Official state portrait.
January 4, 1999 – November 17, 2003
|Preceded by||Pete Wilson|
|Succeeded by||Arnold Schwarzenegger|
1995 – 1999
|Preceded by||Leo T. McCarthy|
|Succeeded by||Cruz Bustamante|
1987 – 1995
|Preceded by||Kenneth Cory|
|Succeeded by||Kathleen Connell|
Member of the California State Assembly for the 43rd district
1982 – 1986
|Preceded by||Howard Berman|
|Succeeded by||Terry Friedman|
|Born||December 26, 1942 |
New York, New York, USA
|Spouse||Sharon Ryer Davis|
|Alma mater||Stanford University|
Joseph Graham Davis Jr. The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses Events 46 BC - Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor who serves as the "vice-executive" of California Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4 1953 is an American Politician. Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23 1933 is an American Politician from California. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor who serves as the "vice-executive" of California Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23 1933 is an American Politician from California. Leo Tarcissus McCarthy ( August 15 1930 - February 5 2007) was a New Zealand -born American politician and businessman Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4 1953 is an American Politician. The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California in the United States. Kathleen Connell was the California State Controller from 1995 until 2003 The California State Assembly is the Lower house of the California State Legislature. Howard Lawrence Berman (born April 15 1941) has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1983 representing Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The City of New York The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in A politician (from Greek " Polis " is an individual who is involved in influencing public decision making through the influence of Politics or a person (born December 26, 1942), better known as Gray Davis, is an American politician who served as California's 37th Governor from 1999 to 2003. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses Davis is a Democrat who was often known as a moderate. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Prior to serving as Governor, Davis served as Chief of Staff to Governor Jerry Brown (1975-1981), California State Assemblyman (1983-1987), California State Controller (1987-1995), and Lieutenant Governor of California (1995-1999). Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr (born April 7, 1938) is the current Attorney General and former governor of the State of The California State Assembly is the Lower house of the California State Legislature. The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California in the United States. The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor who serves as the "vice-executive" of California Davis holds a B.A. in History from Stanford University and a J.D. from Columbia Law School. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in Juris Doctor (abbreviated JD or JD, from the Latin, Teacher of Law) is a first professional graduate degree and Professional Columbia Law School, located in New York City, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League. He was awarded a Bronze Star for his service as a Captain in the Vietnam War. The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration which may be awarded for bravery acts of merit or meritorious service The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia
During his time as Governor, Davis made education his top priority and California spent eight billion dollars more than was required under Proposition 98 during his first term. California Proposition 98 requires a minimum percentage of the state budget to be spent on K-14 education. Under Davis, California standardized test scores increased for five straight years.  Davis signed the nation's first state law requiring automakers to limit auto emissions. Davis supported laws to ban assault weapons. He is also credited with improving relations between California and Mexico. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.  Davis began his tenure as Governor with strong approval ratings, but those ratings declined as voters blamed Davis for the California electricity crisis and the California budget crisis that followed the dot-com bubble burst. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western U Voters were also alienated by Davis’s record breaking fundraising efforts and negative campaigning. Negative campaigning is trying to win an advantage by referring to negative aspects of an opponent or of a policy rather than emphasizing one's own positive attributes or preferred 
On October 7, 2003, he became the second governor to be recalled in American history. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office Davis was succeeded by Republican Arnold A. Schwarzenegger on November 17 after the recall election. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor Events 284 - Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers The 2003 California recall election was a special Election permitted under California law Davis spent 1,778 days as Governor, and signed 5,132 bills out of 6,244, vetoing 1,100 bills.  Since being recalled, Davis has worked as a guest lecturer at UCLA's School of Public Policy and as an attorney at Loeb & Loeb, and sits on the Board of Directors of the animation company DiC Entertainment. The University of California Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Westwood Los Angeles, California, United
Born in New York City, Davis moved to California with his family as a child in 1954. The City of New York California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. He was the first of the family's five children: three boys and two girls. He was raised a Roman Catholic. Davis and his family were one of the millions of Americans to migrate to the southwest and California as part of the post World War II sun belt migration. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest (the geographic southern United States
His education included experience at public, private and Catholic schools, allowed him -- as an adult -- an opportunity to compare all three systems later as a lawmaker.  Davis graduated from a North Hollywood military academy, the Harvard School for Boys (now part of Harvard-Westlake School). North Hollywood is a district in the San Fernando Valley region of the City of Los Angeles California. A military academy or service academy (American English is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the Army the Navy Air Force Harvard-Westlake School is an independent Co-educational university preparatory day school consisting of two campuses located in Los Angeles, California Davis's family was upper middle class and was led by his demanding mother.  Davis was nicknamed Gray by his mother.  His father was an alcoholic. 
His strong academic accomplishments earned him acceptance to Stanford University. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in  He played on the Stanford golf team with a two handicap.  After Davis entered Stanford University, his father left the family, forcing Davis to join the ROTC to stay in school. Leland Stanford Junior University, commonly known as Stanford University or simply Stanford, is a private Research university located in ROTC links here For other uses see ROTC (disambiguation A Reserve Officers' Training Corps ( ROTC) ROTC produces officers in all branches The deal included a promise to enter the regular Army after completing his education. He earned a BA in history at Stanford, where he was admitted to the Zeta Psi fraternity, graduating in 1964 with distinction. History is the study of the past particularly the written record Those who study history as a Profession are called Historians Etymology The Zeta Psi Fraternity of North America was founded June 1, 1847 as a social college fraternity. He then returned to New York to attend Columbia Law School where he won the Moot Court award. New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Columbia Law School, located in New York City, is one of the professional schools of Columbia University, a member of the Ivy League. During law school Davis had a romantic encounter with actress Cybil Shepherd. Cybill Lynne Shepherd (born 18 February, 1950) is a American Actress, Singer and former fashion model.  He graduated from Columbia in 1967 and then clerked at the law firm of Beekman & Bogue in New York City.
