|Regions with significant populations|
|Paraguay, Argentina (esp. Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. Misiones), Brazil|
|Formerly Guarani, today Spanish and Guarani|
|Catholicism, Protestantism, Animism|
|Related ethnic groups|
"Guaraní" refers to a group of culturally related indigenous peoples of South America, distinguished from the related Tupi by their use of the Guaraní language. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Guaraní /gwaraˈni/ (local name avañe'ẽ) is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily of the Guaraní /gwaraˈni/ (local name avañe'ẽ) is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily of the As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals The Mbayá are a tribe formerly ranging on both sides of the Paraguay River, on the north and northwestern Paraguay frontier and in the adjacent portion of the The Kaingang (Cainguangues people are a Native American Ethnic group spread out over the four southern Brazilian states of São Paulo, Paraná Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning "to cultivate" generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a The Tupi people is one of the main Ethnic groups of Brazilian indigenous people, together with the related Guaraní. Guaraní /gwaraˈni/ (local name avañe'ẽ) is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily of the The traditional range of the Guaraní people is between the Uruguay River and lower Paraguay River in what is now Paraguay, the Corrientes and Entre Rios Provinces of Argentina, southern Brazil and parts of Uruguay and Bolivia. The Uruguay River (in Spanish, Río Uruguay, uɾuˈɣwaj in Portuguese, Rio Uruguai,) is a River in South The Paraguay River ( Río Paraguay in Spanish, Rio Paraguai in Portuguese) is a major River in south central South America Paraguay, officially the Republic of Paraguay ( Spanish: República del Paraguay; Guaraní: Tetã Paraguái) is one of the only Foto-0065jpg|thumb|216px|The Belgrano Bridge]]Plaza 25 de mayo Corrientes Entre Ríos is a province of Argentina, located in the Mesopotamia region in the northeast of the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Argentina topics. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Uruguay.(official full name in República Oriental del Uruguay;, Oriental Republic of Uruguay) is a country located in the southeastern part of South America The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America.  There are contemporary Guaraní populations in these areas, though their demographic dominance of the region has been reduced by European colonisation and the commensurate rise of the mestizo. Colonisation (also known as Colonization) occurs whenever any one or more species populates a new area Mestizo is a Spanish term that was coined during the Spanish Empire to refer to people of mixed European and Amerindian ancestry in Latin Nevertheless, the Guaraní language is still widely spoken across traditional Guaraní homelands, most notably in Paraguay where it is used amongst all classes and ethnic groups as a symbol of national distinctiveness, and is an official language.
The history and meaning of the name Guaraní is a subject of dispute. Prior to the encounter with Europeans, the Guaraní referred to themselves simply as Abá, meaning "men" or "people. " The term Guaraní was originally applied by early Jesuit missionaries to refer to natives who had accepted conversion and thus "civilized", while using the term Cayua or Caingua to refer to those who had refused conversion. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Cayua is roughly translated as "men from the forest". While the term Cayua is sometimes still used to refer to settlements of indigenous peoples that have not well integrated into society, the modern usage of the name Guaraní is generally extended to include all people of native origin regardless of societal status.
