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The Green Revolution refers to the transformation of agriculture that began in 1943 in the developing world, and led in some places to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Developing countries are countries that haven't reached Western-style standards of democratic government free market economy industrialization social programs and human rights guaranties The associated transformation has continued as the result of programs of agricultural research, extension, and infrastructural development, instigated and largely funded by the Rockefeller Foundation, along with the Ford Foundation and other major agencies. The Rockefeller Foundation (RF is a prominent Philanthropic organization and Private foundation based at 420 Fifth Avenue New York City. The Ford Foundation is a Private foundation incorporated in Michigan and based in New York City created to fund programs that were chartered in 1936 by   The consensus among some agronomists is that the Green Revolution has allowed food production to keep pace with worldwide population growth. Population growth is the change in Population over time and can be quantified as the change in the number of individuals in a population using "per unit time" for The Green Revolution has had major social and ecological impacts, and with multi-million dollar backing from organizations including the Gates Foundation, the deployment of Green Revolution policies will continue for some time. The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (B&MGF is the largest transparently operated Private foundation in the world founded by Bill and Melinda
The term "Green Revolution" was first used in 1968 by former USAID director William Gaud, who noted the spread of the new technologies and said, "These and other developments in the field of agriculture contain the makings of a new revolution. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the United States federal government organization responsible for most non- military It is not a violent Red Revolution like that of the Soviets, nor is it a White Revolution like that of the Shah of Iran. The October Revolution (Октябрьская революция Oktyabrskaya revolyutsiya) also known as the Soviet Revolution The White Revolution (انقلاب سفید Enghelāb-e Sefid) was a far-reaching series of reforms launched in 1963 by the last Shah of Iran I call it the Green Revolution. "
With the experience of agricultural development begun in Mexico by Norman Borlaug in 1943 judged as a success, the Rockefeller Foundation sought to spread the Green Revolution to other nations. The introduction of high-yielding varieties of seeds after 1965 and the increased use of Fertilizers and Irrigation are known collectively as the Green Revolution The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25 1914 is an American Agronomist, Humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and has been called the father of the The Office of Special Studies in Mexico became an informal international research institution in 1959, and in 1963 it formally became CIMMYT, The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (in Spanish: Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo CIMMYT) is one of the 15
In 1961 India was on the brink of mass famine. Norman Borlaug was invited to India by the adviser to the Indian minister of agriculture M. S. Swaminathan. Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25 1914 is an American Agronomist, Humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and has been called the father of the Monkombu Sambasivan Swaminathan (மான்கொம்பு சாம்பசிவன் சுவாமிநாதன் is an Indian agriculture scientist Despite bureaucratic hurdles imposed by India's grain monopolies, the Ford Foundation and Indian government collaborated to import wheat seed from CIMMYT. Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success. Punjab (ਪੰਜਾਬ पंजाब pəɲdʒaːb is a state in northwest India. India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals. 
India soon adopted IR8 - a rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown properly with fertilizer and irrigation. The International Rice Research Institute (IRRI is an autonomous Non-profit, Agricultural Research and training organization with offices in more In 1968, Indian agronomist S. K. De Datta published his findings that IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice.  IR8 was a success throughout Asia, and dubbed the "Miracle Rice. "
In the 1960s, rice yields in India were about two tons per hectare; by the mid-1990s, they had risen to six tons per hectare. In the 1970s, rice cost about $550 a ton; in 2001, it cost less than $200 a ton. India became one of the world's most successful rice producers, and is now a major rice exporter, shipping nearly 4. 5 million tons in 2006. 
Famine in India, once accepted as inevitable, has not returned since the introduction of Green Revolution agriculture. Owing to its almost entire dependence upon the Monsoon rains India is more liable
An international group coordinating the efforts of the local groups was formed in 1971 under the urging of the Rockefeller Foundation. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, CGIAR, has added many research centers throughout the world. The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR was originally created at the initiative of the Rockefeller Foundation, which had sponsored international
CGIAR has responded, at least in part, to criticisms of Green Revolution methodologies. This began in the 1980s, and mainly was a result of pressure from donor organizations.  Methods like Agroecosystem Analysis and Farming System Research have been adopted to gain a more holistic view of agriculture. Methods like Rapid Rural Appraisal and Participatory Rural Appraisal have been adopted to help scientists understand the problems faced by farmers and even give farmers a role in the development process.