|Born December 26, 1942|
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Service/branch||United States Army|
|Years of service||1968–1969|
|Other work||Governor of California|
After completing the program in 1967 he entered active duty in the United States Army, serving in the Vietnam War during its height until 1969. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. See " Captain " for other versions of this rank In the uniformed services of the United States, captain is a federal The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia The Bronze Star Medal is a United States Armed Forces individual military decoration which may be awarded for bravery acts of merit or meritorious service The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses The United States Army is a military organization whose primary mission is to "provide necessary forces and capabilities. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia  Davis saw time on the battlefield during his time in Vietnam.  Davis returned home as a captain with a Bronze Star for meritorious service. Friends who knew him at the time said Davis -- like many war veterans -- came back a changed man, interested in politics and more intense, according to the Sacramento Bee. The Sacramento Bee is a daily newspaper published in Sacramento California, in the United States.  He returned from Vietnam more "serious and directed. " Davis was surprised to discover that the majority of those serving in Vietnam were Latinos, African Americans, and southern whites with very few from schools like Stanford and Columbia; Davis believed that the burden of the war should be felt equally and he resolved early on to go about changing America so that would change. African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa  Davis is a life member of the American Legion and the Veterans of Foreign Wars. For other uses of American Legion see American Legion (disambiguation The American Legion was chartered by the U 
Davis volunteered for the campaign of John V. Tunney for the United States Senate in 1970. John Varick Tunney (born June 26 1934) was a Democratic Party United States Senator and Representative. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives  He started a statewide neighborhood crime watch program while serving as chairman of the California Council on Criminal Justice.  His initial political experience included working to help Tom Bradley win election as Los Angeles' first black mayor in 1973. Thomas or Tom Bradley is the name of Tom Bradley (politician (1917&ndash1998 former mayor of Los Angeles California Tom Bradley The historical significance of Bradley's victory further inspired Davis to pursue a career in politics.  Davis ran for State Treasurer in 1974 but lost when the more popular Jesse Unruh filed to run on the deadline. The California State Treasurer is responsible for the state's Investment and Finance. Jesse Marvin Unruh ( September 30, 1922 – August 4, 1987) also known as Big Daddy Unruh, was a prominent U 
Davis returned to California and entered politics, serving as Executive Secretary and Chief of Staff to Governor Edmund G. "Jerry" Brown Jr. from 1975 to 1981. Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr (born April 7, 1938) is the current Attorney General and former governor of the State of Davis was not as liberal as Brown, and some said he offset Brown's style by projecting a more intense, controlled personality.  While Brown was campaigning for President in 1980, Davis ran California in Brown's absence though Davis would later claim that we always did what he thought Brown would have done. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by 
He met his future wife, the former Sharon Ryer, while on an airplane tending to official business in 1978. Ryer, a flight attendant for Pacific Southwest Airlines, was miffed when Davis held up the departure of the flight from Sacramento to Los Angeles. Pacific Southwest Airlines was an Airline headquartered in San Diego California. Davis apologized and asked her out, and they later married in 1983, with California Supreme Court justice Rose Bird officiating. The Supreme Court of California is the State supreme court in California. Rose Elizabeth Bird ( November 2, 1936 &ndash December 4, 1999) served for 10 years as the 25th Chief Justice (and first female Justice & only 
He was elected to the office of Assemblyman from the 43rd district, representing parts of Los Angeles County including West Los Angeles and Beverly Hills from 1983 to 1987. The California State Assembly is the Lower house of the California State Legislature. Los Angeles County is a county in California and is by far the most populous county in the United States. West Los Angeles Los Angeles California, a neighborhood of Los Angeles The Westside, a region of Los Angeles County, incorporating Davis championed a popular campaign to help find missing children by placing their pictures on milk cartons and grocery bags. 
In 1986, Davis ran against six other contenders in his race for State Controller; several of those candidates, including Democrat John Garamendi and Republican Bill Campbell, were arguably better known at the time. The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California in the United States. John Raymond Garamendi (born January 24 1945) is a US Politician and a member of the Democratic Party. William Campbell or Bill Campbell may refer to Canada William Campbell (jurist (1758–1834 Scottish-born Chief Justice of the Supreme  Davis served as State Controller for eight years until 1995. As California's chief fiscal officer, he saved taxpayers more than half a billion dollars by cracking down on Medi-Cal fraud, rooting out government waste and inefficiency, and exposing the misuse of public funds.  He was the first Controller to withhold paychecks from all state elected officials, including himself, until the Governor and the Legislature passed an overdue budget. He also found and returned more than $1. 8 billion in unclaimed property to California citizens, including forgotten bank accounts, insurance settlements, and stocks. 
Davis ran against San Francisco mayor Dianne Feinstein for the Democratic nomination for the United States Senate in the 1992 special election to fill the Senate seat vacated by Pete Wilson who was elected Governor of California in 1990. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Dianne Goldman Berman Feinstein (ˈfаɪnˌstаɪn (born June 22, 1933) is the senior U The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23 1933 is an American Politician from California. The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses The race is often cited as an example of Davis's history of negative campaign tactics.  The Davis campaign featured an ad that compared Feinstein to the incarcerated hotelier Leona Helmsley.  Some experts consider that ad to be the most negative in state history.  The ad backfired with Davis losing to Feinstein by a significant margin for the nomination although this loss did not stop Davis from using negative campaign ads in the future, including in his race for Lieutenant Governor.  Davis blamed his campaign managers for the defeat and vowed not to let major decisions in future campaigns be decided by his campaign staff.  In 2003, when Feinstein urged voters to vote no during the recall election, she was constantly reminded through questions, video, and the media about the 1992 primary. 
