|Domestic Guinea Pig|
The Guinea pig (also commonly called the cavy after its scientific name) is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia. In Scientific nomenclature, synonyms are different Scientific names used for a single Taxon. Cavia anolaimae is a guinea pig Species from South America. It is found in Colombia near Bogotá. Rodentia is an order of Mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must The Cavy family ( Caviidae) is a family of Rodents native to South America, and including the domestic Guinea pig, wild cavies and Cavia is a genus in the Caviinae subfamily that contains the rodents commonly known as guinea pigs Despite their common name, these animals are not pigs, nor do they come from Guinea. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times Guinea is a traditional name for the region of Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea. They are native to the Andes, and while no longer extant in the wild, they are closely related to several species that are commonly found in the grassy plains and plateaus of the region. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Extant is a term commonly used to refer to Taxa (such as Species, genera or families) that are still in existence (living The guinea pig plays an important role in the folk culture of many indigenous South American groups, especially as a food source, but also in folk medicine and in community religious ceremonies. Folk culture refers to the localized Lifestyle of a Culture. It is usually handed down through Oral tradition, relates to a sense of Community For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The term traditional medicine ( Indigenous medicine or folk medicine) describes medical knowledge systems which developed over centuries within various societies  Since the 1960s, efforts have been made to increase consumption of the animal outside South America. 
In Western societies, the guinea pig has enjoyed widespread popularity as a household pet since its introduction by European traders in the 16th century. A pet is an Animal kept for companionship and enjoyment or a househeld animal as opposed to Livestock, Laboratory animals Working animals Their docile nature, their responsiveness to handling and feeding, and the relative ease of caring for them, continue to make the guinea pig a popular pet. Organizations devoted to competitive breeding of guinea pigs have been formed worldwide, and many specialized breeds of guinea pig, with varying coat colors and compositions, are cultivated by breeders. Dog fancy and Cat fancy redirect here For the magazines see Dog Fancy and Cat Fancy (magazine. There are many Breeds of Guinea pig which have been developed since its Domestication ca
Guinea pig is also used as a metaphor in English for a subject of experimentation; this usage became common in the first half of the 20th century. Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects Biological experimentation on guinea pigs has been carried out since the 17th century; the animals were frequently used as a model organism in the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since been largely replaced by other rodents such as mice and rats. A model organism is a Species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological Phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made The House Mouse ( Mus musculus) is one of the most numerous species of the genus Mus commonly termed a Mouse. They are still used in research, primarily as models for human medical conditions such as juvenile diabetes, tuberculosis, scurvy, and pregnancy complications. Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common Scurvy (NLat scorbutus is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of Collagen in humans Pre-eclampsia (US preeclampsia) is a Medical condition where Hypertension arises in pregnancy ( Pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association
The common guinea pig was first domesticated as early as 5000 BC for food by tribes in the Andean region of South America (present-day Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia). The Larco Museum (Museo Larco is located in the Pueblo Libre District in Lima, Peru. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America.  Statues dating from ca. 500 BC to 500 AD that depict guinea pigs have been unearthed in archaeological digs in Peru and Ecuador. A statue is a Sculpture in the round representing a person or persons an animal or an event normally full-length as opposed to a bust, and at least close to life-size Circa (often abbreviated c, ca, ca or cca and sometimes Italicized to show it is Latin) means "about" Archaeology, archeology, or archæology (from Greek grc ἀρχαιολογία archaiologia – grc ἀρχαῖος archaīos  The Moche people of ancient Peru worshipped animals and often depicted the guinea pig in their art. The Moche civilization (alternately the Mochica culture Early Chimu Pre-Chimu Proto-Chimu etc  From ca. 1200 AD to the Spanish conquest in 1532, selective breeding resulted in many varieties of domestic guinea pigs, which form the basis for some of the modern domestic breeds. The Spanish conquest of the Inca Empire was a process through which a group of forty (40 Spaniards led by Francisco Pizarro succeeded in toppling the Inca There are many Breeds of Guinea pig which have been developed since its Domestication ca  They continue to be a food source in the region; most households in the Andean highlands raise the animal, which subsists off the family's vegetable scraps.  Folklore traditions involving guinea pigs are numerous; they are exchanged as gifts, used in customary social and religious ceremonies, and frequently referenced in spoken metaphors. History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological Metaphor (from the Greek: μεταφορά - metaphora, meaning "transfer" is language that directly compares seemingly unrelated subjects  They also play a role in traditional healing rituals by folk doctors, or curanderos, who use the animals to diagnose diseases such as jaundice, rheumatism, arthritis and typhus. A curandero (or curandera for a female is a traditional Folk healer or Shaman in Hispanic America, who is dedicated to curing physical and/or Diagnosis is the identification by Process of elimination, of the nature of anything Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective "icteric" is yellowish discoloration of the Skin, sclerae (whites of the eyes Rheumatism or Rheumatic disorder is a non-specific term for medical problems affecting the Heart, Bones Joints Kidney, Skin Arthritis (from Greek arthro-, joint + -itis, inflammation plural arthritides is a group of conditions involving damage to the Joints of the body Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Louse -borne bacteria  They are rubbed against the bodies of the sick, and are seen as a supernatural medium. The term supernatural or supranatural ( Latin: super, supra "above" + natura "nature" pertains to entities events  Black guinea pigs are considered especially useful for diagnoses.  The animal also may be cut open and its entrails examined to determine whether the cure was effective.  These methods are widely accepted in many parts of the Andes, where Western medicine is either unavailable or distrusted. Medicine is the art and science of healing It encompasses a range of Health care practices evolved to maintain and restore Human Health by the 
Spanish, Dutch and English traders brought guinea pigs to Europe, where they quickly became popular as exotic pets among the upper classes and royalty, including Queen Elizabeth I. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries The Dutch Empire was the territories controlled by The Netherlands from the 17th to the 20th century The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. An exotic pet is a rare or unusual animal kept as a Pet, or an animal kept as a pet which is not commonly thought of as a pet  The earliest known written account of the guinea pig dates from 1547, in a description of the animal from Santo Domingo; because cavies are not native to Hispaniola, the animal must have been introduced there by Spanish travelers. Santo Domingo de Guzmán (known as Santo Domingo population 2084852 (Metro (2003 estimated 2253437 (Metro in 2006 is the Capital and largest city in the Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of  The guinea pig was first described in the West in 1554 by the Swiss naturalist Konrad Gesner. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Konrad Gessner (Conrad Gessner Conrad Geßner Conrad von Gesner Conradus Gesnerus Conrad Gesner 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565)  Its binomial scientific name was first used by Erxleben in 1777; it is an amalgam of Pallas's generic designation (1766) and Linnaeus's specific conferral (1758). Johann Christian Polycarp Erxleben was a German naturalist from Quedlinburg. Peter Simon Pallas ( September 22, 1741, Berlin — September 8, 1811, Berlin) was a German Zoologist Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for In zoological nomenclature a specific name or specific epithet is the second part (second name in the name of a Species (a Binomen) 
The scientific name of the common species is Cavia porcellus, with porcellus being Latin for "little pig". Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Cavia is New Latin; it is derived from cabiai, the animal's name in the language of the Galibi tribes once native to French Guiana. The term New Latin or Neo-Latin is used to describe a form the Latin language used between the end of the Medieval Latin period (c The Galibi were a Cariban-speaking people who lived in the Lesser Antilles and northern South America ( French Guiana) at the time of European French Guiana (Guyane française officially fr ''Guyane'' is an Overseas department (French département d'outre-mer, or DOM) of France  Cabiai may be an adaptation of the Portuguese çavia (now savia), which is itself derived from the Tupi word saujá, meaning rat. Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. The Tupi or Tupian language family comprises some 70 languages spoken in South America, of which the best known are Tupi proper and Guarani.  Guinea pigs are called quwi or jaca in Quechua and cuy or cuyo (pl. Quechua ( Runa Simi) is a Native American language of South America. cuyes, cuyos) in the Spanish of Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia.  Paradoxically, breeders tend to use the more formal "cavy" to describe the animal, while in scientific and laboratory contexts it is far more commonly referred to by the more colloquial "guinea pig". Dog fancy and Cat fancy redirect here For the magazines see Dog Fancy and Cat Fancy (magazine. 
