A graphic novel is a type of comic book, usually with a lengthy and complex storyline similar to those of novels, and often aimed at mature audiences. A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story The term also encompasses comic short story anthologies, and in some cases bound collections of previously published comic-book series. The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such
Graphic novels are typically bound in longer and more durable formats than familiar comic magazines, using the same materials and methods as printed books, and are generally sold in bookstores and specialty comic book shops rather than at newsstands. Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a Book from a number of folded or unfolded sheets of Paper or other material Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally
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The evolving term graphic novel is not strictly defined, and is sometimes used, controversially, to imply subjective distinctions in artistic quality between graphic novels and other kinds of comics. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter An epic is a lengthy Narrative poem, ordinarily concerning a serious subject containing details of heroic deeds and events significant to a culture or nation As a Literary genre of High culture, romance or chivalric romance refers to a style of heroic Prose and verse Narrative A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Comedy (from the Greek κωμωδίαkomodia has a popular meaning (any discourse generally intended to amuse especially in Television, Film, and Drama is the specific mode of Fiction represented in Performance. Satire is often strictly defined as a literary genre or form; although in practice it is also found in the graphic and Performing arts In satire human A performance, in Performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers behave in a particular way for another group of people A Book is a set or collection of written printed illustrated or blank sheets made of Paper, Parchment, or other material usually fastened together For the Wikipedia guideline regarding editing articles see WikipediaManual of Style. The following is a list of literary terms; that is those words used in discussion classification criticism and analysis of Literature. The history of literature is the historical development of Writings in Prose or Poetry which attempt to provide Entertainment, enlightenment The History of literature in the Modern period in Europe begins with the Age of Enlightenment and the conclusion of the Baroque period in the 18th century This is a list of lists of Books in Wikipedia General lists List of anonymously published works List of books The following are lists of Writers: By name A &ndash B &ndash Y &ndash Z By type of writing This is a list of literary awards from around the world Worldwide in scope Nobel Prize in Literature Neustadt International Prize This is a list of awards that are or have been given out to writers of Poetry, either for a specific poem collection of poems or body of work Literary criticism is the study discussion evaluation and interpretation of Literature. Literary theory in a strict sense is the systematic study of the nature of Literature and of the methods for analyzing literature A literary magazine is a Periodical devoted to Literature in a broad sense It suggests a story that has a beginning, middle and end, as opposed to an ongoing series with continuing characters; one that is outside the genres commonly associated with comic books, and that deals with more mature themes. It is sometimes applied to works that fit this description even though they are serialized in traditional comic book format. The term is commonly used to disassociate works from the juvenile or humorous connotations of the terms comics and comic book, implying that the work is more serious, mature, or literary than traditional comics. Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter Following this reasoning, the French term Bande Dessinée is occasionally applied, by art historians and others schooled in fine arts, to dissociate comic books in the fine-art tradition from those of popular entertainment, even though in the French language the term has no such connotation and applies equally to all kinds of comic strips and books. Franco-Belgian comics are Comics that are created in Belgium and France. Art history is the Academic study of objects of Art in their Historical development and stylistic contexts i Fine art is any Art form developed primarily for Aesthetics rather than Utility.
In the publishing trade, the term is sometimes extended to material that would not be considered a novel if produced in another medium. Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Collections of comic books that do not form a continuous story, anthologies or collections of loosely related pieces, and even non-fiction are stocked by libraries and bookstores as "graphic novels" (similar to the manner in which dramatic stories are included in "comic" books). ANThology is the first Major label album by Alien Ant Farm released on March 6, 2001 in the USA and March 19 Non-fiction is an account or representation of a subject which is presented as Fact. A library is a collection of information sources resources and services and the structure in which it is housed it is organized for use and maintained by a public body an institution It is also sometimes used to create a distinction between works created as stand-alone stories, in contrast to collections of a story arc from a comic book series published in book form. A story arc is an extended or continuing storyline in episodic storytelling media such as Television, Comic books Comic strips 
Whether manga, which has had a much longer history of both novel-like publishing and production of comics for adult audiences, should be included in the term is not always agreed upon. ˈmɑŋgə is the Japanese word for Comics (sometimes called komikku コミック and print Cartoons In their modern form manga date from shortly Likewise, in continental Europe, both original book-length stories such as La rivolta dei racchi (1967) by Guido Buzzeli, and collections of comic strips have been commonly published in hardcover volumes, often called "albums", since the end of the 19th century (including Franco-Belgian comics series such as "The Adventures of Tintin" and "Lieutenant Blueberry", and Italian series such as "Corto Maltese"). A comic strip is a sequence of drawings that tells a story Currently in the Western world, most comic strips are written and drawn by a Comics artist Franco-Belgian comics are Comics that are created in Belgium and France. The Adventures of Tintin (Les Aventures de Tintin is a series of Comic strips created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi Blueberry is a Franco-Belgian comics western series created by the Belgian Scriptwriter Jean-Michel Charlier and French Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Corto Maltese is a Comics series featuring an Eponymous character a complex sailor-adventurer
Comics have long been collected into book form, with The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck (1837) being the earliest recognized American example. Histoire de M Vieux Bois, published in English as The Adventures of Obadiah Oldbuck, and also known as Les amours de Mr  The United States has also had a long tradition of collecting comic strips into book form. While these collections and longer-form comic books are not considered graphic novels even by modern standards, they are early steps in the development of the graphic novel.