Many Democrats came to believe that Davis's political career was over after his defeat in his run for the Senate but Davis created a new campaign team. He won a landslide victory in his race for Lieutenant Governor in 1994, receiving more votes than any other Democratic candidate in America. The Lieutenant Governor of California is a statewide constitutional officer elected separately from the Governor who serves as the "vice-executive" of California  Davis ran as a moderate candidate against Republican Cathie Wright.  Davis used ads to depict Wright as a Republican that was too conservative for California.  Davis had a large advantage in campaign funds. 
As Lieutenant Governor until 1999, Gray Davis focused on efforts on the California economy and worked to encourage new industries to locate and expand in the state.  He also worked to keep college education affordable for California's middle-class families and oversaw the largest student-fee reduction in California history.  As the state's second-highest officeholder, he served as President of the State Senate, Chair of the Commission for Economic Development, Chair of the State Lands Commission, Regent of the University of California and Trustee of the California State University. The University of California ( UC) is a Public university system in the state of California. History Today's California State University system is the direct descendant of the California State Normal School (now San José State University) a 
In the June primary election, Davis surprised political observers by handily defeating two better funded Democratic opponents: multimillionaire airline executive Al Checchi and Jane Harman, whose husband is a multimillionaire. The 1998 California gubernatorial election was an election that occurred on November 3, 1998, resulting in the election of Gray Davis Alfred Attilio Checchi ( June 6, 1948) is an American politician who was a candidate for Governor of California in the 1998 gubernatorial election Jane Harman is also a pseudonym of the British author Terry Harknett.  Davis's campaign slogan during the primary was "Experience Money Can't Buy. " Early primary polls showed Davis in third for the Democratic nomination.  Davis surprised many political insiders with his landslide come from behind victory.  Davis even finished ahead of the unopposed Republican nominee in California's first blanket gubernatoral primary. The blanket primary is a system used for selecting Political party candidates in a Primary election in the USA.
Davis won the 1998 general election for Governor with 57. 9% of the vote, defeating Republican Dan Lungren who had 38. Daniel Edward (Dan Lungren (born September 22, 1946) is a Republican of the United States House of Representatives representing California's 4%. Davis aimed to portray himself as a moderate centrist democract and to label Lungren a Republican too conservative for California and out of touch with its views on issues like guns and abortion.  After his victory, Davis declared that he would work to end the "divisive politics" of his predecessor Pete Wilson. Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23 1933 is an American Politician from California.  In his campaign, Davis emphasized the need to improve California's public schools, which voters had cited as their top concern in this election. 
In 1998, Davis was elected the Golden State's first Democratic governor in 16 years. The San Jose Mercury News called him "perhaps the best-trained governor-in-waiting California has ever produced. " Davis was strongly viewed as a possible Democratic candidate for President in 2004. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by  In March 1999, Davis enjoyed a 58% approval rating and just 12% disapproval.  His numbers peaked in February 2000 with 62% approval and 20% disapproval, coinciding with the peak of the dot-com boom in California.  Davis held his strong poll numbers into January 2001.
Davis's first official act as governor was to call a special session of the state legislature to address his plan for all California children to be able to read by age 9.
|“||"I ran for governor because of my passion for education," Davis told CNN the Sunday night before the recall election on Larry King Live. Larry King Live is an American talk show hosted by Larry King on CNN. ||”|
Davis used California's growing budget surplus to improve education. He signed legislation that provided for a new statewide accountability program and for the Academic Performance Index and supported the high school exit exam.  He signed legislation that authorized the largest expansion of the Cal Grant program.  Under the Davis administration, California began recognizing students for outstanding academic achievement in math and sciences on the new Golden State Exam. Davis's Governors Scholarship program provided $1,000 scholarships to those students who scored in the top 1% in two subject areas on the state's annual statewide standardize test.
Davis signed into law legislation that began the Eligibility in the Local Context (ELC) program that guaranteed admission to a UC to students that finished in the top 4% of their high school class.  Public schools received $8 billion over the minimum required by Proposition 98 during Davis's first term. California Proposition 98 requires a minimum percentage of the state budget to be spent on K-14 education. Davis increased spending on recruiting more and better-qualified teachers. He campaigned to lower the approval threshold for local school bonds from two-thirds to 55 percent in a statewide proposition that passed. Davis earmarked $3 billion over four years for new textbooks and, between 1999 and 2004, has increased state per-pupil spending from $5,756 to $6,922. 
In 2001, Gov. Gray Davis signed Senate Bill 19, which establishes nutritional standards for food at elementary schools and bans the sale of carbonated beverages in elementary and middle schools. 
Another early act of Davis' was the reversal of his predecessor Republican Governor Pete Wilson's alteration of California's 8 hour overtime pay rule for wage earners.
Davis recognized domestic partnerships registry in 1999 and, in 2001, gave partners a few of the rights enjoyed by spouses such as making health care decisions for an incapacitated partner, acting as a conservator and inheriting property.  He also signed a bill to prevent disqualification from a jury based on sexual orientation. He signed a bill allowing employees to use family leave to care for a domestic partner though he didn't make good on his promise to convene a task force on civil unions. 
He signed laws in 1999 banning so-called assault weapons by characteristic rather than brand name, as well as limiting handgun purchases to one a month, requiring trigger locks with all sales of new firearms and reducing the sale of cheap handguns. Davis' ban included a ban on high-powered weapons and so-called "Saturday Night Specials. " In 2001, Davis signed a bill requiring gun buyers to pass a safety test.  A supporter of the death penalty and tougher sentencing laws, Davis blocked nearly all parole recommendations by the parole board. 
