A guild is an association of craftsmen in a particular trade. An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing The earliest guilds were formed as confraternities of workers.
In pre-industrial cities, craftsmen tended to form associations based on their trades, confraternities of textile workers, masons, carpenters, carvers, glassworkers, each of whom controlled secrets of traditionally imparted technology, the "arts" or "mysteries" of their crafts. An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing A trade secret is a Formula, practice, Process, Design, instrument, Pattern, or compilation of Information which Usually the founders were free independent master craftsmen. A master craftsman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster, Meister was a member of a Guild.
During the Indian Gupta-period (300 - 600 AD) Indian craftmen's associations, which may have had archaic antecedents, were known as shreni. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country ia and Benin, separate guilds developed for professional dancers, mask carvers, and musicians associated with egungun ancestral masquerade performances often regarded as the predecessor to the traveling Alarinjo theatre. 
Islamic civilization extended the notion of guilds to the artisan as well — most notably to the warraqeen, or "those who work with paper. An artisan, also called a Craftsman, is a skilled manual worker who crafts items that may be functional or strictly decorative including furniture clothing Warraq (ورّاق is the Arabic word for stationer or papermaker. " Early Muslims were heavily engaged in translating and absorbing all ilm ("knowledge") from all other known civilizations as far east as China. Early Islamic philosophy or classical Islamic philosophy is a period of intense philosophical development beginning in the 2nd century AH of the Islamic calendar I'lm (Transliteration of علم) is Arabic for knowledge as an Islamic term it refers to knowledge of Islam. Knowledge is defined ( Oxford English Dictionary) variously as (i expertise and skills acquired by a person through experience or education the theoretical or practical understanding China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Critically analyzing, accepting, rejecting, improving and codifying knowledge from other cultures became a key activity, and a knowledge industry as presently understood began to evolve. By the beginning of the 9th century, paper had become the standard medium of written communication, and most warraqeen were engaged in paper-making, book-selling, and taking the dictation of authors, to whom they were obliged to pay royalties on works, and who had final discretion on the contents. The 9th century is the period from 801 to 900 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian / Common Era.  The standard means of presentation of a new work was its public dictation in a mosque or madrassah in front of many scholars and students, and a high degree of professional respect was required to ensure that other warraqeen did not simply make and sell copies, or that authors did not lose faith in the warraqeen or this system of publication. A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger "Madrasa" and "Medrese" redirect here For the village in Azerbaijan see Mədrəsə. Thus the organization of the warraqeen was in effect an early guild.
Local guilds also served to safeguard artisans from the appropriation of their skills: The publication industry that spanned the Muslim empire, from the first works under the warraqeen system in 874 and up to the 15th century, produced tens of thousands of books per year. Events By Place Europe Ingólfur Arnarson arrives as the first permanent Viking settler in Iceland, settling  A culture of instructional capital flourished, with groups of respected artisans spreading their work to other artisans elsewhere, who could in turn copy it and perhaps "pass it off" as the original, thereby exploiting the social capital built up at great expense by the originators of techniques. Instructional capital is a term used in educational administration after the 1960s to reflect capital resulting from investment in producing learning materials For other uses of this and related terms please refer to the " Pass " disambiguation page Social capital is a concept in business economics, Organizational behaviour, Political science, Public health, Sociology and natural Artisans began to take various measures to protect their proprietary interests, and restrict access to techniques, materials, and markets.
In the Early Middle Ages most of the Roman craft organizations, originally formed as religious confraternities, had disappeared, with the apparent exceptions of stonecutters and perhaps glassmakers. The Early Middle Ages is a period in the History of Europe following the fall of the Western Roman Empire spanning roughly five centuries from AD 500 Gregory of Tours tells a miraculous tale of a builder whose art and techniques suddenly left him, but were restored by an apparition of the Virgin Mary in a dream. Saint Gregory of Tours ( November 30, c 538 &ndash November 17, 594) was a Gallo-Roman historian and bishop of Tours Michel Rouche remarks that the story speaks for the importance of practically transmitted journeymanship.
Tld be ventured in expansive schemes, often under the rules of guilds of their own. German social historians trace the Zunftrevolution, the urban revolution of guildmembers against a controlling urban patriciate, sometimes reading into them, however, perceived foretastes of the class struggles of the nineteenth century.