The history of the Guaraní people prior to contact with European explorers is not well documented. They did not have a written language and their history relied on oral tradition, and as they were a somewhat nomadic and decentralized society there is little in the way of reliable history. Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that 
Early villages often consisted of communal houses, of ten to fifteen families. In biological terms a community is a group of interacting Organisms sharing an environment. Communities were united only by common interest and language, and tended to form tribal groups by dialect. It is estimated that they numbered at some 400,000 people when they were first encountered by Europeans. They were sedentary and agricultural, subsisting largely on manioc, maize, wild game, and honey. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture The cassava, yuca, manioc, or mandioca ( Manihot esculenta) is a woody Shrub of the Euphorbiaceae (spurge family native Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the
Equally little is known about early Guaraní society and beliefs. They practiced a form of animistic pantheism, much of which has survived in the form of numerous folklore and myths. Animism (from Latin anima ( Soul, Life) commonly refers to a religious belief that Souls or Spirits exist in Animals Pantheism ( Greek: πάν ( 'pan') = all and θεός ( 'theos') = God it literally means " God is All History The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of Romantic nationalism, leading to the reshaping of oral traditions to serve modern ideological See also Mythology Myth is derived from the Greek word μύθος mythos, which simply means 'story' Guaraní mythology is still widespread in rural Paraguay. Guaraní Mythology refers to the beliefs of the Guaraní people of the south-central part of South America, especially the native peoples of Paraguay and According to the Jesuit missionary Martin Dobrizhoffer, they practiced cannibalism, perhaps as a funerary ritual, but later disposed of the dead in large jars placed inverted on the ground. Martin Dobrizhoffer ( September 7, 1717 - July 17, 1791) was an Austrian Roman Catholic Missionary. Cannibalism (from Spanish es ''caníbal'' in connection with cannibalism among the Antillean Caribs, also called anthropophagy (from Greek ἄνθρωπος A funeral is a Ceremony marking a person's Death. Funerary customs comprise the complex of Beliefs and practices used by a Culture to remember
In 1511, the Spanish navigator Juan de Solis was the first European to enter Río de la Plata, the estuary of the Paraná or Paraguay River, followed by Sebastian Cabot in 1526 . Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. A navigator is the person onboard a ship or aircraft responsible for its Navigation. The Río de la Plata ( Spanish: " Silver River" &mdash which is often referred to in English-speaking countries as the River Plate Sebastian Cabot ( Italian: Sebastiano Caboto, Spanish: Sebastiano Gaboto; c In 1537 Gonzalo de Mendoza ascended the Paraguay to about the present Brazilian frontier, and on returning made acquaintance with the Guaraní and founded Asunción (later capital of Paraguay). Asunción (full name Nuestra Señora Santa María de la Asunción) population 1212112 (2002 is the Capital and largest city of Paraguay.
The first governor of the Spanish territory of Guayrá initiated a policy of intermarriage of Europeans with Native American women, which gave rise to the Paraguayan nation. He also initiated the enslavement of the natives who had no protector until the arrival of Jesuit missionaries. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another
The first two Jesuits were Fathers Barcena and Angulo, in 1585, in what is now the State of Paraná, Southern Brazil, who came by land from where 240 years later was to be called Bolivia. The Society of Jesus ( Latin: Societas Iesu, SJ and SI or SJ, SI) is a Catholic religious order Other meanings Paraná Argentina, Paraná River Paraná (paɾaˈna is one of the states of Brazil, The Republic of Bolivia (República de Bolivia) named after Simón Bolívar, is a Landlocked country in central South America. Others soon followed, and a Jesuit college was established at Asunción. In 1608, thanks to the Jesuit protest against enslavement of Native Americans, King Philip III of Spain gave authority to the Jesuits to convert and colonize the tribes of Guayrá. after he farted he ate chicken and farted some more Philip III (Felipe III April 14, 1578 &ndash March 31, 1621) was the King It should be noted that in the early period the name Paraguay was loosely used to designate all the basin of the river, including parts of what are now Uruguay, Argentina, Bolivia, and Brazil.
