridge on an acoustic guitar is to transfer the vibration from the strings to the soundboard, which vibrates the air inside of the guitar, thereby amplifying the sound produced by the strings. A bridge is a device for supporting the strings on a Stringed instrument and transmitting the Vibration of those strings to some other structural component

On both electric and acoustic guitars, the bridge holds the strings in place on the body. There are many varied bridge designs. There may be some mechanism for raising or lowering the bridge to adjust the distance between the strings and the fretboard (action), and/or fine-tuning the intonation of the instrument. Some are spring-loaded and feature a "whammy bar", a removable arm which allows the player to modulate the pitch moving the bridge up and down. A tremolo arm or tremolo bar (also called a "whammy bar" or "wang bar" is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the Tailpiece of The whammy bar is sometimes also referred to as a "tremolo bar" (see Tremolo for further discussion of this term – the effect of rapidly changing pitch produced by a whammy bar is more correctly called "vibrato"). Tremolo, or tremolando, is a Musical term with several meanings A regular and repetitive variation in Amplitude for the duration Some bridges also allow for alternate tunings at the touch of a button.

On almost all modern electric guitars, the bridge is adjustable for each string so that intonation stays correct up and down the neck. If the open string is in tune but sharp or flat when frets are pressed, the bridge can be adjusted with a screwdriver or hex key to remedy the problem. In general, flat notes are corrected by moving the bridge forward and sharp notes by moving it backwards. On an instrument correctly adjusted for intonation, the actual length of each string from the nut to the bridge saddle will be slightly but measurably longer than the scale length of the instrument. For the musical (rather than instrumental scale, see Pythagorean tuning. This additional length is called compensation, which flattens all notes a bit to compensate for the sharping of all fretted notes caused by stretching the string during fretting.

### Pickguard

Main article: Pickguard

Also known as a scratchplate. A pickguard (also known as scratchplate or golpeador in Flamenco music, and uncommonly a fingerrest) is a piece of plastic or other laminated This is usually a piece of laminated plastic or other material that protects the finish of the top of the guitar from damage due to the use of a plectrum or fingernails. Electric guitars sometimes mount pickups and electronics on the pickguard. It is a common feature on steel-string acoustic guitars. Vigorous performance styles such as flamenco, which can involve the use the guitar as a percussion instrument, call for a scratchplate to be fitted to nylon-string instruments. Flamenco is a Spanish term that refers both to a musical genre known for its intricate rapid passages and a dance genre characterized by its audible footwork

### Vibrato Arm

Main article: Tremolo arm

The Vibrato (pitch bend) unit found on many electric guitars has also had slang terms applied to it, such as "tremolo bar (or arm)", "sissy bar", "wang bar", "slam handle", "whammy handle", and "whammy bar". A tremolo arm or tremolo bar (also called a "whammy bar" or "wang bar" is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the Tailpiece of Slang is the use of highly informal Words and expressions that are not considered standard in the speaker's Dialect or Language. The latter two slang terms led stompbox manufacturers to use the term 'whammy' in coming up with a pitch raising effect introduced by popular guitar effects pedal brand "Digitech". A stomp box or stompbox is a simple Percussion instrument consisting of a small wooden box placed under the foot which is tapped or stamped on rhythmically to DigiTech is a manufacturer of Guitar, Bass guitar, and Vocals Electronics.

Leo Fender, who did much to create the electric guitar, also created much confusion over the meaning of the terms "tremolo" and "vibrato", specifically by misnaming the "tremolo" unit on many of his guitars and also the "vibrato" unit on his "Vibrolux" amps. Clarence Leonidas Fender ( August 10, 1909 - March 21, 1991) also known as Leo Fender, was an American inventor who A tremolo arm or tremolo bar (also called a "whammy bar" or "wang bar" is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the Tailpiece of A vibrato unit is an Effects unit used to modify the sound of an Electric guitar by producing a regular variation in the Amplitude (volume of the sound In general, vibrato is a variation in pitch, whereas tremolo is a variation in volume, so the tremolo bar is actually a vibrato bar and the "Vibrolux" amps actually had a tremolo effect. Pitch represents the perceived Fundamental frequency of a sound However, following Fender's example, electric guitarists traditionally reverse these meanings when speaking of hardware devices and the effects they produce. See vibrato unit for a more detailed discussion, and tremolo arm for more of the history. A vibrato unit is an Effects unit used to modify the sound of an Electric guitar by producing a regular variation in the Amplitude (volume of the sound A tremolo arm or tremolo bar (also called a "whammy bar" or "wang bar" is a lever attached to the bridge and/or the Tailpiece of

A distinctly different form of mechanical vibrato found on some guitars is the Bigsby vibrato tailpiece, commonly called Bigsby. The Bigsby vibrato tailpiece (or Bigsby for short is a type of Vibrato device for Electric guitar designed by Paul A This vibrato wraps the strings around a horizontal bar, which is then rotated with a handle by the musician.