In the countryside, where guild rules did not operate, there was freedom for the entrepreneur with capital to organize cottage industry, a network of cottagers who spun and wove in their own premises on his account, provided with their raw materials, perhaps even their looms, by the capitalist who reaped the profits. The putting-out system was a means of subcontracting work It was also known as the workshop system. Such a dispersed system could not so easily be controlled where there was a vigorous local market for the raw materials: wool was easily available in sheep-rearing regions, whereas silk was not.
The structures of the craftsmen's associations tended everywhere in similar directions: a governing body, assisting functionaries and the members' assembly. The governing body consisted of the leader and deputies. In Ptolemeic Egypt the presidents were known as presbyter, in Roman Egypt as proestotes, egoymenos or archonelates, in Byzantine Egypt epistates, in the Roman Empire as decurio, in Florence of the Middle Ages as consul, officialis or rector, in France as consul, recteur, baile or surposé, in Germany Zunftmeister or Kerzenmeister, in England alderman, graceman or master, in Iran as rish safid or pishavaran, in India as adhyaksha, mukhya, pamukkha or jettaka, in Tibet as dbu chen mo, in China as hangshou, hangtou or hanglao, in the West African Yoruba region as bale or baba egbe and in the Nupe region as dakodza, muku or ndakó, depending on the type of craft.
The guild was made up by experienced and confirmed experts in their field of handicraft. They were called master craftsmen. A master craftsman (sometimes called only master or grandmaster, Meister was a member of a Guild. Before a new employee could rise to the level of mastery, he had to go through a schooling period during which he was first called an apprentice. Apprenticeship is a system of Training a new generation of practitioners of a skill After this period he could rise to the level of journeyman. A journeyman is a trader or crafter who has completed an Apprenticeship. Apprentices would typically not learn more than the most basic techniques until they were trusted by their peers to keep the guild's or company's secrets.
Like journey, the distance that could be travelled in a day, the title 'journeyman' derives from the French words for 'day' (jour and journée) from which came the middle English word journei. Journeymen were generally paid by the day and were thus day laborers. After being employed by a master for several years, and after producing a qualifying piece of work, the apprentice was granted the rank of journeyman and was given documents (letters or certificates from his master and/or the guild itself) which certified him as a journeyman and entitled him to travel to other towns and countries to learn the art from other masters. These journeys could span large parts of Europe and were an unofficial way of communicating new methods and techniques.
After this journey and several years of experience, a journeyman could be received as master craftsman. This would require the approval of all masters of a guild, a donation of money and other goods, and in many practical handicrafts the production of a so-called masterpiece, which would illustrate the abilities of the aspiring master craftsman. Masterpiece (or chef d'œuvre) refers to any Work of art that is considered extraordinary
The medieval guild was offered letters patent (usually from the king) and held a monopoly on its trade in the town in which it operated: handicraft workers were forbidden by law to run any business if they were not members of a guild, and only masters were allowed to be members of a guild. Before these privileges were legislated, these groups of handicraft workers were simply called 'handicraft associations'.
The town authorities were represented in the guild meetings and thus had a means of controlling the handicraft activities. This was important since towns very often depended on a good reputation for export of a narrow range of products, on which not only the guild's, but the town's, reputation depended. Controls on the association of physical locations to well-known exported products, e. g. wine from the Champagne and Bordeaux regions of France, tin-glazed earthenwares from certain cities in Holland, lace from Chantilly, etc. Champagne is a historic province in the northeast of France, best known for the production of the sparkling white wine that bears the region's name ( Gascon: Bordèu) is a port city in southwest France, with one million inhabitants in its metropolitan area at a 2008 estimate This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Holland is a region in the western part of the Netherlands. A maritime and economic power in the 17th century Holland today consists of the Dutch provinces of Chantilly is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. , helped to establish a town's place in global commerce — this led to modern trademarks. A trademark or trade mark, represented by the symbols ™ and ®, or mark is a distinctive sign or indicator used by an individual
In many German towns, the more powerful guilds attempted to influence or even control town authorities. In the 14th century, this led to numerous bloody uprisings, during which the guilds dissolved town councils and detained patricians in an attempt to increase their influence.