As usual in Spanish colonies, exploring expeditions were accompanied by Franciscan friars. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic A Friar is a member of one of the Mendicant orders. Friars and monks Friars differ from Monks in that they are called to a life of poverty in service Early in the history of Asunción, Father Luis de Bolanos translated the catechism into Guaraní language to preach to Guaraní in the neighbourhood of the settlement. Luis de Bolaños (1549? – 11 October 1629) was a Spanish Franciscan Friar and Missionary evangelist, initiator A catechism (ˈkætəkɪzəm κατηχισμός is a summary or exposition of Doctrine, traditionally used in Christian religious teaching from New Testament In 1588-89 St. Francis Solanus crossed the Chaco wilderness from Peru and stopped at Asunción, but gave no attention to the Guaraní. Francis Solanus (Francisco Solano ( 10 March 1549 – 14 July 1610) was a Spanish missionary in South America belonging to the Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. His recall left the field clear to the Jesuits, who assumed the double duty of "civilizing" and Christianizing the Native Americans and defending them against the cruelty of slave dealers and employers, practically all the European population, lay, clerical, and official. "The larger portion of the population regarded it as a right, a privilege in virtue of conquest, that they should enslave the Indians" (Page, 470). The Jesuit provincial Torres arrived in 1607, and "immediately placed himself at the head of those who had opposed the cruelties at all times exercised over the natives" (ibid). A provincial superior is a major superior of a Religious order acting under the order's Superior general and exercising a general supervision over all the local superiors
The centre and depot of the slave trade was the town of São Paulo. Jean-Baptiste Debret (1768-1848 was a French painter, who produced many valuable Lithographs depicting the people of Brazil. São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world Originally, a rendezvous place for the Portuguese, Dutch, and Spanish pirates, it had become a refuge for criminals of all nations, who mixed with Native American and African women, and who actively participated in capturing Guaranis and selling them as slaves. The Portuguese people (os Portugueses literally the Portuguese) are the Ethnic group or Nation native to the country of Portugal, in the west The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Piracy is Robbery committed at sea or sometimes on shore without a commission from a sovereign Nation (as distinct from Privateering In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment
To oppose these armed and organized robbers, the tribes had only their bows, since the Spanish government prohibited firearms, even to "civilized Indians". A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion Many Native Americans were slain or enslaved by slave-hunters at large in Brazil during those years.
With the royal protection, the first Guayrá mission, Loreto, was established on the Paranapané by Fathers Cataldino and Marcerata in 1610 . Related article Indian Reductions The Jesuit Reductions were a particular version of the general Catholic strategy used in the 17th See also Evangelism, Christianization A Christian mission has been widely defined since the Lausanne Congress of 1974 as that which The Guaraní flocked there in such numbers, as the mided the only possible protection against enslavement, that twelve missions rose in rapid succession, containing in all 40,000 Indians. Stimulated by this success, Father Gonzalez with two companions in 1627 journeyed to the Uruguay and established two or three small missions, with good promise for the future, until the wild tribes murdered the priests, massacred the neophytes, and burned the missions.
Slave raiders saw the Guaraní missions as "merely an opportunity of capturing more Indians than usual at a haul" and as "nest of hawks, looked at their neophytes as pigeons, ready fattening for their use" (Graham 57). In 1629, an army of Paulistas surrounded the San Antonio mission, set fire to the church and other buildings, killed those who resisted or were too young or too old to travel, and carried the rest into slavery. San Miguel and Jesu Maria quickly met the same fate. São Miguel das Missões ( Portuguese for St Michael of the Missions) is a Unesco World Heritage site located in the small town of Eventually, reinforcements, gathered by Father Cataldino, drove off the enemy. Many other missions were not as fortunate. Within two years, all but two of the establishments were destroyed, as 60,000 Christian and "civilized" converts carried off for sale to São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. São Paulo ( is the largest city in Brazil, with its metropolitan area ranking among the largest urban areas in the world Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil The attacks were usually on Sunday, when the whole mission population was gathered for Mass. The Mass is the Eucharistic celebration in the Latin liturgical rites of the Roman Catholic Church. Usually, the priests were spared, but several were killed while ministering to the wounded or pleading with the murderers.