Early in 1999, Davis sought to improve relations with Mexico. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Davis believed that California under Pete Wilson had left millions of dollar of potential trade revenues "on the table. Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23 1933 is an American Politician from California. " Ironically, because of Davis' later hard criticisms of Bush during the energy crisis, Davis wanted California to have relations with Mexico that were more similar to Texas under then Governor George Walker Bush. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States.  Controversy over the California Mexico border and California Proposition 187 had strained the relationship between the two parties. California Proposition 187 was a 1994 ballot initiative designed to deny Illegal immigrants social services health care and Public education.  Davis met with Mexican President Ernesto Zedillo to improve relations with California's southern neighbor and major trading partner within Davis' first 30 days in office. Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de León (born December 27, 1951) is a Mexican economist and politician  Davis later met with President Vicente Fox and participated in his inauguration. Vicente Fox Quesada ( born July 2 1942) is a Mexican politician who served as President of Mexico from 2000 to 2006 and currently The Governor met with Mexican Presidents eight times. Under the Davis administration, California and Baja California signed a "Memorandum of Understanding" expanding cooperation in several policy areas. Baja California (pronounced ˈbɑːhɑː kælɨˈfɔrnjə in English is the northernmost state of Mexico.  Under Davis, Mexico became California's leading export market for the first time in history and California's trade with Mexico surpasses all of Mexico's trade with Latin America, Europe and Asia combined.  Because of the growth in the California economy, Davis opened and expanded trade offices around the world, including in Mexico. But most of these offices were eliminated in 2003 California budget due to difficult fiscal times. 
Davis significantly expanded number of low-income children with state-subsidized health coverage.  He signed laws to allow patients to get a second opinion if their HMO denies treatment and, in limited cases, the right to sue. "HMO" redirects here For other uses see HMO (disambiguation.  Davis signed legislation that provided HMO patients a bill of rights, including help-line to resolve disputes and independent medical review of claims.  R. J. Reynolds and Lorillard Tobacco sued over California's antismoking campaign but their lawsuit was dismissed in July 2003. Richard Joshua "RJ" Reynolds ( July 20, 1850 - July 29, 1918) was an American businessman and founder of the R Lorillard Tobacco Company is the 18th oldest company in the United States and its oldest tobacco company Davis also authorized a new hard-hitting anti-smoking ad that graphically depicts the damage caused by secondhand smoke. 
In September 2002, Governor Davis signed bills to ensure age verification was obtained for cigarettes and other tobacco products sold over the Internet or through the mail, ensured that all state taxes are being fully paid on tobacco purchases, and increased the penalty for possessing or purchasing untaxed cigarettes. A cigarette ( French "small Cigar " from cigar + -ette) is a product consumed through Smoking and manufactured The Internet is a global system of interconnected Computer networks  He also signed legislation to expand smoke-free zones around public buildings. 
Davis approved legislation creating a telemarketing do-not-call list in 2003.  Under Davis, benefits for injured and unemployed workers increased. The minimum wage increased by $1 to $6. 75.  Davis backed higher research and development tax credits. He pushed for elimination of the minimum franchise tax paid by new businesses during the first two years of operation. 
While Davis's record was pro environmental by increasing spending on land acquisition and maintenance of the state's park system, signing legislation that attempts to cut greenhouse gas emissions by having automakers produce more efficient vehicles, cutting fees to state parks, and opposing offshore drilling, he did not back tougher restrictions on timber companies as some environmentalists desired.  Under the Davis administration, California purchased 10,000 acres (40 km²) for urban parks. 
Davis signed the first state law in the US in July 2002 to require automakers to limit auto emissions. The law required the California Air Resources Board to obtain the "maximum feasible" cuts in greenhouse gases emitted by all non-commercial vehicles in 2009 and beyond.  Automakers claimed the law would lead smaller and more expensive cars sold in California.  The law still faces legal challenges and must be granted a waiver by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). 
On March 25, 1999, Davis issued an executive order calling for the removal of MTBE (a toxic gasoline additive) from the state's gas. Events 1199 - Richard I is wounded by a crossbow bolt while fighting France which leads to his death on April 6. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Methyl tert -butyl ether, also known as methyl tertiary butyl ether and MTBE, is a Chemical compound with molecular formula C5H12O  In 2001, in order for gas prices to remain reasonable in California while removing MTBE, Davis asked President George W. Bush to order the EPA to grant California a waiver on the federal minimum oxygen requirement. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States.  Without a waiver, California would have to import a much larger amount of ethanol per year and gas prices were projected to increase drastically. Bush did not grant the waiver, and in 2002, Davis issued an executive order reversing his earlier executive order. 
Davis's actions when it came to regulating business suggested that Davis was a more moderate Governor. He worked to kill a comprehensive bill opposed by banks and insurance companies to protect consumers' personal financial information. "What you saw in the campaign was what you got," said professor Bruce Cain. "He's tried to negotiate a course between the different interest groups and keep Democrats on a more centrist, business-oriented track". 
Davis approved $5. 3 billion over five years for more than 150 transit and highway projects. One of those projects was construction on the new eastern section of the Bay Bridge. During 1999 and 2000, California spent millions on onetime projects like buying new rail cars and track improvements. 
In May 2001, in the middle of the California electricity crisis, his numbers declined to 42% approval and 49% disapproval. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western U  By December 2001, Davis' approval ratings spiked up to 51%.  His numbers declined back to the May 2001 level and remained about the same over the next year.  On April 2003, Davis had a 24% approval rating 65% disapproval rating.  Voters cited disapproval of the state's record $34. 6 billion budget shortfall, growing unemployment, and dubious campaign contributor connections. 
Davis had tried to maintain a middle-of-the-road approach, but ultimately alienated many of the state's liberals who viewed him as too conservative, and many conservatives who viewed him as too liberal.  Many were upset that in trying to balance the budget, Davis cut spending for schools while increasing spending for prisons despite the fact that in the coming years, a federal court ruling would declare the conditions in California prisons so poor and overcrowded that they were unconstitutional.  Some critics attributed the proposal to the California Correctional Peace Officer Associations donations to Davis's re-election campaign.  Californians were also upset that he did not announce the record budget deficit until after his re-election.  Some critics accused Davis of overstating the budget deficit, so he could cut spending and raise taxes beyond what was necessary and then claim victory when the deficit cleared up. 