How the animals came to be thought of as "pigs" is not clear. They are built somewhat like pigs, with large heads relative to their bodies, stout necks, and rounded rumps with no tail of any consequence; some of the sounds they emit are very similar to those made by pigs, and they also spend a large amount of time eating. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times  They can survive for long periods in small quarters, like a 'pig pen', and were thus easily transported on ships to Europe. 
The animal's name carries porcine connotations in many European languages. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times The German word for them is Meerschweinchen, literally "little sea pigs". The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. (The Polish świnka morska and Russian морская свинка mean exactly the same. Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages ) This derives from nautical history: sailing ships stopping to reprovision in the New World would pick up stores of guinea pigs, which provided an easily transportable source of fresh meat; Schweinswal (pig-whale) is German for porpoise, which was another food source for sailors. The Age of Discovery or Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century during which Europeans explored The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. Porpoises are Small Cetaceans of the Family Phocoenidae; they are related to Whales and Dolphins They are distinct from dolphins The French term is Cochon d'Inde (Indian pig); the Dutch used to call it guinees biggetje (Guinean piglet) or Spaanse rat (Spanish rat) in some dialects, and in Portuguese the guinea pig is sometimes referred to as porquinho da Índia (little Indian pig). French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. This is not universal; for example, the common word in Spanish is conejillo de Indias (little rabbit of India / the Indies). 
The origin of "guinea" in "guinea pig" is harder to explain. One theory is that the animals were brought to Europe by way of Guinea, leading people to think they had originated there. Guinea is a traditional name for the region of Africa that lies along the Gulf of Guinea.  "Guinea" was also frequently used in English to refer generally to any far-off, unknown country, and so the name may simply be a colorful reference to the animal's foreignness.  Another theory suggests the "guinea" in the name is a corruption of "Guiana", an area in South America, though the animals are not native to that region. South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a  A common misconception is that they were so named because they were sold for the price of a guinea coin; this theory is untenable, because the guinea was first struck in England in 1663, and William Harvey used the term "Ginny-pig" as early as 1653. The guinea coin of 1663 was the first English machine-struck Gold coin. William Harvey ( April 1, 1578 – June 3, 1657) was an English Physician who is credited with being the first in  Others believe "guinea" may be an alteration of the word coney (rabbit); guinea pigs were referred to as "pig coneys" in Edward Topsell's 1607 treatise on quadrupeds. Edward Topsell (c 1572 &ndash1625 was an English cleric and author best remembered for his Bestiary. Quadrupedalism (from Latin meaning "four legs" is a form of land animal locomotion using four legs. 
Guinea pigs are large for rodents, weighing between 700 and 1200g (1. 5-2. 5 pounds), and measuring between 20 and 25cm (8–10 inches) in length. The pound or pound-mass (abbreviation lb, lbm, or sometimes in the United States #) is a unit of Mass The metre or meter is a unit of Length. It is the basic unit of Length in the Metric system and in the International Inches redirects here To see the Les Savy Fav album see Inches.  They typically live an average of four to five years, but may live as long as eight years.  According to the 2006 Guinness Book of Records the longest living guinea pig survived 14 years, 10. Guinness World Records, known until 2000 as The Guinness Book of Records (and in previous U 5 months. 
In the 1990s, a minority scientific opinion emerged proposing that caviomorphs, such as guinea pigs, chinchillas and degus, are not rodents and should be reclassified as a separate order of mammals (similar to lagomorphs). Rodentia is an order of Mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must Caviomorpha is the Rodent Infraorder or Parvorder that unites all South American hystricognaths. Chinchillas are rabbit-sized Crepuscular Rodents native to the Andes mountains in South America. The Degu ( Octodon degus) is a small caviomorph Rodent that is native to Chile. Taxonomy is the practice and science of classification The word comes from the Greek, taxis (meaning 'order' 'arrangement' and, nomos This article is about the taxonomic rank for the sequence of species in a taxonomic list see Taxonomic order In scientific classification used The lagomorphs are the members of the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, of which there are two families, the Leporidae ( Hares and  Subsequent research using wider sampling has restored consensus among mammalian biologists that the current classification of rodents as monophyletic is justified. A clade is a taxonomic group comprising a single Common ancestor and all the descendants of that ancestor 
Cavia porcellus is not found naturally in the wild; it is likely descendant from some closely related species of cavies, such as Cavia aperea, Cavia fulgida, and Cavia tschudii, which are still commonly found in various regions of South America. Cavia is a genus in the Caviinae subfamily that contains the rodents commonly known as guinea pigs The Brazilian Guinea Pig, Cavia aperea, is a Guinea pig Species from South America. The Shiny Guinea Pig, Cavia fulgida, is a Guinea pig Species from South America. The Montane Guinea Pig, Cavia tschudii, is a Guinea pig Species from South America.  Some species of cavy identified in the 20th century, such as Cavia anolaimae and Cavia guianae, may be domestic guinea pigs that have become feral by reintroduction into the wild. Cavia anolaimae is a guinea pig Species from South America. It is found in Colombia near Bogotá. Cavia guianae is a guinea pig Species from South America. It is found in southern Venezuela, Guyana, and portions A feral organism is one that has escaped from Domestication and returned partly or wholly to its wild state  Wild cavies are found on grassy plains and occupy an ecological niche similar to that of the cow. In Ecology, a niche (pronounced nich nēsh or nish A shorthand definition of niche is how an organism makes a living Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family They are social, living in the wild in small groups which consist of several females (sows), a male (boar), and the young (which in a break with the preceding porcine nomenclature are called pups). Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times They move together in groups (herds) eating grass or other vegetation, and do not store food. A herd is a large group of animals The term is usually applied to mammals particularly Ungulates.  While they do not burrow or build nests, they frequently seek shelter in the burrows of other animals, as well as in crevices and tunnels formed by vegetation. A burrow is a hole or tunnel dug into the ground by an Animal to create a space suitable for habitation temporary refuge or as a byproduct of locomotion Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region it refers to the Ground cover provided by plants  They are crepuscular, tending to be most active during dawn and dusk, when it is harder for predators to spot them. Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during Twilight, hence at Dawn and at Dusk. 