The survival of Guayrá missions were in jeopardy. The few thousand Indians were left from nearly 100,000 just before the Paulista invasion. Father Antonio Ruiz de Montoya purchased 10,000 cattle, and was able to transform the Indians from farmers into stock raisers. Antonio Ruiz de Montoya (b at Lima, Peru, on 13 June[[ 585]] d Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family A farmer is a person who raises living organisms for food or raw materials Soon, work began to prosper, and under Fathers Rançoncier and Romero the Uruguay missions were re-established. However, in 1632 an the old enemy, the Mamelucos, discovered a new line of attack from the south. Mameluco is a term of Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a European and an Amerindian. In 1638, despite some successful resistance, all twelve of the missions beyond the Uruguay were abandoned and their people consolidated with the community of the Missions Territory. In the last raid Father Afaro was killed.
In the same year Father Montoya, after having successfully opposed the governor's and Bishop of Asunción's attempts to reduce the liberties of the Indians and the mission administration, sailed for Europe. On his trip he was successful in receiving a letters from Pope Urban VIII forbidding the enslavement of the mission Indians under the severest church penalties, and from King Philip IV of Spain, permitting Indians to carry firearms for defense, and to be trained to use them by veteran soldiers who had become Jesuits. Pope Philip IV (es ''Felipe IV'' pt ''Filipe III'' ( 8 April, 1605 &ndash 17 September, 1665) was King of Spain between 1621 and
When the next Paulista army, 800 strong, attacked in 1641 they were met by a body of Christian Guaraní armed with guns on the Acaray River. In two battles, the Paulista army suffered a defeat that warded off invasions for ten years. In 1651, the war between Spain and Portugal encouraged another Paulista attack intended to gain territory for Portugal. Before Spanish troops could arrive to help defend the missions, the fathers themselves led a Guaraní army against the enemy. In 1732, at their greatest prosperity, the Guaraní missions were guarded by a well-drilled and well-equipped army of 7,000 Indians. Year 1732 ( MDCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a On more than one occasion this mission army, accompanied by their priests, defended the Spanish colony.
The ruins of several of the missions still remain. The missions were laid out in a uniform plan. The buildings were grouped about a central square, the church and store-houses at one end, and the dwellings of the Indians, in long barracks, forming the other three sides. Each family had its own separate apartment, but one veranda and one roof served for perhaps a hundred families. The churches were of stone or fine wood, with lofty towers, elaborate sculptures, richly adorned altars, and the statuary imported from Italy and Spain. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The priests' quarters, the commissary, the stables, the armory, the workshop, and the hospital also usually of stone, formed an inner square adjoining the church. A hospital is an institution for Health care providing treatment by specialised staff and equipment and often but not always providing for The plaza itself was a level grass plot kept cropped by sheep. The Indian houses were sometimes of stone, but more often of adobe or cane, with home-made furniture or religious pictures, often made by the Indian themselves. Adobe bricks are a Natural building material made from Sand, Clay, water and some kind of fibrous or Organic material ( Sticks,
Smaller missions had two priests, whereas larger missions had more. Populations varied from 2,000 to 7,000. In the morning, the rising sun was greeted by a chorus of children's hymns, followed by Mass and breakfast, after which the workers went to their tasks. "The Jesuits marshalled their neophytes to the sound of music, and in procession to the fields, with a saint borne high aloft, the community each day at sunrise took its way. Along the way at stated intervals were shrines of saints where they prayed, and sang hymns between shrines. As the procession advanced it became gradually smaller as groups of Indians dropped off to work the various fields and finally the priest and acolyte with the musicians returned alone" (Graham, 178-9). At noon each group assembled for the Angelus, after which came dinner and a siesta; work was then resumed until evening. The Angelus ( Latin for Angel) is a Christian devotion in memory of the Incarnation. A siesta ( is a short nap taken in the early afternoon often after the midday Meal. After supper came the rosary and sleep. On rainy days they worked indoors. Frequent festivals with sham battles, fireworks, concerts, and dances, prevented monotony. Beleaguered Castle is a Solitaire Card game played with a deck of 52 Playing cards It is one of the games touted as " Freecell without cells"