Negative sentiment was expressed on talk radio. Talk radio is a Radio format containing discussion about topical issues  The top-rated John and Ken Show in Los Angeles called Davis Gumby in response to his changing positions on issues, while Mr. KABC and Al Rantel (also in Los Angeles) coined the term Governor Lowbeam as a reference to his mishandling of the electricity crisis and his term as Chief of Staff for Jerry Brown, who was often mocked as Governor Moonbeam. John Chester Kobylt and Kenneth Robertson Chiampou, known professionally as John and Ken are American Talk radio hosts of a four-hour radio Gumby is a dark green Clay humanoid figure who was the subject of a 233-episode series of American Television which spanned over a 35-year period Marc Germain (born May 28, 1967) colloquially known as Mr K, is a popular radio talk show host formerly broadcasting from Los Angeles California on Al Rantel (born October 14, 1955) is a conservative Talk show host on KABC radio, Los Angeles, California.  Many talk radio programs played a role in collecting signatures to force a recall election. 
Soon after taking office, Davis was able to fast-track the first power plant construction in twelve years in April 1999, but the plant did not come on line before the electricity crisis though in-state production was not the cause. The California electricity crisis (also known as the Western U 
According to the subsequent Federal Energy Regulatory commission's investigation and report, numerous energy trading companies, many based in Texas, such as Enron Corporation, illegally restricted their supply to the point where the spikes in power usage would cause blackouts. Rolling blackouts affecting 97,000 customers hit the San Francisco Bay area on June 14, 2000, and San Diego Gas & Electric Company filed a complaint alleging market manipulation by some energy producers in August 2000.  On December 7, 2000, suffering from low supply and idled power plants, the California Independent System Operator (ISO), which manages the California power grid, declared the first statewide Stage 3 power alert, meaning power reserves were below 3 percent. An Independent System Operator (ISO is an organization formed at the direction or recommendation of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC. Rolling blackouts were avoided when the state halted two large state and federal water pumps to conserve electricity. 
On January 17, 2001, Davis declared a state of emergency in response to the electricity crisis. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Speculators, led by Enron Corporation, were collectively making large profits while the state teetered on the edge for weeks, and finally suffered rolling blackouts on January 17 and 18. Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation, former NYSE ticker symbol ENE was an American Energy company based in  Davis stepped in to buy power at highly unfavorable terms on the open market, since the California power companies were technically bankrupt and had no buying power. Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against California agreed to pay $43 billion for power over the next 20 years.  Newspaper publishers sued Davis to force him to make public the details of the energy deal. 
During the electricity crisis, the Davis administration implemented a power conservation program that included television ads and financial incentives to reduce energy consumption. These efforts, the fear of rolling blackouts, and the increased cost of electricity resulted in a 14. 1% reduction in electricity usage from June 2000 to June 2001. 
Gray Davis critics often charge that he did not respond properly to the crisis, while his defenders attribute the crisis solely to the corporate accounting scandals and say that Davis did all he could. Accounting scandals, or corporate accounting scandals are political and business scandals which arise with the disclosure of misdeeds by trusted executives Some critics on the left, such as Arianna Huffington, alleged that Davis was lulled to inaction by campaign contributions from energy producers. Arianna Huffington (born Arianna Stassinopoulos, on July 15, 1950) is an Author, media gadfly, and nationally syndicated Campaign finance refers to the means by which money is raised for election campaigns.  Some of Davis' energy advisors were formerly employed by the same energy speculators who made millions from the crisis. In addition, the Democrat-controlled legislature would sometimes push Davis to act decisively by taking over power plants which were known to have been gamed and place them back under control of the utilities. Some conservatives argued that Davis signed overpriced energy contracts, employed incompetent negotiators, and refused to allow prices to rise for residences statewide much like they did in San Diego, which they argue could have given Davis more leverage against the energy traders and encouraged more conservation.  The electricity crisis is considered one of the major factors that lead to Davis' recall.
In a speech at UCLA on August 19, 2003, Davis apologized for being slow to act during the energy crisis, but then forcefully attacked the Houston-based energy suppliers: "I inherited the energy deregulation scheme which put us all at the mercy of the big energy producers. The University of California Los Angeles (generally known as UCLA) is a public research university located in Westwood Los Angeles, California, United Events 43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. We got no help from the Federal government. In fact, when I was fighting Enron and the other energy companies, these same companies were sitting down with Vice President Cheney to draft a national energy strategy. Enron Creditors Recovery Corporation (formerly Enron Corporation, former NYSE ticker symbol ENE was an American Energy company based in __FORCETOC__ For the Vice President of the United States, their roles and other information see Vice President of the United States. "
When the Enron verdicts was rendered years later, convicting Enron and other companies of market manipulation, Davis responded with the following quote:
|“||Ken Lay and Jeffrey Skilling, more than anyone, are the reason I'm talking to you now from this law firm. Kenneth Lee "Ken" Lay ( April 15, 1942 Jeffrey Keith "Jeff" Skilling (born November 25, 1953) was the CEO of Enron Corporation in 2001 ||”|
On November 13, 2003, shortly before leaving office, Davis officially brought the energy crisis to an end by issuing a proclamation ending the state of emergency he declared on January 17, 2001. Events 1002 - English king Ethelred orders the killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. The state of emergency allowed the state to buy electricity for the financially strapped utility companies. The emergency authority allowed Davis to order the California Energy Commission to streamline the application process for new power plants. The California Energy Commission is California ’s primary Energy policy and planning agency During that time, California issued licenses to 38 new power plants, amounting to 14,365 megawatts of electricity production when completed. 
