The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada-United States border. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway Freshwater is a word that refers to bodies of water such as Ponds lakes rivers and streams containing low concentrations of dissolved Salts and other Total dissolved The Canada – United States border is the international Border between Canada and the United States. Consisting of Lakes Superior, Michigan, Huron (or Michigan-Huron), Erie, and Ontario, they form the largest group of freshwater lakes on Earth. Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. Lake Michigan is one of the five Great Lakes of North America, and the only one located entirely within the United States. Lake Huron, bounded on the west by the US state of Michigan, and on the east by the province of Ontario, Canada, is one of the five Great Lake Michigan-Huron is a designation given to the body of water (part of the North American Great Lakes) traditionally considered to be two separate lakes Lake Michigan Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally Lake Ontario is one of the five Great Lakes of North America. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 They are sometimes referred to as inland seas or Canada and the United States' Third Coast. Third Coast is an American colloquialism sometimes used by locals to refer to the Great Lakes region.
The Great Lakes region contains not only the five main lakes themselves, but also numerous minor lakes and rivers, as well as approximately 35,000 islands.
|Lake||Lake Erie||Lake Huron||Lake Michigan||Lake Ontario||Lake Superior|
|Surface area||9,940 sq mi (25,700 km²)||23,010 sq mi (59,600 km²)||22,400 sq mi (58,000 km²)||7,540 sq mi (19,500 km²)||31,820 sq mi (82,400 km²)|
|Water volume||116 cu mi (480 km³)||849 cu mi (3,540 km³)||1,180 cu mi (4,900 km³)||393 cu mi (1,640 km³)||2,900 cu mi (12,000 km³)|
|Elevation||571 ft (174 m)||577 ft (176 m)||577 ft (176 m)||246 ft (75 m)||609 ft (186 m)|
|Average depth||62 ft (19 m)||195 ft (59 m)||279 ft (85 m)||283 ft (86 m)||483 ft (147 m)|
|Maximum depth||210 ft (64 m)||770 ft (230 m)||923 ft (281 m)||808 ft (246 m)||1,332 ft (406 m)|
|Major settlements||Buffalo, NY|
Port Huron, MI
Bay City, MI
Green Bay, WI
Sault Ste. Marie, ON
Thunder Bay, ON
|Notes:||The area of each rectangle is proportionate to the volume of each lake. All measurements at Low Water Datum.|
Lakes Michigan and Huron are hydrologically a single lake, sometimes called Lake Michigan-Huron; they have the same surface elevation of 577 feet (176 m), and are not connected by a river but by the 295-foot (90 m) deep Straits of Mackinac. Lake Michigan-Huron is a designation given to the body of water (part of the North American Great Lakes) traditionally considered to be two separate lakes Lake Michigan The Straits of Mackinac (ˈmækɨnɔː like MACK-in-aw note the silent "c" is the strip of water that connects two of the Great Lakes, Lake Michigan 
Dispersed throughout the Great Lakes are approximately 35,000 islands. The Great Lakes islands consist of 35000 Great Lakes Islands created by uneven glacial activity in the Great Lakes Basin. The largest among them is Manitoulin Island in Lake Huron, the largest island in any inland body of water and home to the world's largest lake within a lake, Lake Manitou. Manitoulin Island is a Canadian island in Lake Huron, in the province of Ontario. Lake Manitou is the largest Lake on Manitoulin Island in Canada. The second-largest island is Isle Royale in Lake Superior. Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior. Both of these islands are large enough to contain multiple lakes themselves.
The Saint Lawrence Seaway and Great Lakes Waterway opened the Great Lakes to ocean-going vessels. The St Lawrence Seaway is the common name for a system of Canals that permits ocean-going vessels to travel from the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes The Great Lakes Waterway is a system of channels and Canals that makes all of the Great Lakes accessible to oceangoing vessels The move to wider ocean-going container ships — which do not fit through the locks on these routes — has limited shipping on the lakes. A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal Waterways. Despite their vast size, large sections of the Great Lakes freeze over in winter, interrupting most shipping. Some icebreakers ply the lakes. An icebreaker is a special purpose Ship or Boat designed to move and navigate through Ice -covered waters
The Great Lakes are also connected to the Gulf of Mexico by way of the Illinois River (from Chicago), to the Mississippi, to the Gulf. An alternate track is via the Illinois River (from Chicago), to the Mississippi, to the Ohio, up the Ohio, and then through the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (combination of a series of rivers and lakes and canals), to Mobile Bay and the Gulf. The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway (popularly known as the Tenn-Tom) is a 234 mile (377 km artificial waterway that provides a connecting link between the Tennessee Commercial tug-and-barge traffic on these waterways is heavy.
Pleasure boats can also enter or exit the Great Lakes by way of the Erie Canal and Hudson River in New York. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes The Erie Canal connects to the Great Lakes at the east end of Lake Erie (at Buffalo, NY) and at the south side of Lake Ontario (at Oswego, NY).