Domesticated guinea pigs thrive in groups of two or more; groups of sows, or groups of one or more sows and a neutered boar are common combinations. Guinea pigs learn to recognize and bond with other individual guinea pigs, and testing of boars shows that their neuroendocrine stress response is significantly lowered in the presence of a bonded female when compared to the presence of unfamiliar females. Neuroendocrine nʊəroʊˈɛndəkrɪn cells are cells that release a hormone into the circulating blood in response to a neural stimulus  Groups of boars may also get along, provided that their cage has enough space, they are introduced at an early age, and no females are present.  Domestic guinea pigs have developed a different biological rhythm from their wild counterparts, and have longer periods of activity followed by short periods of sleep in between.  Activity is scattered randomly over the 24 hours of the day; aside from avoidance of intense light, no regular circadian patterns are apparent. 
Domestic guinea pigs generally live in cages, although some owners of large numbers of guinea pigs will dedicate entire rooms to their pets. Cages with solid or wire mesh floors are used, although wire mesh floors can cause injury and may be associated with an infection commonly known as bumblefoot (ulcerative pododermatitis). A mesh is a flat semi-permeable barrier made of connected strands of Metal, Fiber, or other flexible/ductile material Bumblefoot ( ulcerative pododermatitis) is a Bacterial infection and Inflammatory reaction on the feet of Birds and Rodents.  "Cubes and Coroplast" (or C&C) style cages are now a common choice. Coroplast is a Brand name of Corrugated plastic and a registered Trademark of Coroplast Inc  Cages are often lined with wood shavings or a similar material. Bedding made from red cedar and pine, both softwoods, was commonly used in past decades, but these materials are now believed to contain harmful phenols (aromatic hydrocarbons) and oils. This article is about the tree For other uses of the term "pine" see Pine (disambiguation. Softwood is a generic term used in Woodworking and the Lumber industries for Wood from Conifers (needle-bearing trees from the order Pinales Phenol, is a toxic colourless Crystalline Solid with a sweet tarry odor commonly referred to as a "hospital smell"  Safer beddings include those made from hardwoods (such as aspen); paper products and corn cob materials are other alternatives. The term hardwood is used to describe Wood from broad-leaved angiosperm Trees mostly Deciduous, but not necessarily in the case of tropical Aspens are Trees of the willow family and comprise a section of the Poplar genus Populus sect  Guinea pigs tend to be messy within their cages; they often jump into their food bowls or kick bedding and feces into them, and their urine crystallizes on cage surfaces and can be difficult to remove. Urine is a liquid waste product of the body secreted by the Kidneys by a process of filtration from Blood and Excreted through the Urethra.  After its cage has been cleaned, a guinea pig will typically urinate and drag the lower body across the floor of the cage to mark its territory.  Male guinea pigs may also mark their territory in this way when they are taken out of their cages.
Guinea pigs do not generally thrive when housed with other species. Cohousing of guinea pigs with other rodents such as gerbils and hamsters may increase instances of respiratory and other infections, and such rodents may act aggressively toward the guinea pig. A gerbil is a small mammal of the order Rodentia Once known simply as " desert rats " the gerbil subfamily includes about 110 species of African Hamsters are Rodents belonging to the Subfamily Cricetinae. The subfamily contains about 18 Species, classified in six or seven genera  Larger animals may regard guinea pigs as prey, though some (such as dogs) can be trained to accept them. The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order  Guinea pigs can be safely housed with degu as they share the same dietary needs and have similar behavioural traits. The Degu ( Octodon degus) is a small caviomorph Rodent that is native to Chile. Opinion is divided over the cohousing of guinea pigs and domestic rabbits. A domestic rabbit is any of the several varieties of European rabbit that has been domesticated Male rabbits are called bucks; females are Some published sources say that guinea pigs and rabbits complement each other well when sharing a cage.  However, as lagomorphs, rabbits have different nutritional requirements, and so the two species cannot be fed the same food. The lagomorphs are the members of the taxonomic order Lagomorpha, of which there are two families, the Leporidae ( Hares and  Rabbits may also harbor diseases (such as the respiratory infections Bordetella and Pasteurella), to which guinea pigs are susceptible. Bordetella is a Genus of small (02 - 07 µm Gram-negative coccobacilli of the phylum Proteobacteria. Pasteurella is a Genus of Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic Bacteria.  Even the dwarf rabbit is much stronger than the guinea pig and may cause intentional or inadvertent injury. Dwarf rabbits are a variety of domestic European rabbit ( Oryctolagus cuniculus) 
Guinea pigs can learn complex paths to food, and can accurately remember a learned path for months. Their strongest and overwhelming problem solving strategy is 'activity' While guinea pigs can jump small obstacles, they cannot climb, and are not particularly agile. They startle extremely easily, and will either freeze in place for long periods or run for cover with rapid, darting motions when they sense danger.  Larger groups of startled guinea pigs will "stampede", running in haphazard directions as a means of confusing predators.  When excited, guinea pigs may repeatedly perform little hops in the air (known as "popcorning"), a movement analogous to the ferret's war dance. The weasel war dance is a colloquial term for a behavior of excited Ferrets and Weasels The war dance usually follows play or the successful capture of a Toy  They are also exceedingly good swimmers. 
Like many rodents, guinea pigs sometimes participate in social grooming, and they regularly self-groom. In Social animals and humans social grooming or allogrooming is an activity in which individuals in a group clean or maintain each other's body or appearance  A milky-white substance is secreted from their eyes and rubbed into the hair during the grooming process.  Groups of boars will often chew each other's hair, but this is a method of establishing hierarchy within a group, rather than a social gesture.  Dominance is also established through biting (especially of the ears), piloerection, aggressive noises, head thrusts, and leaping attacks. Goose bumps, also called goose flesh, chill bumps, chicken skin, people bumps, or the medical term cutis anserina,  Non-sexual simulated mounting for dominance is also common among same-sex groups.
Guinea pigs have poor sight, but well-developed senses of hearing, smell, and touch. Olfaction (also known as olfactics or smell) refers to the Sense of smell.  Vocalization is the primary means of communication between members of the species.  Some sounds are:
The guinea pig is able to breed year-round, with birth peaks usually coming in the spring; as many as five litters can be produced per year.  The gestation period lasts from 59–72 days, with an average of 63–68 days. Gestation is the carrying of an Embryo or Fetus inside a Female Viviparous Animal.  Because of the long gestation period and the large size of the pups, pregnant females may become large and eggplant-shaped, although the change in size and shape varies. The eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal ( Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades Newborn pups are well-developed with hair, teeth, claws and partial eyesight; they are immediately mobile, and begin eating solid food immediately, though they continue to suckle. Breastfeeding is the feeding of an Infant or young Child with Breast milk directly from human Breasts, not from a Baby bottle or other Litters yield 1–6 pups, with an average of three; the largest recorded litter size is 17. For other meanings of litter see Litter (disambiguation. A litter is the offspring at one birth of Animals from the same mother and usually  In smaller litters, difficulties may occur during labour due to over-sized pups. Large litters result in higher incidences of stillbirth, but because the pups are delivered at an advanced stage of development, lack of access to the mother's milk has little effect on the mortality rate of newborns. A stillbirth occurs when a Fetus which has died in the Uterus or during labor or delivery exits a Woman 's body  Cohabitating females assist in mothering duties if lactating. 