There have been numerous attempts to introduce the successful concepts from the Mexican and south Asian projects into Africa. These programs have generally been less successful, for a number of reasons. Reasons cited include widespread corruption, insecurity, a lack of infrastructure, and a general lack of will on the part of the governments. Political corruption is the use of governmental powers by government officials for illegitimate private gain
A recent program in western Africa is attempting to introduce a new high-yield variety of rice known as "Nericas". Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many Nericas yields about 30% more rice under normal conditions, and can double yields with small amounts of fertilizer and very basic irrigation. However the program has been beset by problems getting the rice into the hands of farmers, and to date the only success has been in Guinea where it currently accounts for 16% of rice cultivation. Guinea, officially Republic of Guinea (pronounced /ˈgɪni/ République de Guinée is a country in West Africa, formerly known as French Guinea 
The projects within the Green Revolution spread technologies that had already existed, but had not been widely used outside of industrialized nations. These technologies included pesticides, irrigation projects, and synthetic nitrogen fertilizer. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Irrigation is an artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant
The novel technological development of the Green Revolution was the production of what some referred to as “miracle seeds. ”
Agronomists created strains of maize, wheat, and rice that are generally referred to as HYVs or “high-yielding varieties. Agronomists (called Agrologists in Canada are scientists who specialize in Agronomy, which is the science of utilizing plants for food fuel feed and Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. Rice is a Cereal foodstuff which forms an important part of the diet of many people worldwide and as such it is a staple food for many High-yielding varieties (HYVs are any of a group of genetically enhanced Cultivars of crops such as Rice, Maize and Wheat that have an increased ” HYVs have an increased nitrogen-absorbing potential compared to other varieties. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge, or fall over before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. Norin 10 wheat, a variety developed by Orville Vogel from Japanese dwarf wheat varieties, was instrumental in developing Green Revolution wheat cultivars. Wheat Norin 10 is a semi-dwarf cultivar of Wheat, with very large ears which was bred in the experimental station of Iwate Prefecture Orville A Vogel was US Department of Agriculture--Agriculture Research Service scientist at Washington State University from 1931-1972 IR8, the first widely implemented HYV rice to be developed by IRRI, was created through a cross between an Indonesian variety named “Peta” and a Chinese variety named “Dee Geo Woo Gen. ”
With advances in molecular genetics, the mutant genes responsible for reduced height(rht), gibberellin insensitive (gai1) and slender rice (slr1) in Arabidopsis and rice were identified as cellular signaling components gibberellic acid (a phytohormone involved in regulating stem growth via its effect on cell division) and subsequently cloned. Molecular genetics is the field of Biology which studies the structure and function of Genes at a molecular level A mutant is an individual organism or new genetic character arising or resulting from an instance of Mutation, which is a base-pair sequence change within the DNA History See also History of genetics The existence of genes was first suggested by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884 who in the 1860s studied inheritance Arabidopsis ( A-ra-bi-dóp-sis, rockcress) is a genus in the family Brassicaceae. Cell signaling is part of a Complex system of Communication that governs basic cellular activities and coordinates cell actions Gibberellic acid (also called Gibberellin A3, GA, and ( GA3) is a hormone found in plants Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth A stem is one of two main structural axes of a Vascular plant. Cloning in Biology is the process of producing populations of genetically-identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as Bacteria, Insects Stem growth in the mutant background is significantly reduced leading to the dwarf phenotype. A stem is one of two main structural axes of a Vascular plant. In Horticulture dwarfing is considered a desirable characteristic in modern Orchards where genetic dwarfs may be selected and propagated or more often scions are A phenotype is any observable characteristic of an Organism, such as its morphology, Development, biochemical or physiological properties Photosynthetic investment in the stem is reduced dramatically as the shorter plants are inherently more stable mechanically. Photosynthesis is a Metabolic pathway that converts Light Energy into Chemical energy. Assimilates become redirected to grain production, amplifying in particular the effect of chemical fertilizers on commercial yield. . . .