The lakes are bounded by the Canadian province of Ontario and the U. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec S. states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York; however, not all of the lakes border on all of these regions. Minnesota ( Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The State of Illinois ( roughly ill-i-NOY is a state of the United States of America, the 21st to be admitted to the Union. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union Ohio ( is a Midwestern state of the United States. As part of the Great Lakes region, Ohio has long been a cultural and geographical crossroads The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Four of the five lakes form part of the Canada-United States border; the fifth, Lake Michigan, is contained entirely within the United States. The Canada – United States border is the international Border between Canada and the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Saint Lawrence River, which marks the same international border for a portion of its course, is the primary outlet of these interconnected lakes, and flows through Quebec and past the Gaspé Peninsula to the northern Atlantic Ocean. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The Gaspésie (official name or also Gaspé Peninsula or the Gaspé is a Peninsula constituting part of the south shore of the Saint Lawrence
The Great Lakes contain roughly 22% of the world’s fresh surface water: 5,472 cubic miles (22,810 km³), or 6. 0×1015 U. S. gallons (2. 3×1016 liters). This is enough water to cover the 48 contiguous U. S. states to a uniform depth of 9. 5 feet (2. 9 m).
The combined surface area of the lakes is approximately 94,250 square miles (244,100 km²)—nearly the same size as the United Kingdom, and larger than the U. Surface area is the measure of how much exposed Area an object has The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located S. states of New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Vermont and New Hampshire combined. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Connecticut ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Rhode Island ( officially named the State of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, is a state in the New England region of the United States The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. New Hampshire ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.
The Great Lakes coast measures approximately 10,500 miles (16,900 km); however, the length of a coastline is impossible to measure exactly and is not a well-defined measure (see Coastline paradox). The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. The coastline paradox is the Counterintuitive observation that the Coastline of a Landmass does not have a well-defined length
The foundation of the Great Lakes was laid approximately two billion years ago, when two tectonic plates fused and created the Midcontinent Rift, forming a valley that was the basis of Lake Superior. Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere The Midcontinent Rift System (MRS or Keweenawan Rift is a 2000-kilometer long geological Rift in the center of the North American continent and south-central When a second fault line, the Saint Lawrence rift, formed approximately 570 million years ago, the basis for Lakes Ontario and Erie was created, along with what would become the St. Lawrence River. The Saint Lawrence rift system is a seismically active zone paralleling the Saint Lawrence River. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway
The Great Lakes were formed at the end of the last ice age about 10,000 years ago, when the Laurentide ice sheet receded. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered hundreds of thousands of square miles including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern When this happened, the glaciers left behind a large amount of meltwater (see Lake Agassiz) which filled up the basins that the glaciers had carved, thus creating the Great Lakes as we know them today. Lake Agassiz was an immense Glacial lake located in the center of North America. Because of the uneven nature of glacier erosion, some higher hills became Great Lakes islands. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind The Great Lakes islands consist of 35000 Great Lakes Islands created by uneven glacial activity in the Great Lakes Basin. The Niagara Escarpment follows the contour of the Great Lakes between New York and Wisconsin. The Niagara Escarpment is a long Escarpment, or Cuesta, in the United States and Canada that runs westward from New York State, through New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Wisconsin ( or wɪˈskɑnsɨn (French Ouisconsin) is one of the fifty United States of America, located in the north central part of the United States
The effect of Great Lakes on weather in the region is called the lake effect. Lake-effect snow is produced in the winter when cold Arctic winds move across long expanses of warmer lake water providing energy and picking up Water vapor which freezes In winter, the moisture picked up by the prevailing winds from the west can produce very heavy snowfall, especially along lakeshores to the east such as Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Ontario, and New York. The lakes also moderate seasonal temperatures somewhat, by absorbing heat and cooling the air in summer, then slowly radiating that heat in autumn. This temperature buffering produces areas known as "fruit belts", where fruit typically grown farther south can be produced. Western Michigan has apple and cherry orchards, and vineyards adjacent to the lakeshore as far north as the Grand Traverse Bay. West Michigan, also known as Western Michigan, is a Region in the U Grand Traverse Bay is located off Lake Michigan in Northern Michigan. The eastern shore of Lake Michigan and the southern shore of Lake Erie have many wineries as a result of this, as does the Niagara Peninsula between Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. The Niagara Peninsula is the portion of Ontario, Canada lying on the south shore of Lake Ontario. A similar phenomenon occurs in the Finger Lakes region of New York as well as Prince Edward county on the northeast shore of Lake Ontario. The Finger Lakes are a chain of lakes in the west-central section of Upstate New York that are a popular tourist destination Related to lake effect, is the occurrence of fog over medium-sized areas, particularly along the shorelines of the lakes. Fog is a cloud that is in contact with the ground Stratus clouds are usually the only clouds that touch the ground This is most noticeable along Lake Superior's shores, due to its maritime climate. An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the Climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes
The Great Lakes have been observed to help strengthen storms, such as Hurricane Hazel in 1954, and a frontal system in 2007 that spawned a few tornadoes in Michigan and Ontario, picking up warmth from the lakes to fuel them. Hurricane Hazel was the worst Hurricane of the 1954 Atlantic hurricane season and one of the worst hurricanes of the 20th century This page documents the Tornadoes and Tornado outbreaks that occurred in 2007, primarily (but not entirely in the United States. Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec Also observed in 1996, was a rare subtropical cyclone forming in Lake Huron, dubbed the 1996 Lake Huron cyclone. A subtropical cyclone is a Weather system that has some characteristics of a Tropical cyclone and some characteristics of an Extratropical cyclone. Lake Huron, bounded on the west by the US state of Michigan, and on the east by the province of Ontario, Canada, is one of the five Great The 1996 Lake Huron cyclone (commonly known as Hurricane Huron) was a strong cyclonic storm system that developed over Lake Huron in September 1996
The lakes are extensively used for transport, though cargo traffic has decreased considerably in recent years. Transport or transportation is the movement of people and goods from one place to another Cargo (or freight) refers to goods or produce transported generally for Commercial gain by ship, aircraft, train, The Great Lakes Waterway makes each of the lakes accessible. The Great Lakes Waterway is a system of channels and Canals that makes all of the Great Lakes accessible to oceangoing vessels
During settlement, the Great Lakes and its rivers were the only practical means of moving people and freight. Barges from middle North America were able to reach the Atlantic Ocean from the Great Lakes when the Erie Canal opened in 1825. BARGE, the Big August RecGambling Excursion is a yearly convention held in Las Vegas during the first weekend of August The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes By 1848, with the opening of the Illinois and Michigan Canal at Chicago, direct access to the Mississippi River was possible from the lakes. The Illinois and Michigan Canal ran 96 miles (155 km from the Bridgeport neighborhood in Chicago on the Chicago River to LaSalle Illinois, Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. With these two canals an all-inland water route was provided between New York City and New Orleans.
The main business of many of the passenger lines in the 1800s was transporting immigrants. Immigration refers to the movement of people among countries While the movement of people has existed throughout human history at various levels modern immigration implies long-term Many of the larger cities owe their existence to their position on the lakes as a freight destination as well as for being a magnet for immigrants. After railroads and surface roads developed, the freight and passenger businesses dwindled and except for ferries and a few foreign cruise ships, now has vanished.
The immigration routes still have an effect today. Immigrants often formed their own communities and some areas have a pronounced ethnicity, such as Dutch, German, Polish, Finnish, and many others. Since many immigrants settled for a time in New England before moving westward, many areas on the U. S. side of the Great Lakes also have a New England feel, especially in home styles and accent.
Since general freight these days is transported by railroads and trucks, domestic ships mostly move bulk cargoes, such as iron ore, coal and limestone for the steel industry. Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Steel is an Alloy consisting mostly of Iron, with a Carbon content between 0 The domestic bulk freight developed because of the nearby mines. It was more economical to transport the ingredients for steel to centralized plants rather than try to make steel on the spot. Ingredients for steel, however, are not the only bulk shipments made. Grain exports are also a major cargo on the lakes.
In the 19th and early 20th centuries, iron and other ores such as copper were shipped south on (downbound ships), and supplies, food, and coal were shipped north (upbound). Because of the location of the coal fields in Pennsylvania and West Virginia, and the general northeast track of the Appalachian Mountains, railroads naturally developed shipping routes that went due north to ports such as Erie, Pennsylvania and Ashtabula, Ohio. The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ( often colloquially referred to as PA (its abbreviation by natives and Northeasterners is a state located in the Northeastern West Virginia ( is a state in the Appalachian Upland South, and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States, bordered by The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. Ashtabula is a City in Ashtabula County, Ohio, United States, and the center of the Ashtabula Micropolitan Statistical Area (as defined
Because the lake maritime community largely developed independently, it has its own language. Ships, no matter the size, are called boats. When the sailing ships gave way to steamships, they were called steamboats—the same term used on the Mississippi. The ships also have a distinctive design. Ships that primarily trade on the lakes are known as lakers. Lake freighters, or Lakers, are Cargo vessels that ply the Great Lakes. Foreign boats are known as salties.
One of the more common sights on the lakes is the 1,000‑by‑105 foot (305-by-32 m), 78,850-long-ton (80,120-metric-ton) self-unloader. This is a laker with a conveyor belt system that can unload itself by swinging a crane over the side.  Today, the Great Lakes fleet is much smaller in numbers than it once was because of the increased use of overland freight, and a few larger ships replacing many small ones.
