The Great Migration was the movement of approximately seven million African Americans out of the Southern United States to the North, Midwest and West from 1910 to 1970. The Second Great Migration was the migration of more than 5 million African Americans from the South to the other three regions of the United States The Southern United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American South, Dixie, or simply the South &mdashconstitutes a large distinctive The Northern United States is a large geographic region of the United States of America. The Western United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American West or simply the West &mdashtraditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost Precise estimates of the number of migrants depend on the time frame. African Americans migrated to escape racism, seek employment opportunities in industrial cities, and to get better education for their children, all of which were widely perceived as leading to a better life. List of racism-related topics|Racism by country Racism, by its simplest definition is the belief that race is the primary determinant of human traits and capacities and that Some historians differentiate between the Great Migration (1910-1940), numbering about 1. 6 million migrants, and the Second Great Migration, from 1940-1970. In the Second Migration five million or more people relocated but migrants moved to more new places. Many moved from Texas and Louisiana to California where there were jobs in the defense industry. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. The State of Louisiana ( or, État de Louisiane, pronounced) is a state located in the southern region of the United States of America California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. From 1965-1970, 14 states of the South, especially Alabama, Louisiana and Mississippi, contributed to a large net migration of blacks to the other three Census-designated regions of the United States. Alabama (formally the State of Alabama;) is a State located in the southern region of the United States of America. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States 
Since then scholars have noted a reverse migration underway that gathered strength through the last 35 years of the 20th century. It has been named the New Great Migration and identified in visible demographic changes since 1965. Great Migration (African American The New Great Migration (African American is the term for demographic changes from 1965-present that are a reversal of the previous 35-year trend Most of the data is from 1965-2000. The data encompasses the movement of African Americans back to the South following de-industrialization in Northeastern and Midwestern cities, the growth of high-quality jobs in the "New South", and improving racial relations in the South. Many people moved back because of family and kinship ties. From 1995-2000, Georgia, Texas and Maryland were the states that attracted the most black college graduates. The State of Georgia ( is a state in the United States and was one of the original Thirteen Colonies that revolted against British rule While California was for decades a net gaining state for black migrants, in the late 1990s it lost more African Americans than it gained. 
When the Emancipation Proclamation was signed in 1863, less than eight percent of the African American population lived in the Northeast or Midwest. Great Migration (African American The New Great Migration (African American is the term for demographic changes from 1965-present that are a reversal of the previous 35-year trend In 1900, approximately ninety percent of African-Americans resided in former slave-holding states. Most African Americans migrated to New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore, Minneapolis, Detroit, Chicago, Milwaukee, St. Louis, Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, and Cleveland, as well as to many smaller industrial cities such as Buffalo and Flint to name a few. The City of New York Philadelphia (ˌfɪləˈdɛlfiə Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Cleveland is a City in the US state of Ohio and the County seat of Cuyahoga County, the most populous county in the state Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. Flint is a city in the US state of Michigan and is located along the Flint River, 66 miles (106 km northwest of Detroit. People tended to take the cheapest rail ticket possible. This resulted in, for example, people from Mississippi moving to Chicago and people from Texas moving to Los Angeles. Mississippi ( is a state located in the Deep South of the United States Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. Los Angeles (lɑˈsændʒələs los ˈaŋxeles in Spanish) is the largest City in the state of California and the American West
Between 1910 and 1930, the African American population rose by about twenty percent in Northern states, mostly in the biggest cities. Cities such as Chicago, Detroit, New York, and Cleveland had some of the biggest increases in the early part of the century. Because changes were concentrated in cities, urban tensions rose as African Americans and new or recent European immigrants, chiefly from rural societies, competed for jobs and housing with the white working class.
African Americans moved as individuals or small family groups. There was no government assistance, but sometimes northern industries recruited people. The primary factor for immigration was the racial climate in the South and terrorism from the KKK. Terrorism is the systematic use of terror especially as a means of coercion Ku Klux Klan ( KKK) is the name of several past and present secret domestic terrorist organizations in the United States, generally in the southern states that are In the North, there were better schools and adult men could vote (joined by women after 1920). Burgeoning industries meant there were job opportunities.