Aside from the farm each man would typically had his own garden. In addition to agriculture, stock raising, and the cultivation of the maté. Jesuits introduced many trades and arts that were a part of Europe. It was not uncommon for missions to have many different types of trades within their communities. Cotton weavers, tanneries, carpenters, tailors, hat makers, coopers, boat builders, silversmiths, musicians, painters, and turners could sometimes be found in these communities. Tanning is the process of converting Putrescible skin into non-putrescible Leather, usually with Tannin, an Acidic Chemical compound A carpenter (builder is a skilled craftsman who performs carpentry - a wide range of Woodworking that includes constructing buildings, A tailor is a person whose occupation is to sew and scissor menswear style jackets and the skirts or trousers that go with them Traditionally a cooper is someone who makes Wooden staved vessels of a conical form of greater length than breadth bound A boat is a Watercraft of modest size designed to float or plane on water and provide transport over it A silversmith is a person who works primarily making objects in solid Silver; historically the training and guild organization of Goldsmiths included silversmiths A musician is a person who plays or writes Music. Musicians can be classified by their roles in creating or performing music An instrumentalist plays a Painting (pān'tīng in Art, is the practice of applying Color to a Surface (support base such as e They also had printers to work their printing presses to print the many books and manuscripts produced, such those made by the monks in European monasteries (Graham). A printer is a company that provides commercial Printing services often also offering Typesetting and Book-binding services A manuscript is any Document that is Written by hand as opposed to being printed or reproduced in some other way MONK is a Monte Carlo software package for simulating nuclear processes particularly for the purpose of determining the neutron multiplication factor or k-effective
The goods that were produced at the missions, including that from the increase of the herds, were sold in Buenos Aires and other markets, under supervision of the fathers. Buenos Aires is the Capital and largest city of Argentina. It is geographically located on the southern shore of the Río de la Plata, on the southeastern The proceeds earned were divided between a common fund, the workers, and helpless dependents.
A high degree of emphasis was put on education as early training was regarded as the key to future success. (Page, 503) Much of the instruction was conducted in Guaraní; which was still the prevailing language of the country, but Spanish was also taught in every school. In this way, the Jesuits hoped to transformed the Indians into communities of peaceful, industrious, highly-skilled Christian workers among whom idleness, crime, and poverty were alike unknown.
In 1732, the Guaraní missions numbered thirty, with 141,252 Christian Indians. Year 1732 ( MDCCXXXII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Two years later a smallpox epidemic killed approximately 30,000 of these. Smallpox is an Infectious disease unique to humans caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. In 1765, a second outbreak killed approximately 12,000 more, and then spread westward through the tribes of the Chaco. Year 1765 ( MDCCLXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Chaco Tribe built complex stone edifices that aligned with solar and lunar trajectories.
In 1750, a treaty between Spain and Portugal (the Treaty of Madrid) transferred to Portugal the territory of the seven missions on the Uruguay, and the Indians were ordered to be removed. Year 1750 ( MDCCL) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The Treaty of Madrid was a document signed by Ferdinand VI of Spain and John V of Portugal on January 13 1750, concerning their empires and status However, those Indians knew the Portuguese as slave-hunters, and refused to leave and the Spanish and Portuguese armies. Seven years of guerrilla warfare killed thousands of Indians and nearly ruined the missions (see Guarani War). Guerrilla warfare is the unconventional warfare and combat with which a small group of combatants use mobile tactics (ambushes raids etc The Guarani War (Guerra Guaranítica of 1756, also called the War of the Seven Reductions, was between the Guarani tribes of seven Jesuit Reductions The Jesuits secured a royal decree restoring the disputed mission territory to Spanish jurisdiction. Two missions in 1747, and a third in 1760 were established in the sub-tribe of the Itatines, or Tobatines, in Central Paraguay, far north of the older mission group. Year 1747 ( MDCCXLVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a In one of these, San Joaquin (1747), Martin Dobrizhoffer ministered for eight years. Martin Dobrizhoffer ( September 7, 1717 - July 17, 1791) was an Austrian Roman Catholic Missionary.