Male and female guinea pigs do not differ in external appearance apart from general size. Sexual dimorphism is the systematic difference in form between individuals of different Sex in the same Species. The position of the anus is very close to the genitals in both sexes. Female genitals are distinguished by a Y-shaped configuration formed from a vulvar flap; while the male genitals may look similar with the penis and anus forming a like shape, the penis will protrude if pressure is applied to the surrounding hair.  The male's testes may also be visible externally from scrotal swelling.
Males reach sexual maturity at 3–5 weeks; females can be fertile as early as four weeks and can carry litters before they are adults.  Females that have never given birth commonly develop irreversible fusing of the pubic symphysis, a joint in the pelvis, after six months of age. The pubic symphysis is the midline cartilaginous Joint (secondary cartilaginous uniting the superior rami of the left and right pubic bones. The pelvis (pl pelvises or pelves) or pelvic girdle is the irregular bony structure located at the base of the spine (properly known  If they become pregnant after this has happened, the birth canal will not widen sufficiently; this may lead to dystocia and death as they attempt to give birth. Dystocia ( Antonym eutocia) is an abnormal or difficult Childbirth or labour  Females can become pregnant 6–48 hours after giving birth, but it is not healthy for a female to be thus constantly pregnant. 
Toxemia of pregnancy is common and kills many pregnant females. Pre-eclampsia (US preeclampsia) is a Medical condition where Hypertension arises in pregnancy ( Pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association Signs of toxemia include anorexia, lack of energy, excessive salivation, a sweet or fruity breath odor due to ketones, and seizures in advanced cases. A ketone (pronounced as key tone) is either the Functional group characterized by a Carbonyl group (O=C linked to two other Carbon atoms or An epileptic seizure is caused by excessive and/or hypersynchronous electrical Neuronal activity and is usually self-limiting  Pregnancy toxemia appears to be most common in hot climates.  Other serious complications of pregnancy can include a prolapsed uterus, hypocalcemia, and mastitis. Prolapse literally means "To fall out of place" In Medicine, prolapse is a condition where organs such as the Uterus, fall down or slip out of place In Medicine, hypocalcaemia is the presence of low serum Calcium levels in the Blood, usually taken as less than 2 Mastitis is the Inflammation of the Parenchyma of the Mammary gland ( Breast in Primates Udder in other mammals 
Grass is the guinea pig's natural diet. Grass is the common word that generally describes Monocotyledonous green Plants The family Gramineae ( Poaceae) are the "true grasses" and include Their molars are particularly suited for grinding plant matter, and grow continuously throughout the animal's life. Molars are the rearmost and most complicated kind of Tooth in most Mammals In many mammals they grind food hence the Latin name mola, " Millstone  Most grass-eating mammals are quite large and have a long digestive tract; while guinea pigs have much longer colons than most rodents, they must also supplement their diet by coprophagy, the eating of their own feces. The colon is a storage tube for solid wastes The main function of the colon appears to be extraction of Water and salts from Feces. Coprophagia is the consumption of Feces, from the Greek copros (feces and phagein (eat  However, they do not consume all their feces indiscriminately, but produce special soft pellets, called cecotropes, which recycle B vitamins, fiber, and bacteria required for proper digestion. Cecotropes (also "caecotrophes" also known as "night faeces" are the product of the Cecum, a part of the digestive system in Mammals of the The B vitamins are eight water-soluble Vitamins that play important roles in cell Metabolism.  The cecotropes (or caecal pellets) are eaten directly from the anus, unless the guinea pig is pregnant or obese.  They share this behaviour with rabbits. Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world In older boars (the condition is rarer in young ones), the muscles which allow the softer pellets to be expelled from the anus for consumption can become weak. This creates a condition known as anal impaction, which prevents the boar from redigesting cecotropes, though harder pellets may pass through the impacted mass.  The condition may be temporarily alleviated by carefully expelling the impacted feces.
Guinea pigs benefit from feeding on fresh grass hay, such as timothy hay, in addition to food pellets which are often based from timothy. Timothy-Bailey ( Phleum pratense) is an abundant perennial grass native to most of Europe except for the Mediterranean region Alfalfa is also a popular food choice; most guinea pigs will eat large amounts of alfalfa when offered it, though there exists some controversy over the feeding of alfalfa to adult guinea pigs. Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) is a flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop Some pet owners and veterinary organizations have advised that, as a legume rather than a grass hay, alfalfa consumed in large amounts may lead to obesity, as well as bladder stones due to excess calcium, in any but pregnant and very young guinea pigs. A legume is a Plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae or a Fruit of these specific plants Obesity is a condition in which excess Body fat has accumulated to such an extent that health may be negatively affected Bladder stones or uroliths are a common occurrence in animals especially in domestic animals such as Dogs and Cats The stones form in the Urinary Calcium (ˈkælsiəm is the Chemical element with the symbol Ca and Atomic number 20  However, published scientific sources mention alfalfa as a source for replenishment of protein, amino acids and fiber. In Chemistry, an amino acid is a Molecule containing both Amine and Carboxyl Functional groups In Biochemistry, this 
Like humans, but unlike most other mammals, guinea pigs cannot synthesize their own vitamin C and must obtain this vital nutrient from food. Human beings, humans or man (Origin 1590–1600 L homō man OL hemō the earthly one (see Humus Mammals ( class Mammalia) are a class of Vertebrate Animals characterized by the presence of Sweat glands, including sweat glands Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian If guinea pigs do not ingest enough vitamin C, they can suffer from potentially fatal scurvy. Scurvy (NLat scorbutus is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of Collagen in humans Guinea pigs require about 10 mg of vitamin C daily (20 mg if pregnant), which can be obtained through fresh, raw fruits and vegetables (such as apple, broccoli, cabbage, carrot, celery, and spinach) or through dietary supplements.  Healthy diets for guinea pigs require a complex balance of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, and hydrogen ions; adequate amounts of vitamins E, A, and D are also necessary. Magnesium (mægˈniːziəm is a Chemical element with the symbol Mg, Atomic number 12 Atomic weight 24 Phosphorus, (ˈfɒsfərəs is the Chemical element that has the symbol P and Atomic number 15 Potassium (pəˈtæsiəm is a Chemical element. It has the symbol K (kalium from qalīy Atomic number 19 and Atomic mass 39 Hydrogen ion is recommended by IUPAC as a general term for all Ions of Hydrogen and its Isotopes Depending on the Charge of the ion See also Tocopherol, Tocotrienol Vitamin E is the collective name for a set of 8 related Tocopherols and Tocotrienols which are fat-soluble Vitamin A refers to a family of similarly shaped molecules the Retinoids. Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble Prohormones, the two major forms of which are vitamin D2 (or Ergocalciferol) and vitamin D3 (or  Imbalanced diets have been associated with muscular dystrophy, metastatic calcification, difficulties with pregnancy, vitamin deficiencies, and teeth problems. Muscular dystrophy (MD refers to a group of genetic, Hereditary Muscle diseases that cause progressive muscle weakness Metastatic calcification is deposition of calcium salts in otherwise normal tissue because of elevated serum levels of calcium and other minerals in blood because of deranged metabolism  Some sources also suggest that guinea pigs are especially susceptible to gall and kidney stones, making it important to limit calcium intake in their diet. This may involve limiting or eliminating multi-vitamin supplements and calcium-rich foods (like commercially-produced yogurt drops, spinach or very high proportions of alfalfa). Guinea pigs tend to be fickle eaters when it comes to fresh fruits and vegetables, having learned early in life what is and is not appropriate to consume, and their habits are difficult to change after maturity.  They do not respond well to sudden changes in diet; they may stop eating and starve rather than accepting new food types.  A constant supply of hay or other food is generally recommended, as guinea pigs feed continuously and may develop habits such as chewing on their own hair if food is not present.  Because guinea pigs' teeth grow constantly, they routinely gnaw, lest their teeth become too large for their mouth, a common problem in rodents. Gnaw is the name of a Sharkticon, in the fictional Transformers universe Rodentia is an order of Mammals also known as rodents, characterised by two continuously-growing incisors in the upper and lower jaws which must  Guinea pigs will also chew on cloth, paper, plastic, and rubber.