Another type of pitch bender is the B-Bender, a spring and lever device mounted in an internal cavity of a solid body electric, guitar that allows the guitarist to bend just the B string of the guitar using a lever connected to the strap handle of the guitar. B-Bender is a guitar accessory that enables a player to mechanically bend the B-string up a Whole tone to C-sharp The resulting pitch bend is evocative of the sound of the pedal steel guitar. The pedal steel guitar is a type of Electric guitar that uses a metal slide to stop the strings rather than fingers on strings as with a conventional guitar

### Guitar Strap

Strip of fabric with a leather or synthetic leather piece on each end. Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process Made to hold a guitar via the shoulders, at an adjustable length to suit the position you favour in guitar-playing. In Human anatomy, the shoulder joint comprises the part of the body where the Humerus attaches to the Scapula.

## Tuning

Main article: Guitar tuning

The guitar is a transposing instrument. Guitar tunings are differing pitch arrangements of open (unfretted strings used for the Guitar. A transposing instrument is a musical instrument for which written notes are played at a pitch different from concert pitch, which a non-transpositing instrument such as a Its pitch sounds one octave lower than it is notated on a score.

A variety of different tunings may be used. However, the most common by far is known as "Standard Tuning," which has the strings tuned from a low E, to a high E, traversing a two octave range – EADGBE.

The pitches are as follows:

StringScientific pitchHelmholtz pitchInterval from middle CFrequency
firstE4e'major third above329. Scientific pitch notation is one of several methods that name the Notes of the standard Western Chromatic scale by combining a letter-name accidentals Helmholtz pitch notation is a Musical system for naming Notes of the Western Chromatic scale. In Music theory, the term interval describes the relationship between the pitches of two Notes Intervals may be described as vertical C or Do is the first Note of the fixed-Do Solfege. In Western Music, the expression " Middle C " refers to the note Frequency is a measure of the number of occurrences of a repeating event per unit Time. A major third ( is one of two commonly occurring Musical intervals that span three Diatonic scale degrees the other being the Minor third. 6 Hz
secondB3bminor second below246. A semitone, also called a half step or a half tone, is the smallest Musical interval commonly used in Western tonal music and it is considered the 92 Hz
thirdG3gperfect fourth below196. The perfect fourth () is a Musical interval which spans four scale degrees 0 Hz
fourthD3dminor seventh below146. A minor seventh ( is the smaller of two commonly occurring Musical intervals that span seven Diatonic scale degrees 8 Hz
fifthA2Aminor tenth below110 Hz
sixthE2Eminor thirteenth below82. 4 Hz

The table below shows pitch names found over the six strings of a guitar in standard tuning, from the nut (zero), to the twelfth fret.

0123456789101112
EFFGAABBCCDEE
BCCDEEFFGAABB
GAABBCCDEEFFG
DEEFFGAABBCCD
ABBCCDEEFFGAA
EFFGAABBCCDEE

A guitar using this tuning can tune to itself using the fact, with a single exception, that the 5th fret on one string is the same note as the next open string; that is, a 5th-fret note on the sixth string is the same note as the open fifth string. The exception is the interval between the second and third strings, in which the 4th-fret note on the third string is equivalent to the open second string.

Standard tuning has evolved to provide a good compromise between simple fingering for many chords and the ability to play common scales with minimal left hand movement. A guitar chord is a chord, a collection of tones usually sounded together at once played on a Guitar, a type of chromatically fretted String There are also a variety of commonly used alternate tunings – most of which are chord voicings that can be played on open strings or made by moving the capo. Guitar tunings are differing pitch arrangements of open (unfretted strings used for the Guitar. A capo tasto (from Italian capo, "head" and tasto, "tie or fret" or simply capo, is a device Alternate tunings are used for two main reasons: the ease of playing and the variation in tone that can be achieved.