In Chester England the earl had given a charter to the guild merchants at the end of the 12th century assuring them of the exclusive rights for retail sales within the city (excepting fairs and some markets where 'foreigners' could pay for the privilege of selling). Chester is the County town of Cheshire, England. Lying on the River Dee, close to the border with Wales, it is home to 77040
Guildsmen had to be freemen of the city. They had to take an oath to serve the city and the king. There were four ways to become a freeman: by apprenticeship of five or seven years, by being born as the son of a freeman (in 1453 dues were remitted to a token 10 shillings 1/2 denarius), by purchasing membership (in 1453 this was 26s8d), or by becoming an honorary freeman as a gift of the assembly. The shilling is a unit of Currency used in current and former Commonwealth countries and was continued to be used in countries that left the commonwealth The Roman Currency system included the denarius (plural denarii) after 211 BC a small Silver coin,
As well as running local government, by electing the 78 common councillors, the guilds took responsibility for the welfare of their members and their families. They put on the Chester Mystery Plays and the Chester Midsummer Watch Parade. The Chester Mystery Plays is a cycle of Mystery plays dating back to at least the early part of the 15th century History The monk Lucian told of a Chester procession of clerics in the year 1195 and the annals mention a parade in 1397/8 but it was not until the mayorality of Richard Goodman Guildsmen had to attend meetings, often in local inns or in the towers on the city walls. No person of any 'arte, mystery syence, occupacion, or crafte' could 'intermeddle' or practice another trade. In the 15th century the Innkeepers threatened to brew their own beer and the Brewers took them to court and won.
Charters of incorporation were given to each guild, the earliest to the Bakers in 1462. Of the original 25, 19 companies were recorded in 1475. In 1533 another company formed. This was the Merchant Venturers who were the only traders allowed to merchandise in foreign ports and, at first, they were not able to do any manual trade or retail in the city.
In 1694 rules were regularly being broken and it was ordered that 'No man shall have any commerce, Trade or Dealing with any man that shall sett up Stale (stall) or Hake in the street of ye said Citie neither at the ffaire or market but to dispose of his goods at his shoppe or house he keeps all the yeare'. But this was the beginning of the end for the guild's monopoly of city trade.
Despite its advantages for agricultural and artisan producers, the guild became a target of much criticism towards the end of the 1700s and the beginning of the 1800s. They were believed to oppose free trade and hinder technological innovation, technology transfer and business development. Free trade is a system in which the trade of goods and services between or within countries flows unhindered by government-imposed restrictions The term innovation means a new way of doing something It may refer to incremental radical and revolutionary changes in thinking products processes or organisations Technology transfer is the process of sharing of skills knowledge technologies methods of manufacturing samples of manufacturing and facilities among industries universities governments Business development Specialist, comprises a number of techniques designed to create new customers and penetrate existing According to several accounts of this time, guilds became increasingly involved in simple territorial struggles against each other and against free practitioners of their arts.
Two of the most outspoken critics of the guild system were Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Adam Smith, and all over Europe a tendency to oppose government control over trades in favour of laissez-faire free market systems was growing rapidly and making its way into the political and legal system. Adam Smith ( baptised 16 June 1723 – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneer of Political economy. Laissez-faire ( pronunciation: French,; English,) is a French phrase literally meaning Let do (“allow to do” A free market is a Market in which property rights are voluntarily exchanged at a price arranged completely by the mutual consent of sellers and buyers Karl Marx in his Communist Manifesto also criticized the guild system for its rigid gradation of social rank and the relation of oppressor/oppressed entailed by this system. Manifesto of the Communist Party ( often referred to as The Communist Manifesto, was first published on February 21, 1848, and is From this time comes the low regard in which some people hold the guilds to this day. For example, Smith writes in The Wealth of Nations (Book I, Chapter X, paragraph 72):
In part due to their own inability to control unruly corporate behavior, the tide turned against the guilds. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business
Because of industrialization and modernization of the trade and industry, and the rise of powerful nation-states that could directly issue patent and copyright protections — often revealing the trade secrets — the guilds' power faded. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for A trade secret is a Formula, practice, Process, Design, instrument, Pattern, or compilation of Information which After the French Revolution they fell in most European nations through the 1800s, as the guild system was disbanded and replaced by free trade laws. The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an By that time, many former handicraft workers had been forced to seek employment in the emerging manufacturing industries, using not closely guarded techniques but standardized methods controlled by corporations. A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business
This was not uniformly viewed as a public good: Karl Marx criticized the alienation of the worker from the products of work that this created, and the exploitation possible since materials and hours of work were closely controlled by the owners of the new, large scale means of production. In Economics, a public good is a good that is non-rivaled and non-excludable. Marx's theory of alienation ( Entfremdung in German) as expressed in the writings of young Karl Marx, refers to the separation of things that naturally The term " exploitation " may carry two distinct meanings The act of utilizing something for any purpose Means Of Production is a compilation of Aim 's early 12" and EP releases recorded between 1995 and 1998
Guilds are sometimes said to be the precursors of modern trade unions, and also, paradoxically, of some aspects of the modern corporation. A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming A corporation is a separate legal entity usually used to conduct business Guilds, however, were groups of self-employed skilled craftsmen with ownership and control over the materials and tools they needed to produce their goods. Guilds were, in other words, small business associations and thus had very little in common with trade unions. If anything, guilds were more like cartels than they were like trade unions (Olson 1982). A cartel is a formal (explicit agreement among firms Cartels usually occur in an oligopolistic industry, where there is a small number of sellers and usually involve However, the journeymen organizations, which were at the time illegal, may have been influential.