A number of plants are poisonous to guinea pigs, including bracken, bryony, buttercup, charlock, deadly nightshade, foxglove, hellebore, hemlock, lily of the valley, mayweed, monkshood, potato, privet, ragwort, rhubarb, speedwell, toadflax and wild celery. Brackens ( Pteridium) are a genus of about ten species of large coarse Ferns in the family Dennstaedtiaceae. This article is for plants in genus Bryonia See also Black Bryony. Sinapis arvensis is a plant from the family Brassicaceae, it is commonly known as wild mustard or charlock Atropa belladonna or Atropa bella-donna, commonly known as belladonna or deadly nightshade, is a perennial Herbaceous Commonly known as Hellebores, members of the genus Helleborus comprise approximately 20 species (ongoing fieldwork may see this figure change of Herbaceous Convallaria majalis, commonly known as the Lily of the Valley or Lily-of-the-Valley, is the only species in the genus Convallaria Aconitum ( A-co-ní-tum) known as aconite, monkshood, wolfsbane, leopard's bane, women's bane The potato is a Starchy Tuberous crop Vegetable from the perennial Solanum tuberosum of the Solanaceae This article is about the privet plant in the genus Ligustrum. Senecio is a Genus of the daisy family ( Asteraceae)that includes ragworts and groundsels. Rheum is a genus of Perennial plants that grows from thick short Rhizomes The genus is in the family Polygonaceae, and includes the vegetable  Additionally, any plant which grows from a bulb (e. A bulb is an underground vertical Shoot that has modified leaves (or thickened leaf bases that are used as Food Storage organs by g. , tulip and onion) is normally considered poisonous. Tulipa, commonly called tulip, is a Genus of about 150 species of bulbous Flowering plants in the family Liliaceae. Organicsalsajpg||thumb|right|Onions used in salsa.]]Cooked onions in frying pan 
Common ailments in domestic guinea pigs include respiratory infections, diarrhea, scurvy (vitamin C deficiency, typically characterized by sluggishness), abscesses due to infection (often in the neck, due to hay embedded in the throat, or from external scratches), and infections by lice, mites or fungus. Torticollis or Requa neck, is a condition in which the Head is tilted toward one side and the Chin is elevated and turned toward the opposite In Medicine, diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences) is frequent loose or liquid Bowel movements Acute diarrhea Scurvy (NLat scorbutus is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of Collagen in humans Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian An abscess (abscessus is a collection of Pus (dead Neutrophils) that has accumulated in a cavity formed by the tissue on the basis of an infectious process Lice (singular louse) ( order Phthiraptera) are an order of over 3000 Species of wingless Insects three of which are classified Mites, along with Ticks belong to the subclass Acarina (also known as Acari and the class Arachnida Mites are among the most diverse and successful A fungus (ˈfʌŋgəs is a eukaryotic Organism that is a member of the kingdom Fungi (ˈfʌndʒaɪ 
Mange mites (Trixacarus caviae) are a common cause of hair loss, and other symptoms may also include excessive scratching, unusually aggressive behavior when touched (due to pain), and, in some instances, seizures.  Guinea pigs may also suffer from "running lice" (Gliricola porcelli), a small white insect which can be seen moving through the hair; the eggs of these lice, which appear as black or white specks attached to the hair, are sometimes referred to as "static lice". Giving a bath with neem oil soap is a gentle and effective way of ridding the pig of lice. Other causes of hair loss can be due to hormonal upsets caused by underlying medical conditions such as ovarian cysts. An ovarian cyst is any collection of fluid surrounded by a very thin wall within an Ovary. 
Foreign bodies, especially small pieces of hay or straw, can become lodged in the eyes of guinea pigs, resulting in excessive blinking, tearing, and in some cases an opaque film over the eye due to corneal ulcer. A corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory condition of the Cornea involving loss of its outer layer  Hay or straw dust will also cause sneezing. A sneeze (or sternutation) is a semi-autonomous Convulsive expulsion of Air from the Lungs, most commonly caused by foreign particles While it is normal for guinea pigs to sneeze periodically, frequent sneezing may be a symptom of pneumonia, especially in response to atmospheric changes. Pneumonia is an illness which can result from a variety of causes including Infection with Bacteria, viruses, fungi, or Parasites Pneumonia may also be accompanied by torticollis and can be fatal. Torticollis or Requa neck, is a condition in which the Head is tilted toward one side and the Chin is elevated and turned toward the opposite 
Because the guinea pig has a stout, compact body, the animal more easily tolerates excessive cold than excessive heat.  Its normal body temperature is 101–104 °F (38. Core temperature, also called core body temperature, is the operating Temperature of an Organism, specifically in deep structures of the body such as the 5–40 °C), and so its ideal ambient air temperature range is similar to the human's, about 65–75 °F (18–24 °C). Room temperature (also referred to as ambient temperature) is a common term to denote a certain Temperature within enclosed space at which humans are accustomed  Consistent ambient temperatures in excess of 90 °F (32 °C) have been linked to hyperthermia and death, especially among pregnant sows. Hyperthermia, in its advanced state referred to as heat stroke or sunstroke, is an acute condition which occurs when the Body produces or absorbs more  Guinea pigs are not well suited to environments that feature wind or frequent drafts, and respond poorly to extremes of humidity outside of the range of 30–70%. Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air In daily language the term "humidity" is normally taken to mean Relative humidity. 
Guinea pigs are prey animals whose survival instinct is to mask pain and signs of illness, and many times health problems may not be apparent until a condition is severe or in its advanced stages. Treatment of disease is made more difficult by the extreme sensitivity guinea pigs have to most antibiotics, including penicillin, which kill off the intestinal flora and quickly bring on episodes of diarrhea and in some cases, death. In modern usage an antibiotic is a Chemotherapeutic agent with activity against Microorganisms such as Bacteria, fungi or Protozoa Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN or pen) is a group of Beta-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of Bacterial Infections The gut flora are the Microorganisms that normally live in the Digestive tract and can perform a number of useful functions for their hosts 
Similar to the inherited genetic diseases of other breeds of animal (such as hip dysplasia in canines), a number of genetic abnormalities of guinea pigs have been reported. A genetic disorder is a condition caused by abnormalities in Genes or Chromosomes While some diseases such as Cancer, are due to genetic abnormalities acquired Most commonly, the roan coloration of Abyssinian guinea pigs is associated with congenital eye disorders and problems with the digestive system. Roan is a coat color found in many animals notably Horses Cattle and Dogs It is defined generally as an even mixture of white and pigmented hairs that There are many Breeds of Guinea pig which have been developed since its Domestication ca A congenital disorder is a disease or disorder that is present at birth  Other genetic disorders include "waltzing disease" (deafness coupled with a tendency to run in circles), palsy, and tremor conditions. In Medicine, palsy is the paralysis of a body part often accompanied by loss of sensation and by uncontrolled body movements such as shaking Tremor is an unintentional somewhat rhythmic muscle movement involving to-and-from movements (oscillations of one or more parts of the body 
If handled correctly early in their life, guinea pigs become amenable to being picked up and carried, and seldom bite or scratch. There are many Breeds of Guinea pig which have been developed since its Domestication ca  They are timid explorers, and rarely attempt to escape from their cages, even when an opportunity presents itself.  Guinea pigs who become familiar with their owner will whistle on the owner's approach; they will also learn to whistle in response to the rustling of plastic bags or the opening of refrigerator doors, where their food is stored.