Many guitarists use a long established, centuries-old tuning variation where the lowest string is 'dropped' two semi-tones down. Known as Drop-D (or dropped D) tuning it is, from low to high, DADGBE. Dropped D tuning DADGBE, also known simply as drop D, is an alternate Guitar tuning style in which the lowest (sixth string is tuned down ("dropped" This allows for open string tonic and dominant basses in the keys of D and D minor. It also enables simple fifths (powerchords) to be more easily played. Eddie Van Halen sometimes uses a device known as a 'D Tuna,' the patent for which he owns. Edward Lodewijk "Eddie" Van Halen (born January 26 1955 is a Dutch Guitarist, Keyboardist, Songwriter and producer It is a small lever, attached to the fine tuner of the 6th string on a Floyd Rose tremolo, which allows him to easily drop that string's tuning to a D. Many contemporary rock bands detune all strings by several semi-tones, making, for example, Drop-C or Drop-B tunings, However this terminology is inconsistent with that of "drop-D" as "drop-D" refers to dropping a single string to the named pitch. Often these new tunings are also simply referred to as the "Standard" of the note in question e. g. – "D Standard" (DGcfad'). Many other open tunings, where all of the strings are tuned to a similar note or chord, are popular for slide guitar playing.

Some guitarists tune in straight fourths, avoiding the major third between the third and second strings. While this makes playing major and minor triads slightly more difficult, it facilitated playing chords with more complicated extended structures. One proponent of the straight fourth tuning (EADGCF) is Stanley Jordan. Stanley Jordan ( July 31, 1959) is an American Jazz / Jazz fusion Guitarist, best known for his development of the touch

As with all stringed instruments a large number of scordatura are possible on the guitar. A scordatura (literally Italian for "mistuning" also called cross-tuning, is an alternative Tuning used for the open strings of a String A common form of scordatura involves tuning the 2nd string to Bb to mimic the standard tuning of the lute, especially when playing renaissance repertoire originally written for the lute. Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from

## Guitar accessories

Though a guitar may be played on its own, there are a variety of common accessories used for holding and playing the guitar.

### Capotasto

Main article: Capo

A capodastra (or capo, cejilla in Spanish) is used to change the pitch of open strings. A capo tasto (from Italian capo, "head" and tasto, "tie or fret" or simply capo, is a device Capos are clipped onto the fret board with the aid of spring tension, or in some models, elastic tension. To raise the guitar's pitch by one semitone, the player would clip the capo onto the fret board just below the first fret. Their use allows a player to play in different keys without having to change the chord formations they use. Because of the ease with which they allow guitar players to change keys, they are sometimes referred to as "cheaters". Classical performers are known to use them to enable modern instruments to match the pitch of historical instruments such as the renaissance lute. Lute can refer generally to any plucked string instrument with a neck (either Fretted or unfretted and a deep round back or more specifically to an instrument from

### Slides

Main article: Slide Guitar

A slide, (neck of a bottle, knife blade or round metal bar) used in blues and rock to create a glissando or 'hawaiian' effect. Slide guitar or bottleneck guitar is a particular method or technique for playing the Guitar. Slide guitar or bottleneck guitar is a particular method or technique for playing the Guitar. " Glissando " (plural glissandi abbreviated gliss is a glide from one pitch to another The lap steel guitar is a type of Steel guitar, from which other types developed The necks of bottles were often used in blues and country music. Modern slides are constructed of glass, plastic, ceramic, chrome, brass or steel, depending on the weight and tone desired. An instrument that is played exclusively in this manner, (using a metal bar) is called a steel guitar or pedal steel. Steel guitar is A method of playing Slide guitar using a steel. The pedal steel guitar is a type of Electric guitar that uses a metal slide to stop the strings rather than fingers on strings as with a conventional guitar Slide playing to this day is very popular in blues music and country music. The Blues is a vocal and instrumental form of Music based on the use of the Blue notes It emerged as an accessible form of self-expression Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. Some slide players use a so called Dobro guitar. Dobro is a Trade name now owned by Gibson Guitar Corporation and used for a particular design of Resonator guitar.