The 1920s saw a revival of the medieval woodcut tradition, with Belgian Frans Masereel often cited as "the undisputed King" (Sabin, 291) of this revival. For the origins of the technique and non-artistic use see Woodblock printing; for the related technique invented in the 18th century see Wood engraving Frans Masereel ( July 31, 1889 - January 3, 1972) was a Flemish painter and is considered one of the greatest Woodcut artists Among Masereel's works were Passionate Journey (1926, reissued 1985 as Passionate Journey: A Novel in 165 Woodcuts ISBN 0-87286-174-0). American Lynd Ward also worked in this tradition during the 1930s. Lynd Kendall Ward ( 26 June 1905 &ndash 28 June 1985) was an American Artist and storyteller and son of Methodist
Other prototypical examples from this period include American Milt Gross' He Done Her Wrong (1930), a wordless comic published as a hardcover book, and Une Semaine de Bonté (1934), a novel in sequential images composed of collage by the surrealist painter Max Ernst. Milt Gross ( March 4, 1895 &ndash November 29, 1953) was an American Comic strip and Comic book writer Une Semaine de Bonté (A Week of Kindness is a Graphic novel and Artist's book composed in collage by Max Ernst, made during a three week visit Max Ernst ( 2 April 1891 &ndash 1 April 1976) was a German painter, Sculptor, Graphic artist, and That same year, the first European comic-strip collections, called "albums", debuted with The Adventures of Tintin in the Land of the Soviets by the Belgian Hergé. Tintin in the Land of the Soviets (originally known as Les Aventures de Tintin reporter du Petit "Vingtième" au pays des Soviets) is the Georges Prosper Remi ( May 22, 1907 - March 3, 1983) better known by the Pen name Hergé, was a Belgian
The 1940s saw the launching of Classics Illustrated, a comic-book series that primarily adapted notable, public domain novels into standalone comic books for young readers. Classics Illustrated is a comic book series featuring adaptations of literary classics such as Moby Dick, Hamlet, and The The public domain is a range of abstract materials &ndash commonly referred to as Intellectual property &ndash which are not owned or controlled by anyone The 1950s saw this format broadened, with popular movies being similarly adapted. By the 1960s, British publisher IPC had started to produce a pocket-sized comic-book line, the "Super Library", that featured war and spy stories told over roughly 130 pages. The Genre of spy fiction —sometimes called political thriller or spy thriller or sometimes shortened simply to Spy-fi —arose before
In 1950, St. John Publications produced the digest-sized, adult-oriented "picture novel" It Rhymes with Lust, a film noir-influenced slice of steeltown life starring a scheming, manipulative redhead named Rust. St John Publications was an American publisher of magazines and comic books It Rhymes with Lust is a book originally published in 1950 considered one of the most notable precursors of the Graphic novel. Film noir is a cinematic term used primarily to describe stylish Hollywood crime dramas, particularly those that emphasize moral ambiguity and sexual motivation Touted as "an original full-length novel" on its cover, the 128-page digest by pseudonymous writer "Drake Waller" (Arnold Drake and Leslie Waller), penciler Matt Baker and inker Ray Osrin proved successful enough to lead to an unrelated second picture novel, The Case of the Winking Buddha by pulp novelist Manning Lee Stokes and illustrator Charles Raab. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) Arnold Drake ( March 1, 1924 &ndash March 12, 2007) was an American Comic book Writer and Screenwriter Leslie Elson Waller ( April 1 1923 — March 29 2007) author the son of Ukrainian immigrants was born in Chicago, Illinois Clarence Matthew Baker (b 10 December 1921, d 11 August 1959) is an American Comic book artist best known for the Raymond Harold Osrin (1928 – April 3, 2001) was an American Cartoonist. Pulp magazines (or pulp fiction; often referred to as "the pulps" were inexpensive Fiction magazines