Domesticated guinea pigs come in many breeds, which have been developed since their introduction to Europe and North America. Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals These varieties vary in hair and color composition. The most common varieties found in pet stores are the English shorthair (also known as the American), which have a short, smooth coat, and the Abyssinian, whose coat is ruffled with cowlicks, or rosettes. A cowlick appears when the growth direction of the Hair forms a spiral pattern A rosette is a Rose -like marking or formation which is found in clusters and patches on the Fur of Leopards, Jaguars and other Also popular among breeders are the Peruvian and the Sheltie (or Silkie), both straight longhair breeds, and the Texel, a curly longhair. There are many Breeds of Guinea pig which have been developed since its Domestication ca
Cavy Clubs and Associations dedicated to the showing and breeding of guinea pigs have been established worldwide. The American Cavy Breeders Association, an adjunct to the American Rabbit Breeders Association, is the governing body in the United States and Canada. The American Rabbit Breeders' Association (ARBA is a national Club for Domestic rabbit and Cavy Breeders The ARBA is headquartered in  The British Cavy Council governs cavy clubs in the United Kingdom. The British Cavy Council is the governing body in the United Kingdom for national regional and local Cavy ( Guinea pig) clubs and also for the wide range of 'breed Similar organizations exist in Australia (Australian National Cavy Council) and New Zealand (New Zealand Cavy Club). For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island  Each club publishes its own Standard of Perfection and determines which breeds are eligible for showing.
As a result of their widespread popularity in human domestic life, and especially because of their popularity in households with children, guinea pigs have shown a presence in culture and media. Some noted appearances of the animal in literature are The Fairy Caravan, a novel by Beatrix Potter, and Michael Bond's Olga da Polga series for children, both of which feature guinea pigs as the central protagonist. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter The Fairy Caravan ( is a book written and illustrated by Beatrix Potter. Michael Bond, OBE, (born January 13, 1926 in Newbury Berkshire) is an English Children's author. Olga da Polga is a fictional character and Heroine of Michael Bond 's The Tales of Olga da Polga (ISBN 0-19-275130-1 series The Protagonist or main character is the central figure of a story. Another appearance is in The Magician's Nephew by C. S. Lewis: in the first (chronologically) of his The Chronicles of Narnia series, a guinea pig is the first creature to travel to the Wood between the Worlds. The Magician's Nephew is a fantasy novel for children written by C Clive Staples Lewis (29 November 1898 – 22 November 1963 The Wood between the Worlds is a Linking room location in The Magician's Nephew, part of The Chronicles of Narnia series by C  The short story Pigs is Pigs by Ellis Parker Butler is a tale of bureaucratic incompetence; two guinea pigs held at a train station breed unchecked while humans argue as to whether they are "pigs" for the purpose of determining freight charges. Pigs is Pigs is a noted story written by Ellis Parker Butler. Ellis Parker Butler ( December 5, 1869 – September 13, 1937) was an American author Bureaucracy is the structure and set of regulations in place to control activity usually in large organizations and government |}A train station, railway station, railroad station, or station yard is a facility at which Passengers may board and alight from Trains 
Guinea pigs have also been featured in film and television. A guinea pig named Rodney, voiced by Chris Rock, was a prominent character in the 1998 film Dr. Dolittle and Lenny the Guinea pig is a co-star on Nick Jr's Wonder Pets. Christopher Julius Rock III (born February 7, 1965) is an American Comedian, Actor, Screenwriter, Television Dr Dolittle is an American family comedy, released in 1998 and starring Eddie Murphy as a doctor who discovers that he has the ability This article is about the US television block of programming on Nickelodeon. Guinea pigs were used in some major advertising campaigns in the 1990s and 2000s, notably for Egg Banking plc, Snapple, and Blockbuster Video. Advertising is a form of Communication that typically attempts to persuade potential Customers to Purchase or to consume more of a particular Brand Egg Banking plc is a British internet bank, with headquarters in Derby, Dudley and London, England. Snapple is a brand of iced tea and fruit drinks owned by Dr Pepper Snapple Group and based in Rye Brook New York. Blockbuster Inc ( is the largest chain of DVD and Video game rental stores in the world  The Blockbuster campaign is considered by some guinea pig advocates to have been a factor in the rise of cohousing guinea pigs and rabbits. 
The use of guinea pigs in scientific experimentation dates back at least to the 17th century, when the Italian biologists Marcello Malpighi and Carlo Fracassati conducted vivisections of guinea pigs in their examinations of anatomic structures. Marcello Malpighi ( March 10, 1628 - September 30, 1694) was an Italian doctor who gave his name to several physiological features Anatomy (from the Greek anatomia, from ana separate apart from and temnein, to cut up cut open is a branch of Biology that is the consideration  In 1780, Antoine Lavoisier used a guinea pig in his experiments with the calorimeter, a device used to measure heat production. A calorimeter is a device used for Calorimetry, the Science of measuring the heat of Chemical reactions or Physical changes as well as Heat The heat from the guinea pig's respiration melted snow surrounding the calorimeter, showing that respiratory gas exchange is a combustion, similar to a candle burning. Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of Exothermic chemical reactions between a Fuel and an Oxidant accompanied by the production of  Guinea pigs played a major role in the establishment of germ theory in the late 19th century, through the experiments of Louis Pasteur, Émile Roux, and Robert Koch. The germ theory, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a Theory that proposes that Microorganisms are the cause of many Diseases. Louis Pasteur (27 December 1822 – 28 September 1895 a French Chemist and Microbiologist, is best known for remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and Pierre Paul Emile Roux (b December 17, 1853, Confolens ( Charente) France, d Heinrich Hermann Robert Koch ( December 11 1843 – May 27 1910) was a German Physician.  Guinea pigs have been launched into orbital space-flight several times, first by the USSR on the Sputnik 9 biosatellite of March 9, 1961 - with a successful recovery. Animals in space originally served to test the survivability of Spaceflight before Manned space missions were attempted The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Crew None Mission parameters Mass 4700 kg Perigee 173 km Apogee A biosatellite is an man-made Satellite designed to carry life in space. Events 590 - Bahram Chobin is crowned as king Barham VI of Persia. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  China also launched and recovered a biosatellite in 1990 which included guinea pigs as passengers. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National 
In English, the term guinea pig is commonly used as a metaphor for a subject of scientific experimentation. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States This dates back to the early 20th century; the Oxford English Dictionary notes its first usage in this capacity in 1913. The Oxford English Dictionary ( OED) published by the Oxford University Press (OUP is a comprehensive Dictionary of the English  In 1933, Consumers' Research founders F. J. Schlink and Arthur Kallet wrote a book entitled 100,000,000 Guinea Pigs, extending the metaphor to consumer society. Consumers' Research is a now defunct non-profit organization established in 1929 by Stuart Chase (1888-1985 and F Frederick J Schlink ( October 26 1891 &ndash January 15 1995) was an American Consumer rights activist Arthur Kallet ( December 15, 1902 &ndash February 24, 1972) was a director of Consumers Research who became the first staff director  The book became a national bestseller in the United States, thus further popularizing the term, and spurred the growth of the consumer protection movement. Consumer protection is a form of Government Regulation which protects the interests of Consumers For example a government may require businesses to disclose detailed  The negative connotation of the term was later employed in the novel The Guinea Pigs by Czech author Ludvík Vaculík as an allegory for Soviet totalitarianism. Czechs (Češi ˈt͡ʃɛʃɪ archaic Čechové) are a western Slavic people of Central Europe, living predominantly in the Czech Republic Ludvík Vaculík ( July 23 1926 in Brumov) is a Czech Writer and Journalist. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private 