The Great Lakes are used as a major mode of transport for bulk goods. Mode of transport (or means of transport or transport mode or transport modality or form of transport) is a general term for the different The brigantine Le Griffon (The Griffon), which was commissioned by René Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle, was built at Cayuga Creek, near the southern end of the Niagara River, to become the first sailing ship to travel the upper Great Lakes on August 7, 1679. Built by René Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle, Le Griffon is considered to have been the first full-sized Sailing ship on the upper Great René Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle ( November 22, 1643 &ndash March 19, 1687) was a French The Niagara River flows to the north from Lake Erie to Lake Ontario. Events 322 BC - Battle of Crannon between Athens and Macedon following the death of Alexander the Great.
In 2002, 162 million net tons of dry bulk cargo were moved on the Lakes. Units of mass There are three similar units of Mass called the ton: Long ton (simply ton in countries such as the United This was, in order of volume: iron ore, grain, and potash. The iron ore and much of the stone and coal are used in the steel industry. There is also some shipping of liquid and containerized cargo but most container ships cannot pass the locks on the Saint Lawrence Seaway because they are too wide. The total amount of shipping on the lakes has been on a downward trend for several years.
Recreational boating and tourism are major industries on the Great Lakes. A few small cruise ships operate on the Great Lakes including a couple of sailing ships. Sailing is the art of controlling a Sailing vessel. By changing the Rigging, Rudder and dagger or centre board a Sailor manages the force Sport fishing, commercial fishing, and Native American fishing represent a US$4 billion a year industry with salmon, whitefish, smelt, lake trout, and walleye being major catches. Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. Coregonus Linnaeus, 1758 is a Genus of Fish in the Salmon family (family Salmonidae) Smelts are a Family, Osmeridae, of small Anadromous Fish. They are common in the North American Great Lakes and in the lakes Lake trout ( Salvelinus namaycush) is a freshwater char living mainly in Lakes in northern North America. The walleye (common US name or yellow pickerel (Canada ( Sander vitreus vitreus, formerly Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) is a freshwater Perciform
The Great Lakes are used to supply drinking water to tens of millions of people in bordering areas. This valuable resource is collectively administered by the state and provincial governments adjacent to the lakes.
From 1844 through 1857, palace steamers carried passengers and cargo around the Great Lakes. Palace steamers were luxurious Steamships that carried passengers and cargo around the North American Great Lakes from 1844 through 1857 Throughout the 20th century, large luxurious passenger steamers sailed from Chicago all the way to Detroit and Cleveland. These were primarily operated by the Detroit & Cleveland Navigation Company. Several ferries currently operate on the Great Lakes to carry passengers to various islands, including Isle Royale, Pelee Island, Mackinac Island, Beaver Island, both Bois Blanc Islands, Kelleys Island, South Bass Island, North Manitou Island, South Manitou Island, Harsens Island, Manitoulin Island, and the Toronto Islands. Isle Royale is an island of the Great Lakes, located in the northwest of Lake Superior. Pelee Island, Ontario, Canada, is an Island in the western half of Lake Erie. Mackinac Island (ˈmækɨnɔː) is an island covering in land area belonging to the U There is also a Kelly's Island in Newfoundland, Canada. Kelleys Island is both a village in Erie South Bass Island is small island in western Lake Erie, and part of Ottawa County, Ohio, United States. North Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately west-northwest of Leland, Michigan. South Manitou Island is located in Lake Michigan, approximately 16 miles west of Leland, Michigan. Harsens Island is a wet Marshy location at the mouth of the St Manitoulin Island is a Canadian island in Lake Huron, in the province of Ontario. The Toronto Islands are a chain of small Islands in Lake Ontario. As of 2007, two car ferry services cross the Great Lakes, both on Lake Michigan: a steamer from Ludington, Michigan to Manitowoc, Wisconsin and a high speed catamaran from Milwaukee to Muskegon, Michigan. Ludington is a city in the US state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 8357 Manitowoc (ˈmænɨtəˌwɑk is a city in and the County seat of Manitowoc County, Wisconsin, United States. Muskegon (mus-kēg'n is a city in the US state of Michigan. As of the 2000 census, the city population was 40105 An international ferry across Lake Ontario from Rochester, New York to Toronto ran during 2004 and 2005, but is no longer in operation. Spirit of Ontario I is the former name of Tanger Jet II, an Auto Express 86 Class wave piercing catamaran passenger-vehicle ferry constructed Rochester is a city in Monroe County, New York State, south of Lake Ontario in the United States. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario
The large size of the Great Lakes increases the risk of water travel; storms and reefs are a common threat. A storm is any disturbed state of an astronomical body's atmosphere, especially affecting its surface and strongly implying Severe weather. In nautical terminology a reef is a rock, sandbar, or other feature lying beneath the surface of the water (six fathoms or less at low water The lakes are prone to sudden and severe storms, particularly in the autumn, from late October until early December. The greatest concentration of shipwrecks lies near Thunder Bay, beneath Lake Huron, near the point where eastbound and westbound shipping lanes converge. This article is about the bay in Michigan see Thunder Bay for other things with a similar name
Two notable ships that have sunk on the Great Lakes are the SS Edmund Fitzgerald and Le Griffon. Construction and operation On February 1, 1957, Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin contracted Built by René Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle, Le Griffon is considered to have been the first full-sized Sailing ship on the upper Great The SS Edmund Fitzgerald, which sank November 10, 1975, was the last major freighter lost on the lakes, sinking just over 30 miles (50 km) offshore from Whitefish Point in Lake Superior. Construction and operation On February 1, 1957, Northwestern Mutual Life Insurance Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin contracted Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. There is also the village of Whitefish Bay Wisconsin on Lake Michigan. Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America.