HYVs significantly outperform traditional varieties in the presence of adequate irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. In the absence of these inputs, traditional varieties may outperform HYVs.
Cereal production more than doubled in developing nations between the years 1961 – 1985.  Yields of rice, maize, and wheat increased steadily during that period.  The production increases can be attributed roughly equally to irrigation, fertilizer, and seed development, at least in the case of Asian rice. 
While agricultural output increased as a result of the Green Revolution, the energy input into the process (that is, the energy that must be expended to produce a crop) has also increased at a greater rate, so that the ratio of crops produced to energy input has decreased over time. In Physics and other Sciences energy (from the Greek grc ἐνέργεια - Energeia, "activity operation" from grc ἐνεργός Green Revolution techniques also heavily rely on chemical fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides, some of which must be developed from fossil fuels, making agriculture increasingly reliant on petroleum products. Fertilizers ( also spelt fertiliser are chemical compounds given to Plants to promote growth they are usually applied either through the soil for uptake by plant A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. A herbicide is used to kill unwanted Plants Selective herbicides kill specific targets while leaving the desired Crop relatively unharmed Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit  Proponents of the Peak Oil theory fear that a future decline in oil and gas production would lead to a decline in food production or even a Malthusian catastrophe. A Malthusian catastrophe (or Malthusian check, crisis, dilemma, disaster, trap, controls, or limit) is a return 
The effects of the Green Revolution on global food security are difficult to understand because of the complexities involved in food systems. Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it Food security refers to the availability of food and one's access to it
The world population has grown by about four billion since the beginning of the Green Revolution and most believe that, without the Revolution, there would be greater famine and malnutrition. The world population is the total number of living Humans on Earth at a given time A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation Malnutrition is a general term for a medical condition caused by an improper or insufficient diet. India saw annual wheat production rise from 10 million tons in the 1960s to 73 million in 2006. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  The average person in the developing world consumes about 25% more calories per day now than before the Green Revolution.  Between 1950 and 1984, as the Green Revolution transformed agriculture around the globe, world grain production increased by 250%. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture
The production increases fostered by the Green Revolution are widely credited with having helped to avoid widespread famine, and for feeding billions of people. A famine is a widespread shortage of food that may apply to any Faunal species which phenomenon is usually accompanied by regional Malnutrition, Starvation 
Some criticisms generally involve some variation of the Malthusian principle of population. A Malthusian catastrophe (or Malthusian check, crisis, dilemma, disaster, trap, controls, or limit) is a return Such concerns often revolve around the idea that the Green Revolution is unsustainable, and argue that humanity is currently in a state of overpopulation with regards to the sustainable carrying capacity of the earth. Overpopulation refers to a condition where an Organism 's numbers exceed the Carrying capacity of its Habitat.
Malthusian predictions of famine have been common throughout the history of the Green Revolution. The team sent to survey Mexican agriculture in 1941 for the Rockefeller Foundation cited the high birth rate and relative inadequacy of its agriculture as a cause for concern. This page consists of two tables Table 1 is sourced from the CIA World Factbook'''  In 1959, the Ford Foundation carried out a study in India that stated the nation’s population would outstrip its food supply by 1966, although the validity of its methodology was a subject of criticism. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country  At Borlaug's Nobel acceptance speech he stated, ". . . we are dealing with two opposing forces, the scientific power of food production and the biologic power of human reproduction. "
Malthusian predictions have frequently failed to materialize. In 1798 Thomas Malthus made his prediction of impending famine.  The world's population had doubled by 1923 and then had doubled again by 1973 without fulfilling Malthus' prediction. Malthusian Paul R. Ehrlich, in his 1968 book The Population Bomb, said that India would never feed itself and claimed that "India couldn't possibly feed two hundred million more people by 1980" and "Hundreds of millions of people will starve to death in spite of any crash programs. Paul Ralph Ehrlich (born May 29 1932 in Philadelphia Pennsylvania) is a renowned Entomologist specializing in Lepidoptera (butterflies The Population Bomb (1968 is a book written by Paul R Ehrlich. " Ehrlich's predictions failed to materialize when India became self sustaining in cereal production in 1974 (six years later) as a result of the introduction of Norman Borlaug's dwarf wheat varieties. Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25 1914 is an American Agronomist, Humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and has been called the father of the 
To some modern Western sociologists and writers, increasing food production is not synonymous with increasing food security, and is only part of a larger equation. For example, Harvard professor Amartya Sen claimed large historic famines were not caused by decreases in food supply, but by socioeconomic dynamics and a failure of public action. Amartya Kumar Sen CH (Hon (অমর্ত্য কুমার সেন Ômorto Kumar Shen) (born 3 November 1933) is an Indian This is an incomplete list of major Famines ordered by date A complete list will almost certainly never become available  However, economist Peter Bowbrick has accused Sen of misrepresenting historical data, telling outright lies and being wrong on his theory of famines. In fact Bowbrick argues that Sen's views coincide with that of the Bengal government at the time of the Bengal famine of 1943 and the policies Sen advocates failed to relieve the famine. The Bengal famine of 1943 is one amongst the several Famines that occurred in British administered Bengal.