Guinea pigs were popular laboratory animals until the later 20th century; about 2. Inoculation is the placement of something to where it will grow or reproduce and is most commonly used in respect of the introduction of a serum Vaccine, or antigenic substance 5 million guinea pigs were used annually in the U. S. for research in the 1960s, but that total decreased to about 375,000 by the mid-1990s.  As of 2007, they constitute approximately 2% of the current total of laboratory animals.  In the past they were widely used to standardize vaccines and antiviral agents; they were also often employed in studies on the production of antibodies in response to extreme allergic reactions, or anaphylaxis. A vaccine is a biological preparation which is used to establish or improve immunity to a particular disease Antiviral drugs are a class of Medication used specifically for treating viral Infections Like Antibiotics for Bacteria, specific antivirals Antibodies (also known as immunoglobulins, abbreviated Ig) are Gamma globulin Proteins that are found in Blood or other Bodily Allergy is a disorder of the Immune system often also referred to as Atopy. Anaphylaxis is an acute systemic (multi-system and severe Type I Hypersensitivity allergic reaction in humans and other Mammals  Less common uses included research in pharmacology and irradiation. Pharmacology (from Greek grc φάρμακον pharmakon, "drug" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of how Drugs Irradiation is the process by which an item is exposed to Radiation.  Since the middle 20th century, they have been replaced in laboratory contexts primarily by mice and rats. This is in part because research into the genetics of guinea pigs has lagged behind that of other rodents, although geneticists W. E. Castle and Sewall Wright made a number of contributions to this area of study, especially regarding coat color. Professor William Ernest Castle ( October 25 1867 &mdash June 3 1962) was an early American geneticist. Sewall Green Wright ( December 21, 1889 – March 3, 1988) was an American Geneticist In Biology, a pigment or biochrome is any material resulting in Color of plant or animal cells which  In 2004, the U. S. 's National Human Genome Research Institute announced plans to sequence the genome of the domestic guinea pig. The National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI is a division of the National Institutes of Health, located in Bethesda Maryland. In classical genetics the genome of a Diploid Organism including Eukarya refers to a full set of chromosomes or genes in a Gamete, thereby 
The guinea pig was most extensively implemented in research and diagnosis of infectious diseases. An infectious disease is a clinically evident Disease resulting from the presence of Pathogenic microbial agents including Pathogenic viruses Pathogenic  Common uses included identification of brucellosis, Chagas disease, cholera, diphtheria, foot-and-mouth disease, glanders, Q fever, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, and various strains of typhus. Brucellosis, also called undulant fever, or Malta fever, is a highly contagious Zoonosis caused by ingestion of unsterilized Milk Chagas disease (doença de Chagas enfermedad de Chagas mal de Chagas in both languages also called American trypanosomiasis) is a tropical Parasitic Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious Gastroenteritis caused by the Bacterium Diphtheria ( Greek διφθερα ( diphthera)—“pair of leather scrolls" is an upper respiratory tract illness characterized by sore Foot-and-mouth disease ( FMD) or hoof-and-mouth disease ( Aphtae epizooticae) is a highly contagious and sometimes fatal viral Glanders (from Middle English glaundres or Old French glandres, both meaning glands ( Latin: Malleus German Q fever is a disease caused by infection with Rocky Mountain spotted fever is the most severe and most frequently reported Rickettsial illness in the United States. Typhus is any of several similar diseases caused by Louse -borne bacteria  They are still frequently used to diagnose tuberculosis, since they are easily infected by human tuberculosis bacteria. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common  Because guinea pigs are one of the few animals which, like humans, cannot synthesize vitamin C but must obtain it from their diet, they are ideal for researching scurvy. Vitamin C or L-ascorbate is an Essential nutrient for a large number of higher primate species a small number of other Mammalian Scurvy (NLat scorbutus is a disease resulting from a deficiency of Vitamin C, which is required for the synthesis of Collagen in humans  Complement, an important component for serology, was first isolated from the blood of the guinea pig. The complement system is a Biochemical cascade that helps clear Pathogens from an organism Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. In practice the term usually refers to the Diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum  Guinea pigs have an unusual insulin mutation, and are a suitable species for the generation of anti-insulin antibodies.  Present at a level 10 times that found in other mammals, the insulin in guinea pigs may be important in growth regulation, a role usually played by growth hormone. Growth hormone ( GH) is a Peptide hormone that stimulates growth and cell reproduction in humans and other animals  Additionally, guinea pigs have been identified as model organisms for the study of juvenile diabetes and, because of the frequency of pregnancy toxemia, of preeclampsia in human females. A model organism is a Species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological Phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made Diabetes mellitus (ˌdaɪəˈbiːtiːz or /ˌdaɪəˈbiːtəs/ /məˈlaɪtəs/ or /ˈmɛlətəs/ often referred to simply as diabetes ( Ancient Greek: grc Pre-eclampsia (US preeclampsia) is a Medical condition where Hypertension arises in pregnancy ( Pregnancy-induced hypertension) in association 
Guinea pig strains used in scientific research are primarily outbred strains. In biology strain is a low-level Taxonomic rank used in three related ways Aside from the common American or English stock, the two main outbred strains in laboratory use are the Hartley and Dunkin-Hartley; these English strains are albino, although pigmented strains are also available. Albinism (from Latin albus, "white" see extended etymology) is a form of hypopigmentary Congenital disorder,  Inbred strains are less common and are usually used for very specific research, such as immune system molecular biology. Linear animals or inbred strains are animals of a particular species which are nearly identical to each other in Genotype due to long Inbreeding. Of the inbred strains that have been created, the two that are still used with any frequency are, following Sewall Wright's designations, "Strain 2" and "Strain 13".  The modern "Skinny pig" hairless and immunodeficient breed was the result of a spontaneous genetic mutation in inbred laboratory strains from the Hartley stock at the Eastman Kodak Company in 1979, and henceforth was deliberately reproduced by Charles River Laboratories. The Skinny is an almost Hairless breed of Guinea pig. Skinny pigs typically have hair on their muzzles feet and legs but are nude over the remainder of In Medicine, immunodeficiency (or immune deficiency) is a state in which the Immune system 's ability to fight Infectious disease is compromised Eastman Kodak Company ( is an American multinational Public company which produces imaging and photographic materials and equipment Charles River Laboratories Inc ( is an American Corporation specializing in a broad spectrum of pre-clinical and clinical Laboratory services for the 