In 2006, the Los Angeles Times published an article that credited Davis' signing of the long term projects for preventing future blackouts and providing California a cheap supply of energy with the increasing costs of energy. The Los Angeles Times (also known as the LA Times) is a daily Newspaper published in Los Angeles California and distributed 
In March 2003, the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission's long awaited report on the so-called "energy crisis" was released. That report mostly vindicated Davis, laying the blame for the energy disruption and raiding of California's treasury on some 25 energy trading companies, most of which were based in Texas.
During the economic boom years of the Davis administration, the California budget expanded to cover Davis's new programs. California's low national K-12 education rankings and Davis's campaign pledge to help education, along with the large majority that elected Davis to his first term and his early popularity, suggest that a majority of Californians supported increases in education spending during the early part of his first term when California was in budget surplus. Polls also showed that increased spending in education was supported by the California voters.  Under the Davis administration, taxes were cut by over $5. 1 billion that included a $3. 5 billion cut in sales tax and a reduction in the vehicle licensing fees.  The cut in sales taxes was mandated due to a 1991 law that required sales taxes to be reduced a quarter percent when budget reserves exceed 4 percent of the state general fund for two straight fiscal years which they did in 1999 and 2000.  Davis also vetoed $5. 1 billion in appropriations during that span. 
While California's economy was expanding, California was producing record budget surpluses under Davis even after his tax cuts and new spending. According to the California Department of Finance, California had a 10% surplus at the end of 1999 and California was projected to have a 4% surplus at the end fiscal year 2000.  These surplus monies were left in the treasury. Davis claimed to be cautious with state finances.
|“||"I’m trying to chart a prudent course and keep us somewhere in the middle. I don’t want to jump the gun on spending; I don’t want to jump the gun on tax relief," said Davis concerning the budget surpluses on October 26, 2000. ||”|
Then, the dot-com boom that had been fueling California's record tax revenues burst unexpectedly because of the large number of high tech firms in California and California's dependence on state income taxes. Because of the loss of state revenue associated with Proposition 13, California became more dependent on state income taxes. Proposition 13, officially titled the "People's Initiative to Limit Property Taxation" was a ballot Initiative to amend the constitution of the state of California When the dot-com boom turned to bust, state revenues fell while ongoing spending commitments created deficits. Restoring the licensing fees to pre tax cut levels to close the budget gap and stabilize the state's credit rating became unpopular.  The beginning shortfall for the 2002-2003 state budget was $23. 6 billion.  Davis announced that the 2003-2004 budget shortfall would be $34. 6 billion while the Legislative Analyist projected a $21. 1. 
Davis began fundraising for his 2002 reelection campaign early in his governorship. The 2002 California gubernatorial election was an election that occurred on November 5, 2002. Davis raised $13. 2 million in 1999 and $14. 2 million in 2000, both unprecedented sums at the time so early in an elected term.  Davis's 1999 and 2000 contributions included contributions from Pacific Gas & Electric and Edison International.  Davis also received large contributions from labor groups, environmental groups, and individuals. 
Davis' fundraising efforts attracted much attention. University of California Berkeley's Institute of Government Studies claimed that Davis' fundraising skills were "second to none in the political arena" while Senator John McCain called Davis' 2001 goal of $26 million "disgraceful. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley " One article in the San Francisco Chronicle claimed that Davis was raising $34,000 a day.  Although Davis' fundraising pace was criticized by his many detractors, Arnold Schwarzenegger would later collect contributions at a quicker rate during the early years of his governorship. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor  Now Arnoldwatch. org, a project of the Foundation for Taxpayer and Consumer Rights which is a nonpartisan organization that is critical of both Democrats and Republicans, called Davis a "pay to play" politician and a "sellout". 
During the 2002 election campaign, Davis took the unusual step of taking out campaign ads during the Republican primaries against Los Angeles mayor Richard Riordan. A primary election ( nominating primary) also referred to simply as a primary, is an election in which voters in a Jurisdiction select candidates Richard J Riordan (born May 1, 1930) is a Republican Politician from California, U Davis claimed that Riordan had attacked his record and that his campaign was defending his record.  Polls showed that, as a moderate, Riordan would be a more formidable challenger in the general election than a conservative candidate. Polls even showed that Riordan would defeat Davis.  Davis attacked Riordian with negative ads in the primary. The ads questioned Riordan's pro-choice stance by questioning Riordan's support of pro-life politicians and judges.  The ads pointed out Riordan's position of wanting a moratorium on the death penalty as being to the left of Gray Davis, who strongly supported it. 
Davis' negative ads against Riordan and a variety of other equally important factors explained on the 2002 election page, lead to Riordan's defeat in the Republican primary by the more staunchly conservative candidate Bill Simon. William Edward Simon Jr (born June 20, 1951) best known as Bill Simon, is an American Businessman and Politician In the first 10 weeks of 2002, Davis spent $10 million on ad: $3 million on positive ads boasting of his record, $7 million on negative ads against Riordan. 
Davis was re-elected in the November 2002 general election following a long and bitter campaign against Simon, marked by accusations of ethical lapses on both sides and widespread voter apathy.  Simon was also hurt by a financial fraud scandal that tarnished Simon's reputation.  Davis campaign touted California's improving test scores, environmental protection, health insurance coverage for children, and lower prescription drug costs for seniors. Davis's campaign featured several negative ads that highlighted Simon's financial fraud scandal.  The 2002 gubernatorial race was the most expensive in California state history with over $100 million spent.  Davis's campaign was better financed; Davis had over $26 in campaign reserves more than Simon in August 2006.  Davis gained re-election with 47. 4% of the vote to Simon's 42. 4%. However, the Simon-Davis race led in the lowest turnout percentage in modern gubernatorial history, allowing a lower than normal amount of signatures required for a recall.  Davis won the election but majority of the voters disliked Davis and did not approve of his job performance. 