Some have challenged the value of the increased food production of Green Revolution agriculture. Miguel A. Altieri, a self-proclaimed "agroecologist" and peasant-advocate, writes that the comparison between traditional systems of agriculture and Green Revolution agriculture has been unfair, because Green Revolution agriculture produces monocultures of cereal grains, while traditional agriculture usually incorporates polycultures. Monoculture is the agricultural practice of producing or growing one single crop over a wide area Polyculture is agriculture using multiple crops in the same space in imitation of the diversity of natural ecosystems and avoiding large stands of single crops or Monoculture  Additionally, some claim traditional systems of agriculture that were displaced by the Green Revolution such as the chinampas in Mexico or raised-field rice farming in Asia can be highly-productive. Chinampa is a term describing a method of ancient Mesoamerican agriculture which used small Rectangle -shaped areas of Fertile Arable land  Critics point out that these traditional forms of agriculture produced less food than Green Revolution crops, and were prone to famine, as evidenced by the frequency of famine in these communities.
There are several claims about how the Green Revolution may have decreased food security for some people. One such claim involves the shift of subsistence-oriented cropland to cropland oriented towards production of grain for export and/or animal feed. For example, the Green Revolution replaced much of the land used for pulses that fed Indian peasants for wheat, which did not make up a large portion of the peasant diet.  Also, the pesticides involved in rice production eliminated fish and weedy green vegetables from the diets of Asian rice farmers. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest. Asian or Asiatic is a Demonym for people from Asia. However the use of the term varies by country and person often referring to people from a particular  Critics of this view counter that this presupposes an inherent superiority of subsistence living, which tends to be romanticized in rich Western countries.
The Green Revolution is unpopular among many leftists because of its context within the Cold War. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the
A major critic of the Green Revolution, the US investigative journalist Mark Dowie, writes that the primary objective of the program was a Cold War geopolitical one: providing food for the populace in underdeveloped countries which thus brought social stability and weakened the fomenting of communist insurgency. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Citing internal Foundation documents, he states that the Ford Foundation had a greater concern than Rockefeller in this area. 
Additionally, it is maintained elsewhere that there is a significant amount of evidence suggesting the Green Revolution had the effect of weakening socialist movements in many nations. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution In countries like India, Mexico, and the Philippines, technological solutions were sought as an alternative to expanding agrarian reform initiatives, the latter of which were often linked to socialist politics. 
The transition from traditional agriculture in which inputs were generated on-farm to Green Revolution agriculture, which required the purchase of inputs, lead to the widespread establishment of rural credit institutions. Smaller farmers often went into debt, which in many cases result in a loss of their farmland.  Because wealthier farmers had better access to credit and land, the Green Revolution increased class disparities. Because some regions were able to adopt Green Revolution agriculture more readily than others (for political or geographical reasons), interregional economic disparities increased as well. Many small farmers are hurt by the dropping prices resulting from increased production overall.