In August 2007, the Great Lakes Shipwreck Historical Society announced that it had found the wreckage of Cyprus, a 420-foot (130 m) long, century-old ore carrier. An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining Cyprus sank during a Lake Superior storm on October 11, 1907, during its second voyage while hauling iron ore from Superior, Wisconsin, to Buffalo, New York. Lake Superior is the largest of the five Great Lakes of North America. Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Iron ores are rocks and Minerals from which Metallic Iron can be economically extracted The city of Superior sits at the junction of US Highway 2 and U Buffalo (ˈbʌfəloʊ is the second largest city in New York State. The entire crew of 23 drowned, except one, a man named Charles Pitz, who floated on a life raft for almost seven hours. 
The International Joint Commission was established in 1909 to help prevent and resolve disputes relating to the use and quality of boundary waters, and to advise Canada and the United States on questions related to water resources. The International Joint Commission is an independent binational organization established by the United States and Canada under the International Boundary Concerns over diversion of Lake water are of concern to both Americans and Canadians. Some water is diverted through the Chicago River to operate the Illinois Waterway but the flow is limited by treaty. The Chicago River is 156 miles (251 km long and flows through downtown Chicago. The Illinois Waterway system consists of 336 miles of water from the mouth of the Chicago River to the mouth of the Illinois River at Grafton, Illinois Possible schemes for bottled water plants and diversion to dry regions of the continent raise concerns. Under the U. S. "Water Resources Development Act", diversion of water from the Great Lakes Basin requires the approval of all eight Great Lakes governors, which rarely occurs. The Great Lakes Basin consists of the Great Lakes and the surrounding lands of the states of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota International treaties regulate large diversions. In 1998, the Canadian company Nova Group won approval from the Province of Ontario to withdraw 158,000,000 US gallons (600,000 m³) of Lake Superior water annually to ship by tanker to Asian countries. Public outcry forced the company to abandon the plan before it began. Since that time, the eight Great Lakes Governors and the Premiers of Ontario and Quebec have negotiated the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Sustainable Water Resources Agreement  and the Great Lakes-St. Lawrence River Basin Water Resources Compact  that would prevent most future diversion proposals and all long-distance ones. The agreements also strengthen protection against abusive water withdrawal practices within the Great Lakes basin. On December 13, 2005, the Governors and Premiers signed these two agreements, the first of which is between all ten jurisdictions. Events 1294 - Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months Celestine hoped to return to his previous life Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. It is somewhat more detailed and protective, but cannot be enforced in court because enforcement arrangements can be made only between the federal governments. The second is just between the U. S. states, which, if approved by all eight state legislatures which border the Great Lakes and the U. S. Congress, could be enforced in U. S. federal court.
In 2006, the United States Coast Guard (USCG) proposed a plan to designate 34 areas in the Great Lakes, at least five miles (8 km) offshore, as permanent safety zones for live fire machine gun practice. In August, 2006 the plan was published in the Federal Register. The Federal Register (since March 14, 1936) abbreviated Fed Reg The USCG reserved the right to hold target practice whenever the weather allowed with a two hour notice. These firing ranges would be open to the public when not in use. In response to requests from the public, the Coast Guard held a series of public meetings in nine U. S. cities to solicit comment. During these meetings many people voiced concerns about the plan and its impact on the environment. 
A preliminary health risk assessment stated that the “proposed training will result in no elevated risks for a freshwater system such as the Great Lakes using ”realistic worst case” assumptions, and further investigation is not recommended … if typical rather than worst case assumptions were used, the predicted risk would be even less. ” However, the assessment was based on lead levels after five years, and so one could infer that lead levels could meet or exceed EPA safe levels for lead after fifteen years.  The Coast Guard established an information page about their proposal at http://www.uscgd9safetyzones.com
On December 18, 2006, the Coast Guard announced its decision to withdraw the entire proposal. Events 218 BC - Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia - Hannibal 's Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar.  Officials said they would look into alternative ammunition, modifying the proposed zones and have more public dialogue before proposing a new plan. 