While polls attributed Davis' declining popularity to the energy and budget problems, some newspaper articles and commentators have identified other issues of Davis' tenure that limited his effectiveness and political appeal. Davis had some trouble in his relations with the California legislature. There were disagreements between the more moderate Davis and the more liberal Democrat-controlled Legislature.  Democrat John L. Burton, the leader of the California State Senate, was Davis' chief antagonist. John Lowell Burton (born December 15 1932 in Cincinnati Ohio) is an American politician who served as a Democratic California The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature.  In 2003, Republican leader Jim Brulte told The Los Angeles Times that Davis lacked the basics of political collegiality to pull him through hard times. James L Brulte (born April 13 1956) is a Republican US Politician who served as a California State Senator, representing "I never felt I got to know him . . . I always felt a little sorry for him". 
Davis' moderate record made it difficult for him to appeal to any core constituency of the Democratic Party. During the recall, Davis failed to gain the full support he needed from his more liberal Democratic base.  He got the reputation of being beholden to supporters and unable to satisfy them. 
Davis' leadership and compromise building skills have also been questioned. Many of the challenges that California faced during the Davis' years required a strong force of personality to forge compromise but Davis lacked such skill.  Davis was also hurt by redistricting in 2000 that made most districts safe for the incumbent party, limiting some legislators need and willingness to compromise. 
Davis' personality was often reported to be aloof and his political style cautious and calculated instead of charismatic and someone the voters and those who worked with Davis could identify.  Davis' personality caused Davis to depend more on political skill such as fundraising to win elections.  Davis' management style and his tendency to micromanage his administration drove people out of his administration and made it difficult for people to present opposing views. 
As Davis left office in 2003, the San Francisco Chronicle published an editorial discussing the legacy of Davis. The newspaper claimed that Davis lacked vision, allowing the legislature and its policies define his tenure, and focused on "robotic governing style" that focused on fundraising instead of personal relationships. The Chronicle commented that Davis was often on the right side of the issues but that being on the right side of the issues alienated the electorate. Davis lacked the charisma and seemed to be more passionate about winning campaigns than governing.  Davis never revealed emotion to the voters.  He often could only spend time on his campaigns talking about his accomplishments instead of providing the voters with a vision. 
Davis's second term, which lasted only ten months, was dominated by the recall election. Davis signed into law several controversial measures during the closing weeks of the recall campaign, including one granting drivers' licenses to illegal immigrants. Davis also signed legislation requiring employers to pay for medical insurance for workers and legislation granting domestic partners many of the same rights as married people. He vetoed legislation giving illegal immigrants free tuition for community college. Many of Davis's opponents were furious over the signings of these measures during the final weeks of the Davis administration.  Some political observers say these efforts as an attempt to reenforce support from Hispanics, labor union members, and liberal wing Democrats.  Ultimately, Davis did not have as much support from Hispanics and union members in the recall election as he did in his 2002 re-election. 
Davis was Governor during the southern California fires of 2003 more commonly known as the Cedar Fire. The Cedar Fire was a human-caused Wildfire which burned out of control through a large area of Southern California in October 2003 Davis declared a state of emergency in Los Angeles County, San Bernardino County, San Diego County, and Ventura County in October 2003 and deployed the national guard to help in disaster relief. By mid November, the greater South Los Angeles area had been declared a disaster area to help the area cope with flooding and weather related damage due to the fires destroying thousands of acres of vegetation.  The Cedar Fire was Davis' last major event during his tenure as Governor. With Schwarzenegger as the Governor elect, both Davis and Schwarzenegger worked to help in disaster relief. Schwarzenegger went to Washington, D.C. and met Vice President Dick Cheney to lobby the federal government for more disaster relief funds. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney (born January 30 1941 is the forty-sixth and current Vice President of the United States.
In July 2003, a sufficient number of citizen signatures were collected for a recall election. The 2003 California recall election was a special Election permitted under California law A recall election is a procedure by which voters can remove an elected official from office The initial drive for the recall was fueled by funds from the personal fortune of U.S. Rep. Darrell Issa, a Republican who originally hoped to replace Davis himself. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. Darrell E Issa (pronounced Eye -suh (born November 1, 1953) is an American politician and formerly a CEO of a Consumer electronics The 2003 California recall special election constituted the first gubernatorial recall in Californian history, and only the second in U. S. history.
Early in the recall election, Davis called the recall election an “insult” to the eight million voters who had voted in the 2002 gubernatorial election.  The Davis campaign tried to run against the recall Yes/No vote instead of against the candidates that were trying to replace him.  Davis tried to depict the recall as a $66 million waste of money that could allow a candidate with a very small percentage of the vote to become Governor—potentially someone who was very liberal or conservative.  There are no primaries in a recall election. Davis tried to run “outside the recall circus” and to make himself appear gubernatorial and hard at work for California, who had made improvements to education and healthcare.  Early August polls showed that over 50% supported the recall. 
In September 2003, Davis conceded that he had lost touch with the voters and he was trying to correct that with numerous townhall meetings.  Poll numbers in September showed a 3% drop in the number of California voters who were planning to vote yes on the recall.  According to some analysts and campaign aides, Davis's town hall meetings and conversations with voters were softening his image.  Many political insiders remarked that Davis had made several comebacks and that he should not be counted out of the race despite poll numbers that showed over 50% planning to vote yes on the recall. 