Some performers that have become famous for playing slide are Robert Johnson, Elmore James, Ry Cooder, George Harrison, Bonnie Raitt, Derek Trucks, Warren Haynes, Duane Allman, Muddy Waters and Rory Gallagher. Robert Leroy Johnson (May 8 1911 – August 16 1938 is among the most famous of Delta blues musicians Elmore James ( January 27, 1918 &ndash May 24, 1963) was an American Blues Guitarist, Singer Ryland "Ry" Peter Cooder (born 15 March 1947, in Los Angeles, California) is an American Guitarist, Singer, and George Harrison, MBE (25 February 1943 – 29 November 2001 was an English rock Guitarist Singer - Songwriter, Author Bonnie Lynn Raitt (born November 8, 1949) is an American Blues Singer-songwriter who was born in Burbank, California Derek Trucks (born June 8, 1979) is a Grammy Award - nominated American Guitarist. Warren Haynes (born April 6, 1960) is an American rock and blues Guitarist vocalist and songwriter of Gov't Mule Howard Duane Allman (November 20 1946 – October 29 1971 was an American, Lead guitarist of the Southern rock group The Allman Brothers Band For the album by Redman, see Muddy Waters (album. For the college football coach see Muddy Waters (football coach. Rory Gallagher (2 March 1948&ndash14 June 1995 was an Irish Blues / rock Guitarist Born in Ballyshannon, County Donegal

### Plectrum

Main article: Guitar pick
A variety of guitar picks

A "guitar pick" or "plectrum" is a small piece of hard material which is generally held between the thumb and first finger of the picking hand and is used to "pick" the strings. A guitar pick is a type of Plectrum designed for use on a Guitar. A guitar pick is a type of Plectrum designed for use on a Guitar. Often called a pick or plec, a plectrum is a small flat tool used to pluck or strum a stringed instrument. Though most classical players pick solely with their finger nails, the "pick" is often used for electric and some acoustic guitars. Though today they are mainly plastic, variations do exist, such as bone, wood, steel or tortoise shell. Tortoise shell was the most commonly used material in the early days of pick making but as tortoises became more and more endangered, the practice of using their shells for picks or anything else was banned. Tortoise shell picks are often coveted for a supposedly superior tone and ease of use.

Picks come in many shapes and sizes. Picks vary from the small jazz pick to the large bass pick. The thickness of the pick often determines its use. A thinner pick (between . 2 and . 5 mm) is usually used for strumming or rhythm playing, whereas thicker picks (between . 7 and 1. 5+ mm) are usually used for single-note lines or lead playing. The distinctive guitar sound of Billy Gibbons is attributed to using a quarter or peso as a pick. William Frederick (Billy Gibbons (born December 16, 1949) Nicknamed the Reverend Willie G, is best known as the Guitarist for A quarter dollar is a coin worth 1/4 of a United States dollar, or 25 cents. The word peso (meaning weight in Spanish was the name of a coin that originated in Spain and became of immense importance internationally Similarly, Brian May is known to use a sixpence coin as a pick. Brian Harold May, CBE See also Sixpence (disambiguation The sixpence, known colloquially as the tanner or half-shilling also sprarzi was a British

Thumb picks and finger picks that attach to the finger tips are sometimes employed in finger-picking styles.

## Notes

1. ^ Kasha, Dr. Michael (August 1968). "A New Look at The History of the Classic Guitar". Guitar Review 30,3-12
2. ^ [A Brief History of the Guitar http://www.guyguitars.com/eng/handbook/BriefHistory.html]
3. ^ Kithara appears in the Greek New Testament four times (1 Cor. 14:7, Rev. 5:8, 14:2 and 15:2), and is usually translated into English as harp. Strong's Concordance Number: 2788 [1]
4. ^ Online Etymology Dictionary. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible, generally known as Strong's Concordance, is a concordance of the King James Bible Retrieved on 2007-09-21. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights.
5. ^ Summerfield, Maurice J. (2003). The Classical Guitar, It's Evolution, Players and Personalities since 1800 (5th ed. ) Blaydon on Tyne: Ashley Mark Publishing. ISBN 1-872-63946-1.
6. ^ [Viking Art & Architecture http://www.angelfire.com/realm/shades/vikings/vikart.htm]
7. ^ [A Look At The History Of The Guitar http://www.thejazzfestival.net/showarticle?id=109580]
8. ^ The Classical Mandolin by Paul Sparks (1995)
9. ^ Early Romantic Guitar
10. ^ The Guitar and Its Music: From the Renaissance to the Classical Era by James Tyler (2002)
11. ^ Evans, Tom and MaryAnne (1977). Guitars: Music, history, Construction and Players from the Renaissance to Rock, 42. ISBN 0-448-22240-X.
12. ^ The Official Steve Vai Website - www.vai.com > The Machines > Steve's Guitars
13. ^ Mottola, R. M. . Lutherie Info – Calculating Fret Positions.

## References

Flamenco! The Guitar and the Music – An Indiana University research paper on Flamenco, the indigenous music of the Gypsies of southern Spain, written by Jeff Foster, 1987.