The new economic difficulties of small holder farmers and landless farm workers led to increased rural-urban migration. The increase in food production led to a cheaper food for urban dwellers, and the increase in urban population increased the potential for industrialization.
In the most basic sense, the Green Revolution was a product of globalization as evidenced in the creation of international agricultural research centers that shared information, and with transnational funding from groups like the Rockefeller Foundation, Ford Foundation, and USAID. Globalization (or globalisation) in its literal sense is the process of transformation of local or regional phenomena into global ones Additionally, the inputs required in Green Revolution agriculture created new markets for seed and chemical corporations, many of which were based in the United States. For example, Standard Oil of New Jersey established hundreds of distributors in the Philippines to sell agricultural packages composed of HYV seed, fertilizer, and pesticides. Exxon is a brand of fuel sold by ExxonMobil. History Exxon formally replaced the Esso, Enco, 
Green Revolution agriculture increased the use of pesticides, which were necessary to limit the high levels of pest damage that inevitably occur in monocultures. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used to kill a pest.
Salinization, waterlogging, and lowering of water levels in certain areas are all consequences of increased irrigation. Soil salinity is the salt content in the soil Salt affected soils are caused by excess accumulation of salts typically most pronounced at the soil surface Waterlogging is a verbal noun meaning the saturation of such as ground or the filling of such as a Boat with Water. A spirit level or bubble level is an instrument designed to indicate whether a surface is Level or Plumb. 
The spread of Green Revolution agriculture affected both agricultural biodiversity and wild biodiversity. Biodiversity is the variation of Life forms within a given Ecosystem, Biome or for the entire Earth. There is little argument that the Green Revolution acted to reduce agricultural biodiversity, as it relied upon just a few high-yield varieties of each crop. This has led to concerns about the susceptibility of a food supply to pathogens that cannot be controlled by agrochemicals, as well as the permanent loss of many valuable genetic traits bred into traditional varieties over thousands of years. To address these concerns, massive seed banks such as CGIAR’s International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (now Bioversity International) have been established (see Svalbard Global Seed Vault). The Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research (CGIAR was originally created at the initiative of the Rockefeller Foundation, which had sponsored international The Svalbard Global Seed Vault is a secure Seedbank located on the Norwegian island of Spitsbergen near the town of Longyearbyen in the remote
There are varying opinions about the effect of the Green Revolution on wild biodiversity. One hypothesis speculates that by increasing production per unit of land area, agriculture will not need to expand into new, uncultivated areas to feed a growing human population. A counter-hypothesis speculates that biodiversity was sacrificed because traditional systems of agriculture that were displaced sometimes incorporated practices to preserve wild biodiversity, and because the Green Revolution expanded agricultural development into new areas where it was once unprofitable or too arid.
Nevertheless, the world community has clearly acknowledged the negative aspects of agricultural expansion as the 1992 Rio Treaty, signed by 189 nations, has generated numerous national Biodiversity Action Plans which assign significant biodiversity loss to agriculture's expansion into new domains. This article is about a conservation biology topic For other uses of BAP see BAP (disambiguation.
The gene flow from a genetically engineered (made to be stronger) plants to non GE wild plants tend to increase weed populations. Green revolution is an Evolution and practice of advanced technology in the middle of 20th century which helped keep the Food production in pace with the Genetic pollution is undesirable Gene flow into wild populations Also the uncontrollable use of chemicals and pesticides has resulted in sharp increase of diseases such as cancer and lung diseases. This can be seen in Indian Punjab and Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island
Norman Borlaug has dismissed most claims of critics, but does take certain concerns seriously. Norman Ernest Borlaug (born March 25 1914 is an American Agronomist, Humanitarian, Nobel laureate, and has been called the father of the He states that his work has been "a change in the right direction, but it has not transformed the world into a Utopia". Of environmental lobbyists he has stated, "some of the environmental lobbyists of the Western nations are the salt of the earth, but many of them are elitists. They've never experienced the physical sensation of hunger. They do their lobbying from comfortable office suites in Washington or Brussels. If they lived just one month amid the misery of the developing world, as I have for fifty years, they'd be crying out for tractors and fertilizer and irrigation canals and be outraged that fashionable elitists back home were trying to deny them these things".