The exclusive privilege of a guild to produce certain goods or provide certain services was similar in spirit and character with the original patent systems that surfaced in England in 1624. A patent is a set of Exclusive rights granted by a State to an inventor or his assignee for a fixed period of time in exchange for a disclosure of an These systems played a role in ending the guilds' dominance, as trade secret methods were superseded by modern firms directly revealing their techniques, and counting on the state to enforce their legal monopoly. A trade secret is a Formula, practice, Process, Design, instrument, Pattern, or compilation of Information which In Economics, a monopoly (from Greek monos, alone or single + polein, to sell exists when a specific individual or enterprise has sufficient
Some guild traditions still remain in a few handicrafts, in Europe especially among shoemakers and barbers. A barber (from the Latin barba, " Beard " is someone whose occupation is to cut any type of hair give shaves, and trim Some of the ritual traditions of the guilds were conserved in order organizations such as the Freemasons. A ritual is a set of actions often thought to have Symbolic value the performance of which is usually prescribed by a Religion or by the Traditions A religious order is a lineage of communities and organizations of people who live in some way set apart from society in accordance with their specific religious devotion usually These are, however, not very important economically except as reminders of the responsibilities of some trades toward the public.
Modern antitrust law could be said to be derived in some ways from the original statutes by which the guilds were abolished in Europe.
Modern guilds exist in different forms around the world. In many European countries guilds have had a revival as local organizations for craftsmen, primarily in traditional skills. They may function as fora for developing competence and are often the local units of a national employers organization.
In the United States guilds exist in several fields. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Screen Actors Guild, Writers Guild of America, East and the Writers Guild of America, west are capable of exercising very strong control in Hollywood because a very strong and rigid system of intellectual property rights exists. The Screen Actors Guild ( SAG) is an American labor union representing over 120000 Film and television principal performers and background Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> Writers Guild of America East ( WGAE) is a labor union representing Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> Writers Guild of America West ( WGAW) is a labor union representing Intellectual property ( IP) is a legal field that refers to creations of the mind such as musical literary and artistic works inventions and symbols names These guilds exclude other actors and writers who do not abide by the strict rules for competing within the film and television industry in America. The Newspaper Guild is a labor union for journalists and other newspaper workers, with over 30,000 members in North America. The Newspaper Guild is a labor union founded by newspaper Journalists in 1933 who noticed that unionized printers and truck drivers were making more money A trade union or labour union is an organization of workers who have banded together to achieve common goals in key areas such as wages hours and working conditions forming
Quilting guilds are also very common and are found in almost all areas of the United States. Quilting is a Sewing method done either by hand by Sewing machine, or by a longarm quilting system
Real estate brokerage is an excellent example of a modern American guild. Telltale signs of guild behavior are on display in real estate brokerage: standard pricing (6% of the home price), strong affiliation among all practitioners, self-regulation (see National Association of Realtors), strong cultural identity (see Realtor), little price variation with quality differences, and traditional methods in use by all practitioners. The National Association of Realtors (NAR whose members are known as realtors (rē(əltər -ˌtôr is North America's largest Trade association representing The National Association of Realtors (NAR whose members are known as realtors (rē(əltər -ˌtôr is North America's largest Trade association representing In September 2005, the U. S. Department of Justice filed an antitrust lawsuit against the National Association of Realtors challenging NAR practices that, DOJ asserts, prevent competition from practitioners who use different methods. The DOJ and the Federal Trade Commission in 2005 advocated against state laws, supported by NAR, that disadvantage new kinds of brokers. For a description of the DOJ action, see . U. S. v. National Assoc. of Realtors, U. S. District Court Norther District Illinois, Eastern Division, September 7, 2005, Civil Action No. 05C-5140.