During the 109th United States Congress in 2006, the Great Lakes Collaboration Implementation Act (Bill HR5100) was introduced to enact the recommendations of the Great Lakes Regional Collaboration, an effort established in 2004 to produce a strategy for restoring and maintaining the Great Lakes. The bill was introduced by U.S. senators Mike DeWine and Carl Levin, along with representatives Vern Ehlers and Rahm Emanuel. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Richard Michael "Mike" DeWine (born January 5, 1947) is a former Republican senator from Ohio Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan and is the Chairman of the Senate The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Vernon James "Vern" Ehlers (born February 6 1934) is a United States politician and a Republican member of the United States Rahm Emanuel (born November 29 1959) is a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 2003 representing, which
The bill states that "the Great Lakes are on the brink of an ecologic catastrophe" and that "if the pattern of deterioration is not reversed immediately, the damage could be irreparable". It cites the closing of over 1,800 beaches in 2003, the 6,300-square-mile (16,300 km²) dead zone in Lake Erie, and the US$500 million damage each year due to the zebra mussel as evidences that "a comprehensive restoration of the system is needed to prevent the Great Lakes from collapsing". The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a Species of small freshwater Mussel, an Aquatic Bivalve Mollusk. 
A press release states that the bill aims to stop the introduction and spreading of invasive species, prevent the Asian carp from invading the Great Lakes, phase out mercury, restore animal habitats, and prevent sewage contamination. Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions There are many Species of heavy-bodied Cyprinid fishes collectively known as Asian carps. Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum A habitat (which is Latin for "it inhabits" is an Ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular Species. Sewage is the mainly liquid Waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water Feces, Urine, laundry waste and other 
A coalition called Healthy Lakes, Healthy Lives was formed by several environmental groups and foundations in 2005 to educate and assist citizens in advocating for the cleanup of the Great Lakes.
Lake Champlain, a lake on the border between upstate New York and northwestern Vermont that is part of the Saint Lawrence-Great Lakes Watershed, briefly became labeled by the U. Lake Champlain (French lac Champlain) is a natural freshwater Lake in North America, located mainly within the borders of the United States New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America. Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway S. government as the sixth "Great Lake of the United States" on March 6, 1998, when President Clinton signed Senate Bill 927. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Events 1079 - Omar Khayyám completes the Iranian calendar. 1454 - Thirteen Years' War: Delegates of Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States This bill, which reauthorized the National Sea Grant Program, contained a line penned by Senator Patrick Leahy (D-VT) declaring Lake Champlain to be a Great Lake. National Sea Grant Program is a national network of 30 Sea Grant Colleges and institutional programs shares research outreach and education to solve old problems and explore new uses for Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. Lake Champlain (French lac Champlain) is a natural freshwater Lake in North America, located mainly within the borders of the United States Not coincidentally, this status allows neighboring states to apply for additional federal research and education funds allocated to these national resources. The claim was viewed with some amusement by other countries, particularly in the Canadian media, and the lake is small compared to other Canadian lakes (such as Great Bear Lake which has over 27 times more surface area). Canada has a well-developed media sector, but its cultural output — particularly in English films television shows and magazines — is often Great Bear Lake ( Slavey: Sahtú, French: Grand lac de l'Ours) is the largest Lake entirely within Canada ( Following a small uproar (and several New York Times articles), the Great Lake status was rescinded on March 24, 1998 (although Vermont universities continue to receive funds to monitor and study the lake). Events 1401 - Mongol emperor Timur sacks Damascus. 1603 - James VI of Scotland Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) Vermont ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America.
Similarly, there has been interest in making Lake St. Clair a Great Lake. Lake St Clair ( French Lac Sainte-Claire) is a Lake that lies between Ontario, Canada, and Michigan in the In October 2002, backers planned to present such a proposal at the Great Lakes Commission annual meeting, but ultimately withheld it as it appeared to them to have too little support. The Great Lakes Commission is an eight-state compact United States agency established in 1955 through the Great Lakes Basin Compact, in order
Before the arrival of Europeans, the Great Lakes provided fish to the indigenous groups who lived near them. Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. Early European settlers were astounded by both the variety and quantity of fishes; there were 150 different species in the Great Lakes. Historically, fish populations were the early indicator of the condition of the Lakes, and have remained one of the key indicators even in the current era of sophisticated analyses and measuring instruments. According to the bi-national (U. S. and Canadian) resource book, The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book, "the largest Great Lakes fish harvests were recorded in 1889 and 1899 at some 67,000 tonnes [147 million pounds]," though the beginning of environmental impacts on the fish can be traced back nearly a century prior to those years.
By 1801, the New York Legislature found it necessary to pass regulations curtailing obstructions to the natural migrations of Atlantic salmon from Lake Erie into their spawning channels. The New York Legislature is the state legislature of the US state of New York. In the early nineteenth century, Upper Canada’s government found it necessary to introduce similar legislation prohibiting the use of weirs and nets at the mouths of Lake Ontario’s tributaries. The Province of Upper Canada (French Province du Haut-Canada) was a British colony located in what is now the southern portion of the Province of Ontario Other protective legislation was passed as well, but enforcement remained difficult and often quite spotty.
