The Grimm-Hoffmann Affair was a short-lived scandal that seriously brought into question Switzerland's neutrality during World War One. Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation For other uses of Neutral and Neutrality see Neutral A neutral country takes no side in a War between other parties World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Robert Grimm, a socialist politician, traveled to Russia as an activist to negotiate a separate peace between Russia and Germany, in order to end the war on the Eastern Front in the interests of socialism and pacifism. Robert Grimm ( 16 April 1881 – 8 March 1958) was a Swiss Socialist politician and former President of the Swiss National Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change The phrase " separate peace " refers to a nation's agreement to cease military hostilities with another even though the former country had previously entered into a Military Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Misrepresenting himself as a diplomat and an actual representative of the Swiss government, he made progress but was forced to admit fraud and return home when the Allies found out about the proposed peace deal. Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting Negotiations between representatives of groups or states Neutrality was restored by the resignation of Arthur Hoffmann, the Swiss Federal Councillor who had supported Grimm. Arthur Hoffmann ( June 18, 1857 &ndash July 23, 1927) was a Swiss Politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council The Swiss Federal Council (Schweizerischer Bundesrat Conseil fédéral suisse Consiglio federale svizzero Cussegl federal
In 1917 the war was still going on. German troops were divided in fighting the Russians on the Eastern Front and British, French and other Allied forces in the west. The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Eastern Front was a theatre of war during World War I in Central and primarily Eastern Europe. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Entente Powers (from Triple Entente) were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. Following the outbreak of World War I in 1914 the German army opened the Western Front by first invading Luxembourg and Belgium, then gaining
The Allies insisted that this situation be maintained in order to keep German troops busy on both sides rather than all the German forces focusing on one single front.
Then, Tsar Nicholas II of Russia was overthrown in the 1917 February Revolution and Alexander Kerensky took power. Tsar csar and tzar redirect here For other uses see Tsar (disambiguation. The February Revolution (Февральская революция in 1917 in Russia was the first stage of the Russian Revolution of 1917. Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский Aleksandr Fjëdorovich Kerenskij) ( June 11, 1970) served Lenin, the leader of the Russian Bolsheviks, was living in exile in Switzerland. The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists ( Большевик Большевист (singular, derived from bolshe, "more" were a faction Switzerland (English pronunciation; Schweiz Swiss German: Schwyz or Schwiiz Suisse Svizzera Svizra officially the Swiss Confederation Unlike Kerensky, Lenin was willing to make peace with Germany, whatever the cost and regardless of the views of Russia's Western allies. It was for this reason that the Germans assisted in Lenin's return to Russia.
Robert Grimm was a socialist member of the Swiss National Council and a known associate of Lenin. Robert Grimm ( 16 April 1881 – 8 March 1958) was a Swiss Socialist politician and former President of the Swiss National Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution The National Council of Switzerland (Nationalrat Conseil National Consiglio Nazionale Cussegl Naziunal is the larger Chamber of the parliament with 200 seats He met Arthur Hoffmann, the Federal Councillor responsible for the Political Department and head of the Swiss foreign ministry. Arthur Hoffmann ( June 18, 1857 &ndash July 23, 1927) was a Swiss Politician and member of the Swiss Federal Council The Swiss Federal Council (Schweizerischer Bundesrat Conseil fédéral suisse Consiglio federale svizzero Cussegl federal The foreign relations of Switzerland are the primary responsibility of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs (FDFA Grimm told Hoffmann that if he were to go to Petrograd, the Russian capital, he could persuade the Russian government to make peace with Germany. Saint Petersburg ( tr: Sankt-Peterburg,) is a city and a federal subject of Russia located on the Neva River Hoffman gave Grimm his support.
Grimm appears to have exceeded his mandate though. In Petrograd he claimed to be an actual representative of the Swiss government (when in fact he was not). When a telegram sent between him and Hoffman, stating that a separate peace could be possible, was made public, there was outrage from the Western powers.
Hoffman, who had not consulted his colleagues over his initiative, was forced to resign. He was replaced by Gustave Ador, head of the International Red Cross. Gustave Ador ( December 23, 1845 - March 31, 1928) was a Swiss politician The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an International humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers worldwide who stated
Grimm was expelled from Russia. His plan had been to enable Lenin to seize power and provoke a worldwide Socialist revolution. This is about the concept of world revolution in Marxist theory Back in Switzerland, just as the war was about to end, he called on a nationwide strike. His Russian Bolshevik colleagues were expelled and the strike ended when Grimm realised that the country was not ready for revolution.