Guinea pigs (called cuy, cuye, curí) were originally domesticated for their meat in the Andes. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. Traditionally, the animal was usually reserved for ceremonial meals by indigenous people in the Andean highlands, but since the 1960s it has become more socially acceptable for consumption by all people.  It continues to be a major part of the diet in Peru and Bolivia, particularly in the Andes Mountains highlands; it is also eaten in some areas of Ecuador (mainly in the Sierra) and Colombia. Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. The Andes form the world's longest exposed Mountain range. They lie as a continuous chain of highland along the western coast of South America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Ecuador topics. Ecuador is a country in western South America, bordering the Pacific Ocean at the Equator, for which the country is named Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America.  Because guinea pigs require much less room than traditional livestock and reproduce extremely quickly, they are a more profitable source of food and income than many traditional stock animals, such as pigs and cows; moreover, they can be raised in an urban environment. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food Both rural and urban families raise guinea pigs for supplementary income, and the animals are commonly bought and sold at local markets and large-scale municipal fairs.  Guinea pig meat is high in protein and low in fat and cholesterol, and is described as being similar to rabbit and the dark meat of chicken. Proteins are large Organic compounds made of Amino acids arranged in a linear chain and joined together by Peptide bonds between the Carboxyl Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water Cholesterol is a Lipid found in the Cell membranes and transported in the Blood plasma of all Animals It is an essential component of mammalian Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world Chicken is the Meat derived from the Chicken. It is the most common type of Poultry in the world and is frequently prepared as Food  The animal may be served fried (chactado or frito), broiled (asado), or roasted (al horno), and in urban restaurants may also be served in a casserole or a fricassee. A casserole, from the French for "saucepan" is a large deep pot or dish used both in the Oven and as a serving dish Fricassee (sometimes spelled Fricassée) is typically Poultry, but other types of White meat can be substituted  Ecuadorians commonly consume sopa or locro de cuy, a soup dish.  Pachamanca or huatia, a process similar to barbecueing, is also popular, and is usually served with corn beer (chicha) in traditional settings. Pachamanca is a traditional Peruvian dish based on the Baking, with the aid of hot stones (the earthen oven is known as a Huatia) of lamb A huatia ('watja or 'watia is a traditional Peruvian earthen oven which dates back to the days of the Inca Empire. barbeque block party Kansas cityjpg|thumb|right|275px|A barbecue on a trailer at a Block party in Kansas City. Chicha is a term used in some regions of Latin America for several varieties of fermented beverages, particularly those derived from Maize, but which also 
Peruvians consume an estimated 65 million guinea pigs each year, and the animal is so entrenched in the culture that one famous painting of the Last Supper in the main cathedral in Cusco shows Christ and the twelve disciples dining on guinea pig. In the Christian Gospels the Last Supper (also called the Lord's Supper or Mystical Supper) was the last meal Jesus shared with his ||} Cusco (also spelled Cuzco, and in the local Quechua language as Qusqu 'qos Christ is the English term for the Greek ( Khristós) meaning "the anointed "  The animal remains an important aspect of certain religious events in both rural and urban areas of Peru. A religious celebration known as jaca tsariy ("collecting the cuys") is a major festival in many villages in the Antonio Raimondi province of eastern Peru, and is celebrated in smaller ceremonies in Lima. Antonio Raimondi is a province of the Ancash Region in Peru. It is located along the central eastern edge of the Ancash Region bordering the Huánuco Region Lima is the Capital and largest city of Peru. It is located in the valleys of the Chillón, Rímac and Lurín rivers on a coast overlooking  It is a syncretistic event, combining elements of Catholicism and pre-Columbian religious practices, and revolves around the celebration of local patron saints. Syncretism consists of the attempt to reconcile disparate or contradictory beliefs often while melding practices of various schools of thought As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The pre-Columbian era incorporates all period subdivisions in the history and prehistory of the Americas before the appearance of significant European influences The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members  The exact form that the jaca tsariy takes differs from town to town; in some localities, a sirvinti (servant) is appointed to go from door to door, collecting donations of guinea pigs, while in others, guinea pigs may be brought to a communal area to be released in a mock bullfight. Bullfighting or Tauromachy (from Greek ταυρομαχία - tauromachia, "bull-fight" is a traditional spectacle of Spain  Meals such as cuy chactado are always served as part of these festivities, and the killing and serving of the animal is framed by some communities as a symbolic satire of local politicians or important figures. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human  In the Tungurahua and Cotopaxi provinces of central Ecuador, guinea pigs are employed in the celebrations surrounding the feast of Corpus Christi as part of the Ensayo, which is a community meal, and the Octava, where castillos (greased poles) are erected with prizes tied to the crossbars, from which several guinea pigs may be hung. Tungurahua is a Province in Ecuador. The capital is Ambato. The active Tungurahua Volcano is located in this province in the counties ("cantones" Cotopaxi is one of the Provinces of Ecuador. The capital is Latacunga. Corpus Christi ( Latin for Body of Christ) is a Christian feast.  The Peruvian town of Churin has an annual festival which involves dressing guinea pigs in elaborate costumes for a competition. Churin is a town in Peru, located in the Huaura Province. The city holds two annual festivals 
Andean immigrants in New York City raise and sell guinea pigs for meat, and some ethnic restaurants in major United States cities serve cuy as a delicacy. The City of New York  Peruvian research universities, especially La Molina National Agrarian University, began experimental programs in the 1960s with the intention of breeding larger-sized guinea pigs. La Molina National Agrarian University (Spanish Universidad Nacional Agraria La Molina) ( UNALM) is a state-owned University in Lima,  Subsequent university efforts have sought to change breeding and husbandry procedures in South America, in order to make the raising of guinea pigs as livestock more economically sustainable.  In the 1990s and 2000s, the university began exporting the larger breed guinea pigs to Europe, Japan, and the United States in the hope of increasing human consumption outside of South America. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics.  Efforts have also been made to introduce guinea pig husbandry in developing countries in West Africa. Animal husbandry, also called Animal science, stockbreeding or simple husbandry, is the agricultural practice of breeding West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent.  Nevertheless, as a food source they are still generally considered taboo in North America and Europe; in reality television, guinea pig meat has been consumed as an exotic dish by such Western celebrity chefs as Andrew Zimmern (for his show Bizarre Foods) and Anthony Bourdain in No Reservations. Taboo food and drinks are food and drink which people abstain from consuming for religious or cultural reasons Reality television is a genre of Television programming which presents purportedly unscripted dramatic or humorous situations documents actual events and usually features ordinary In its strictest sense a celebrity chef is a someone who has become well-known for his/her cooking Andrew S Zimmern (born July 1961) is a food writer dining Critic, radio talk show host TV personality and Chef. Bizarre Foods with Andrew Zimmern is a documentary-styled travel and cuisine program hosted by Andrew Zimmern on the Travel Channel. Anthony Michael "Tony" Bourdain (born June 25 1956 is an American Author and Chef. Anthony Bourdain No Reservations is an ongoing American travel and food show on the Travel Channel; it also airs on the Discovery Travel & Living