The Great Migration of African-Americans created the first large, urban black communities in the North. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Immigration Act of 1924, or Johnson-Reed Act, including the National Origins Act, Asian Exclusion Act, (43 Statutes-at-Large 153 was a United Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U This article is about the Great Mississippi Flood of 1927 For the Mississippi Flood of 1993 see Great Flood of 1993. It is conservatively estimated that 400,000 left the South during the two-year period of 1916-1918 to take advantage of a labor shortage created in the wake of the First World War.  The 20th century cultures of many of the United States' modern cities were forged in this period. For instance, in 1910, the African American population of Detroit was 6,000, by the start of the Great Depression in 1929, this figure had risen to 120,000. The Great Depression in the United States began on "Black Tuesday" with the Wall Street crash of October 1929 and rapidly spread Other cities, such as Chicago, St. Louis, Cleveland, Baltimore, Philadelphia and New York, also experienced surges in their African-American populations. Up until WWI, they had also been receiving hundreds of thousands of new immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. Major industrial cities were places of numerous languages, an influx of peoples from mostly rural cultures, and staggeringly rapid change in the early decades of the 20th century.
The rapid scale of change could be seen also in Chicago. In 1900 the city had a total population of 1,698,575.  By 1920 Chicago had increased by more than 1 million residents. Its population of 2,701,705 included more than 1,000,000 Catholics; 800,000 foreign-born immigrants; 125,000 Jews; and 110,000 African Americans. It had fifteen breweries and 20,000 speakeasies to keep things lively during Prohibition.  As did some other cities, Chicago received the most African American migrants in the second wave of the Great Migration; from 1940-1960, the African American population in the city grew from 278,000 to 813,000. The South Side of Chicago was considered the black capital of America. 
In the South, the departure of hundreds of thousands of African Americans caused the black percentage of the population in most Southern states to decrease. In Mississippi and South Carolina, for example, blacks decreased from about 60% of the population in 1930 to about 35% by 1970.
While the Great Migration helped educated African Americans obtain jobs, enabling a measure of class mobility, the migrants encountered significant forms of discrimination. The American middle class is an ambiguously defined Social class in the United States. Because so many people migrated in a short period of time, the African-American migrants were often resented by the white working class, fearing their ability to negotiate rates of pay or secure employment, was threatened by the influx of new labor competition. Sometimes those who were most fearful or resentful were the last immigrants of the 19th and new immigrants of the 20th c. In many cities, working classes tried to defend what they saw as "their" territories.
Nonetheless, African Americans made substantial gains in industrial employment, particularly in the steel, automobile, shipbuilding, and meatpacking industries. Between 1910 and 1920 the number of blacks employed in industry nearly doubled from 500,000 to 901,000. 
The migrants discovered racial discrimination in the North, even if it was sometimes more subtle than the South. Populations increased so rapidly among African-American migrants and new European immigrants both that there were housing shortages, and the newer groups competed even for the oldest, most rundown housing. Ethnic groups created territories they defended against change. Discrimination often kept African Americans to crowded neighborhoods, as in Chicago. More established populations of cities tended to move to newer housing as it was developing in the outskirts. Mortgage discrimination and redlining in inner city areas limited the newer African-American migrants' ability to determine their own housing, or even to get a fair price. Mortgage discrimination or mortgage lending discrimination is the practice of banks governments or other lending institutions denying Loans to one or more groups Redlining is the practice of denying or increasing the cost of services such as Banking, Insurance, access to jobs access to health care or even Supermarkets The inner city is the central area of a major city or metropolis In the long term, the National Housing Act of 1934 contributed to limiting the availability of loans to urban areas, particularly those areas inhabited by African Americans. The National Housing Act of 1934 was passed during the Great Depression in order to make Housing and home Mortgages more affordable 
As African Americans migrated, they became increasingly integrated into society. As they lived and worked more closely with whites, the divide existing between them became increasingly stark. This period marked the transition for many African Americans from lifestyles as rural farmers to urban industrial workers.
During the migration, migrants would often encounter residential discrimination in which white home owners and realtors would prevent migrants from purchasing homes or renting apartments in white neighborhoods. In addition, when blacks moved into white neighborhoods, whites would often react violently toward their new neighbors, including mass riots in front of their new neighbors' homes, bombings, and even murder. These tendencies contributed to maintaining the "racial divide" in the North, perhaps even accentuating it.
Since African-American migrants sustained many Southern cultural and linguistic traits, such cultural differences created a sense of "otherness" in terms of their reception by others who were living in the cities before them.  Stereotypes ascribed to "black" people during this period often were derived from the migrants' rural cultural traditions, which were maintained in stark contrast to the urban environments in which the people resided.