In 1767, the Jesuits were expelled from Spanish dominions, by royal edict. The Suppression of the Jesuits in Portugal, France, the Two Sicilies, Parma and the Spanish Empire by 1767 was a result Year 1767 ( MDCCLXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Fearing the event, viceroy Antonio María Bucareli y Ursúa entrusted the execution of the mandate in 1768 to two officers with a force of 500 troops. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the Monarch. Antonio María de Bucareli y Ursúa marqués de Valleheroso y conde de Jerena (sometimes spelled Bucareli y Urzúa) ( January 21, 1717, Seville Despite the mission army of 14,000, the Jesuits submitted without resistance.
The missions were turned over to priests of other orders, chiefly Franciscans, but under a code of regulations drawn up by the viceroy and modelled largely upon the very Jesuit system which he had condemned. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic Under divided authority, uncertain government support, and without the love or confidence of the Indians, the new teachers soon lost courage and the missions rapidly declined. The Indians went back by thousands to their original forests or become vagabond outcasts in towns. By the official census of 1801, less than 45,000 Indians remained, cattle, sheep, and horses had disappeared, the fields and orchards were overgrown and cut down and the splendid churches were in ruins. Year 1801 ( MDCCCI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting on Tuesday An orchard is an intentional planting of Trees or Shrubs maintained for Food production. The long period of revolutionary struggle that followed completed the destruction. In 1814 the mission Indians numbered but 8,000 and in 1848 the few who remained were declared citizens.
However, the Guaraní people and culture persists. Nearly all the forest tribes on the borders of Paraguay are Guaraní. Many are descendants of mission exiles. In Paraguay Guaraní lineage predominates in the population and the Guaraní language is spoken in most provinces to this day.
The Guaraní language has been much cultivated, its literature covering a wide range of subjects. Guaraní /gwaraˈni/ (local name avañe'ẽ) is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily of the Guaraní /gwaraˈni/ (local name avañe'ẽ) is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupí-Guaraní subfamily of the Many works written by the fathers, and wholly or partly in the native language, were issued from the mission press in Loreto. Among the most important treatises upon the language are the "Tesoro de la Lengua Guaraní"(Madrid, 1639), by Father Montoya, the heroic leader of the exodus, published in Paris and Leipzig in 1876; and the "Catecismo de la Lengua Guaraní" of Father Diego Díaz de la Guerra (Madrid, 1630). Paris (ˈpærɨs in English; in French) is the Capital of France and the country's largest city This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong
The Guaraní were also later described, amongst many other historical documents in existence today, in 1903, by Croatian explorers Mirko and Stjepan Seljan. Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Mirko Seljan ( April 5, 1871 &ndash c 1912/13 and Stevo Seljan ( August 19, 1875 &ndash June 7, 1936) also Several English words can be traced to Guaraní roots, such as "tapioca", "toucan" and "jaguar. "
Presently, the language is still the main binding characteristic of Guaraní people. The Argentinian communities speak mainly the mbya-guarani as opposed to the tupi-guarani spoken in Paraguay and Brazil. However, these two varieties are mutually-intelligible. Paraguay is a bilingual country and some of its Spanish speaking population learn Guarani and vice-versa. The Guarani villages located in the south of Brazil and in the north of Argentina are more marginalized due to a European immigration following the First and Second World Wars. Many Guarani do not speak Spanish and the European immigrant population do not speak Guarani either. The Mbya-Guarani still live in secluded villages and only the "cacique" and some other officials in their community will learn Spanish. Cacique or Cazique (female form Cacica) from the Taíno word for the Pre-Columbian tribal chiefs or leaders, of the Taino Recently the government of Argentina has partly financed bilingual schools in the northern province of Misiones.
Guarani Poets & Writers