The practice of law in the United States is also an example of modern guilds at work. Every state maintains its own Bar Association, supervised by that state's highest court. A bar association is a Professional body of Lawyers Some bar associations are responsible for the regulation of the legal profession in their Jurisdiction The court decides the criteria for being admitted to, and remaining a member of, the legal profession. In most states, every attorney must be a member of that state's Bar in order to practice law. State laws forbid any person from engaging in the unauthorized practice of law and practicing attorneys are subject to rules of professional conduct that are enforced by the state's high court.
Other associations which a minority considers to be guilds, though it isn't evident in their names, include the American Medical Association, the American Dental Association, etc. The American Medical Association (AMA founded in 1847 and incorporated 1897 is the largest association of Physicians and Medical students in the United States The American Dental Association (ADA is an American Professional association established in 1859 and has more than 152000 members
Scholars from the history of ideas have noticed that consultants play a part similar to that of the journeymen of the guild systems: they often travel a lot, work at many different companies and spread new practices and knowledge between companies and corporations. The history of ideas is a field of Research in History that deals with the expression preservation and change of human Ideas over time A consultant (from the Latin consultare means "to discuss" from which we also derive words such as consul and counsel) is a Professional
Many professional organizations similarly resemble the guild structure. Professions such as architecture, engineering, and land surveying require varying lengths of apprenticeships before one can be granted a 'professional' certification. These certifications hold great legal weight and are required in most states as a prerequisite to doing business there.
Thomas Malone of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology champions a modern variant of the guild structure for modern "e-lancers", professionals who do mostly telework for multiple employers. Thomas P Malone (died December 10 1926 was a politician in Alberta, Canada. Telecommuting, e-commuting, e-work, telework, working at home (WAH, or working from home (WFH is a work arrangement in Insurance including any professional liability, intellectual capital protections, an ethical code perhaps enforced by peer pressure and software, and other benefits of a strong association of producers of knowledge, benefit from economies of scale, and may prevent cut-throat competition that leads to inferior services undercutting prices. Insurance, in Law and Economics, is a form of Risk management primarily used to hedge against the Risk of a contingent loss Intellectual Capital was a pioneer Webzine opinion and discussion forum begun in 1996 by Pete duPont In the context of a code that is adopted by a profession or by a governmental or quasi-governmental organ to regulate that profession an ethical code may be styled as a code of professional And, as with historical guilds, resist foreign competition.
The free software community has from time to time explored a guild-like structure to unite against competition from Microsoft, e. The free software community is an informal term referring to the users and developers of Free software as well as supporters of the Free software movement. Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer g. Advogato assigns journeyer and master ranks to those committing to work only or mostly on free software. Advogato is an Online community site dedicated to Free software development created by Raph Levien. Debian also publishes a list of what constitutes free software. Debian ( pronounced) is a computer Operating system composed entirely of Free and open source software. Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified
In the City of London, the ancient guilds survive as Livery Companies, most of which play a ceremonial role. For London as a whole see the main article London. The City of London is a geographically Guilds also survive in the UK in Preston, Lancashire as the Preston Guild Merchant where among other celebrations descendants of Burgesses are still admitted into membership. Preston ( ˈprɛstən is a city and local government district in Lancashire, England, located on the River Ribble. Preston ( ˈprɛstən is a city and local government district in Lancashire, England, located on the River Ribble.
In Australia there exists the Guild of Commercial Filmmakers, a collection of commercial, short film and feature filmmakers.
In online computer games players form groups called Player guilds. A massively multiplayer online role-playing game ( MMORPG) is a genre of Computer role-playing games (CRPGs in which a large number of players interact with In computer and video gaming, a clan or guild is a group of players who regularly play together in a particular (or various different Multiplayer games