During the recall, Davis blamed some of the state's problems on his predecessor Pete Wilson. The University of California Berkeley (also referred to as Cal, Berkeley and UC Berkeley) is a major research university located in Berkeley The Daily Californian (or Daily Cal) is an independent student-run Newspaper that serves the University of California Berkeley  Davis claimed that he would have rather raised taxes on the upper tax brackets instead of restoring vehicle registration fees and college student tuition.  California law requires legislation that raises taxes to gain a 2/3 majority in the legislature. Davis could not gain that majority in the California legislature because that majority would require many Republican votes. The Republican members were firmly against any such tax increases, while raising fees only require a simple majority in the legislature.
Davis tried to define the recall as a right-wing effort to rewrite history after losing the fall election last year.  In a major 19 minute campaign address that was broadcasted statewide, Davis called the recall a "right- wing power grab" by Republicans and he blamed Republicans in the legislature and in Washington for many of the states problems while at the same time he tried to take some of the responsibility for the states' problems. 
|“||"It's like the Oakland Raiders saying to Tampa Bay, 'We know you beat us, but we want to play the Super Bowl again,"' said Davis about the recall. ||”|
On October 7, 2003, Davis was recalled with 55. Events 3761 BC - The epoch (origin of the modern Hebrew calendar ( Proleptic Julian calendar) Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. 4% of the votes in favor of the recall, and Republican Arnold Schwarzenegger was elected to replace him as governor. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor The Bay Area was the only region in California to vote no on the recall: San Francisco rejected the recall by a 4 to 1 ratio. The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly known as the Bay Area, or the Bay, is a geographically and ethnically diverse metropolitan region that surrounds the The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city  Davis joined Lynn Frazier of North Dakota, who was ousted in 1921, as the only governors in American history to be recalled. Lynn Joseph Frazier ( December 21, 1874 January 11, 1947) was a U North Dakota ( is a state located in the Midwestern and Western regions of the United States of America.  His final full day in office was November 16, 2003. 
On the night of the recall, Davis conceded defeat and thanked California for having elected him in 5 statewide elections. Davis mentioned what he defined as the accomplishments of his administration such as improvements in education, environmental protection, and health insurance for children.  Davis said he would help Schwarzenegger in the transition and he later urged his staff to do the same. 
After leaving public office, Davis appeared on several shows, such as The Tonight Show with Jay Leno and The Late Show with David Letterman, as well as a cameo as himself on CBS sitcom Yes, Dear. The Tonight Show with Jay Leno is an Emmy Award -winning American late-night Talk show currently hosted by Jay Leno, on The Late Show with David Letterman is an Emmy Award -winning American late-night Talk show hosted by David Letterman on CBS A cameo role or cameo appearance (often shortened to just cameo) is a brief appearance of a known person in a work of the Performing arts, such as CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Yes Dear is an Emmy -Nominated American television Sitcom which aired from 2000 to 2006 on CBS. In December 2004 he announced that he was joining the law firm of Loeb & Loeb.
Davis spends 80% of his workdays practicing corporate law as "of counsel" to Loeb & Loeb in Century City, a firm where all attorneys wear casual attire, even Davis. American Lawyer magazine called the firm one of "best places" in the country to work. 
Davis has done several media interviews about his legacy. He appeared prominently in the documentary Enron: The Smartest Guys in the Room. Enron The Smartest Guys in the Room is a 2005 Documentary film based on the best-selling 2003 book of the same name by Fortune 
The debate about his legacy and role regarding the energy woes that proved to be his downfall remains. Davis feels complete vindication because of the revelation that Enron manipulated the California energy market and because of Schwarzenegger's (then) low approval ratings.  In a CNN interview on August 5, 2005, Davis said that he had no interest in running for Governor again, although he had been urged to run by some Democrats. Events 642 - Battle of Maserfield - Penda of Mercia defeats and kills Oswald of Bernicia. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
He was a guest lecturer at UCLA's School of Public Policy in 2006 alongside former Republican State Senator Jim Brulte. James L Brulte (born April 13 1956) is a Republican US Politician who served as a California State Senator, representing He wrote an introduction for a journalist's book on the Amber Alert system for missing children, a cause he championed. An AMBER Alert is a Child abduction alert system, issued to the general public by various media outlets in Canada and in the United States, when police 
On April 23, 2007, Davis was appointed to the Board of Directors of animation company DiC Entertainment, as a non-executive. Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. 
(Chief of Staff, Governor Ronald Reagan)
|Chief of Staff, Governor Jerry Brown|
B. The Internet Archive ( IA) is a Nonprofit organization dedicated to maintaining an on-line Library and archive of Web and Edwin "Ed" Meese III (born December 2, 1931 in Oakland California) served as the seventy-fifth Attorney General of the United The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr (born April 7, 1938) is the current Attorney General and former governor of the State of T. Collins
|California State Assemblyman, 43rd District|
|California State Controller|
Leo T. McCarthy
|Lieutenant Governor of California|
Peter B. Wilson
|Governor of California|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Davis, Joseph Graham, Jr. Howard Lawrence Berman (born April 15 1941) has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1983 representing The California State Assembly is the Lower house of the California State Legislature. The State Controller is the Chief Financial Officer of the State of California in the United States. Kathleen Connell was the California State Controller from 1995 until 2003 Leo Tarcissus McCarthy ( August 15 1930 - February 5 2007) was a New Zealand -born American politician and businessman This is a List of Lieutenant Governors of the US state of California, 1850 to present. Cruz Miguel Bustamante (born January 4 1953 is an American Politician. Peter Barton Wilson (born August 23 1933 is an American Politician from California. The following is a list of the Governors of the State of California. Arnold Alois Schwarzenegger ( German ˌaɐnɔlt aloʏs ˈʃvaɐtsənɛɡɐ born July 30 1947 is an Austrian American Bodybuilder, Actor (full name)|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||California politician|
|DATE OF BIRTH||December 26, 1942|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||New York City, New York, United States|
|DATE OF DEATH||living|
|PLACE OF DEATH|