On both sides of the Canada–United States border, the proliferation of dams and impoundments multiplied, necessitating more regulatory efforts. The Canada – United States border is the international Border between Canada and the United States. A dam is a barrier that divides waters. Dams generally serve the primary purpose of retaining water while other structures such as Floodgates, Levees The decline in fish populations was unmistakable by the middle of the nineteenth century, as the obstructions in the rivers prevented salmon and sturgeon from reaching their spawning grounds. Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. Sturgeon is the Common name used for some 26 species of fish in the family Acipenseridae, including the genera Acipenser, The decline in salmon was recognized by Canadian officials and reported as virtually a complete absence by the end of the 1860s. Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. The Wisconsin Fisheries Commission noted a reduction of roughly 25 percent in general fish harvests by 1875. Many Michigan rivers sport multiple dams that range from mere relics to those with serious loss of life potential. The state's dam removal budget has been frozen in recent years; in the 1990s, the state was removing 1 dam per year.
Overfishing was cited as responsible for the decline of the population of various whitefish, important because of their culinary desirability and, hence, economic consequence. Moreover, between 1879 and 1899, reported whitefish harvests declined from some 24. 3 million pounds (11 million kg) to just over 9 million pounds (4 million kg). Recorded sturgeon catches fell from 7. 8 million pounds (1. 5 million kg) in 1879 to 1. 7 million pounds (770,000 kg) in 1899. The population of giant freshwater mussels was eliminated as the mussels were harvested for use as buttons by early Great Lakes entrepreneurs. An entrepreneur is a person who has possession over a company enterprise, or Venture, and assumes significant accountability for the inherent risks and the outcome
There were, however, other factors in the population declines besides overfishing and the problems posed by water obstructions. Logging in the Great Lakes region removed tree cover near stream channels which provide spawning grounds, and this affected necessary shade and temperature-moderating conditions. Logging is the process in which Trees are cut down for Forest management and Timber. Removal of tree cover also destabilized soil, allowing soil to be carried in greater quantity into the streambeds, and even brought about more frequent flooding. Running cut logs down the Lakes’ tributary rivers also stirred bottom sediments. In 1884, the New York Fish Commission determined that the dumping of sawmill waste (chips and sawdust) was impacting fish populations.
The Great Lakes are international, and in situations that require regulation, a lack of cooperation between the U. S. and Canada might be predicted to have disastrous consequences. In the development of ecological problems in the Great Lakes, it was the influx of parasitic lamprey populations after the development of the Erie Canal and the much later Welland Canal that led to the two federal governments attempting to work together – which proved a very complicated and troubled road. A lamprey (sometimes also called lamprey eel) is a Jawless fish with a toothed funnel-like sucking mouth The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes The Welland Canal is a Ship canal that runs 42  km (270  Miles from Port Colborne Ontario on Lake Erie to Port
Nevertheless, despite the ever more sophisticated efforts to eliminate or minimize the lamprey, by the mid 1950s the lake trout populations of Lakes Michigan and Huron were reduced by about 99%, with the lamprey deemed largely to blame. This led to the launch of the bi-national Great Lakes Fishery Commission.
Other ecological problems in the Lakes and their surroundings have stemmed from urban sprawl, sewage disposal, and toxic industrial effluent. These, of course, also affect aquatic food chains and fish populations. Some of these glaring problem areas are what attracted the high-level publicity of Great Lakes ecological troubles in the 1960s and 1970s. Evidence of chemical pollution in the Lakes and their tributaries now stretches back for decades. In the late 1960s, the recurrent phenomenon of the surface of river stretches (see Ohio’s Cuyahoga River) catching fire from a combination of oil, chemicals, and combustible materials floating on the water’s surface, came to the attention of a public growing more environmentally aware. The Cuyahoga River (ˌkaɪəˈhɔgə or kuy-a-HO-ga) is located in Northeast Ohio in the United States. Another aspect that caught popular attention was the “toxic blobs” (expanses of lake bed covered by various combinations of such substances as solvents, wood preservatives, coal tar, and metals) found in Lake Superior, the St. Clair River, and other portions of the Great Lakes region. Navigation on St Clair Riverjpg|thumb|250px|Great Lakes Freighters navigating on the lower St
According to the authoritative bi-national source The Great Lakes: An Environmental Atlas and Resource Book, "only pockets remain of the once large commercial fishery. "
The annual Great Lakes Bioneers Conference held in Traverse City, Michigan addresses many of these problems with local speakers, workshops and tools. Traverse City is a City in the US state of Michigan. It is the largest city in the 21-county Northern Michigan region Michigan ( is a Midwestern state of the United States of America. The conference is a satellite conference of the Bioneers Conference in San Rafael, California. Bioneers, also known as the Collective Heritage Institute, is a New Mexico -based nonprofit organization promoting practical and innovative solutions to environmental PLEASE DO NOT DELETE EMPTY FIELDS UNTIL JUNE 1 2007--THIS WILL TAKE A WHILE--> San Rafael (ˌsænrəˈfɛl originally sɑn rɑfɑˈɛl The Traverse City site focuses on durable ecological and socially just solutions to a diverse set of issues in the Great Lakes bioregion. Traverse City is a City in the US state of Michigan. It is the largest city in the 21-county Northern Michigan region An ecoregion ( ecological region) sometimes called a bioregion, is an ecologically and geographically defined area smaller than a "realm" or "
The Great Lakes have suffered from the introduction of many non-native and invasive species. An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but Introduced species|Weed Invasive species is a phrase with several definitions Since the 1800s, more than 160 species have invaded the Great Lakes ecosystem from around the world, causing severe economic and ecological impacts.  According to the Inland Seas Education Association, on average a new invasive species enters the Great Lakes every eight months. 
One such infestation in the Great Lakes was the introduction of the zebra mussel, which was first discovered in 1988. The zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, is a Species of small freshwater Mussel, an Aquatic Bivalve Mollusk.  The mollusk is an efficient feeder, competing with native mussels. Molluscs are animals belonging to the phylum Mollusca. There are around 250000 extant Species within the phylum with an estimated 70000 The common name mussel is used for members of several different families of Clams or Bivalve Molluscs, from both saltwater and freshwater habitats It also reduces available food and spawning grounds for fishes. The zebra mussel also hurts utility and manufacturing industries by clogging or blocking pipes. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service estimates that the economic impact of the zebra mussel will be about $5 billion over the next decade. 
Approximately 10 percent of nonindigenous aquatic species introduced into the Great Lakes have had significant impacts, both economic and ecological. The remaining 90 percent have potentially harmful impacts but are insufficiently researched and understood. Besides the zebra mussel, several other species have been particularly harmful. The invasion of the sea lamprey, a parasite that attaches to large fishes with a sucker mouth armed with teeth that consume flesh and fluid from its prey, has resulted in substantial economic losses to recreational and commercial fisheries. The sea lamprey ( Petromyzon marinus) is a Parasitic Lamprey (a kind of Jawless fish) found on the Atlantic coasts of Protection of the Great Lakes fishery (both native and nonindigenous species) from sea lamprey predation has required annual expenditures of millions of dollars to finance chemical control programs.
Alewife, introduced through the canal systems built in the Great Lakes, littered beaches each spring and altered food webs, causing increased water turbidity. The alewife ( Alosa pseudoharengus) is a species of Herring. There are anadromous and landlocked forms These impacts subsided with the intentional introduction of salmonids that were stocked as predators to keep alewife populations under control. The ruffe, a small percid fish, became the most abundant fish species in Lake Superior's St. Louis River within five years of its detection in 1986. The Eurasian Ruffe ( Gymnocephalus cernuus) is a freshwater Fish found in temperate regions of Europe and northern Asia. The Percidae are a family of Perciform fish found in fresh and Brackish waters of the Northern Hemisphere. The St Louis River is a river in the US State of Minnesota that flows into Lake Superior. Its range, which has expanded to Lake Huron, poses a significant threat to the lower lake fishery. Five years after first being observed in the St. Clair River, the round goby can now be found in all of the Great Lakes. Navigation on St Clair Riverjpg|thumb|250px|Great Lakes Freighters navigating on the lower St The round goby, Neogobius melanostomus, is a freshwater bottom-dwelling goby of the family Gobiidae, native to central Eurasia including The goby is considered undesirable for several reasons: It preys upon bottom-feeding fishes, overruns optimal habitat, spawns multiple times a season, and can survive poor water quality conditions. 
Several species of water fleas have accidentally been introduced into the Great lakes such as Bythotrephes cederstroemi and the Fishhook waterflea potentially having an effect on the zooplankton population. Water flea is a generic term for a number of small aquatic Crustacea characterised by their jumping or jerky mode of swimming Bythotrephes cederstroemi, commonly known as the spiny water flea, is a tiny aquatic Crustacean less than an inch long The Fishhook Waterflea ( Cercopagis pengoi) is a species of Water flea native to Ponto-Aralo-Caspian basin in South Eastern Europe at the Several species of crayfish have also been introduced that may contend with native crayfish populations
An electric fence has been set up across the mouth of the Great Lakes across the Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal in order to keep several species of invasive Asian carps out of the area. Crayfish, crawfish, crawdads, or crodgers are freshwater Crustaceans resembling small Lobsters to which they are closely The Chicago Sanitary and Ship Canal, historically known as the Chicago Drainage Canal, is the only shipping link between the Great Lakes (specifically Lake There are many Species of heavy-bodied Cyprinid fishes collectively known as Asian carps. These fast-growing planktivorous fishes are thought to have the potential to cause substantial ecological damage to the Great Lakes, through changes in the food chain and water quality.