By the late 1960s, American comic book creators were becoming more adventurous with the form. Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin self-published a 40-page, magazine-format comics novel, His Name is... Savage (Adventure House Press) in 1968 — the same year Marvel Comics published two issues of The Spectacular Spider-Man in a similar format. Eli Katz ( April 6, 1926, Riga, Latvia – January 31, 2000, Miami Florida, United States) who Archie Goodwin ( September 8, 1937 &ndash March 1, 1998) was an American Comic book writer editor and artist Magazines, periodicals or serials are Publications generally published on a regular schedule containing a variety of articles, generally His Name is Savage is a 40-page magazine-format Comics novel released in 1968 as a precursor to the modern Graphic novel. Marvel Comics is an American comic book company owned by Marvel Publishing Inc The Spectacular Spider-Man is the name of several Comic books and one Magazine series starring Marvel Comics ' Spider-Man. Columnist Steven Grant also argues that Stan Lee and Steve Ditko's Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #130-146, although published serially from 1965-1966, is "the first American graphic novel". Steven Grant (born October 22, 1953) is an American Comic-book writer best known for his 1985-1986 Marvel Comics mini-series Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber; December 28, 1922) is an American Writer, editor, creator of comic book characters Steve Ditko (born 2 November 1927) is an American Comic book Artist and Writer best known as the co-creator of the Doctor Strange is a Fictional character, a Comic book sorcerer and Superhero in the. Strange Tales was the name of several Comic book Anthology series that have been published by Marvel Comics. 
Meanwhile, in continental Europe, the tradition of collecting serials of popular strips such as The Adventures of Tintin or Asterix had allowed a system to develop which saw works developed as long form narratives but pre-published as serials; in the 1970s this move in turn allowed creators to become marketable in their own right, auteurs capable of sustaining sales on the strength of their name. The Adventures of Tintin (Les Aventures de Tintin is a series of Comic strips created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi The Adventures of Asterix ( French: Astérix or Astérix le Gaulois) is a series of French
By 1969, the author John Updike, who had entertained ideas of becoming a cartoonist in his youth, addressed the Bristol Literary Society, on "the death of the novel". John Hoyer Updike (born March 18 1932 in Reading, Pennsylvania) is an American Novelist, Poet, Short story The death of the novel is the common name for the theoretical discussion of the declining importance of the novel as literary form Updike offered examples of new areas of exploration for novelists, declaring "I see no intrinsic reason why a doubly talented artist might not arise and create a comic strip novel masterpiece". 
Gil Kane and Archie Goodwin's Blackmark (1971), a science fiction/sword-and-sorcery paperback published by Bantam Books, did not use the term originally; the back-cover blurb of the 30th-anniversary edition (ISBN 1-56097-456-7) calls it, retroactively, "the very first American graphic novel". Blackmark is a Bantam Books paperback (Bantam S5871 published January 1971 that is one of the first American Graphic novels, predating Sword and sorcery ( S&S) is a fantasy subgenre generally characterized by swashbuckling heroes engaged in exciting and violent conflicts Bantam Books is a major US publishing house owned by Random House and is part of the Bantam Dell Publishing Group The Academy of Comic Book Arts presented Kane with a special 1971 Shazam Award for what it called "his paperback comics novel". The Academy of Comic Book Arts is an American professional organization of the 1970s that was designed to be the Comic book industry analog of such groups as the The Academy of Comic Book Arts is an American professional organization of the 1970s that was designed to be the Comic book industry analog of such groups as the Whatever the nomenclature, Blackmark is a 119-page story of comic-book art, with captions and word balloons, published in a traditional book format. Speech balloons (also speech bubbles, dialogue balloons, or word balloons) are a graphic convention used most commonly in Comic books strips (It is also the first with an original heroic-adventure character conceived expressly for this form. )
Hyperbolic descriptions of "book-length stories" and "novel-length epics" appear on comic-book covers as early as the 1960s. DC Comics' The Sinister House of Secret Love #2 (Jan. DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company 1972), one of the company's line of "52-Page Giants", specifically used the phrase "a graphic novel of gothic terror" on its cover.
The first six issues of writer-artist Jack Katz's 1974 Comics and Comix Co. Jack Katz is the founder of the Panama Jack Company. Katz was a College football starting Defensive lineman for the Florida Gators series The First Kingdom were collected as a trade paperback (Pocket Books, March 1978, ISBN 0-671-79016-1), which described itself as "the first graphic novel". In Comics, a trade paperback ( TPB or simply trade) refers to a collection of stories originally published in comic books, reprinted in book format Pocket Books is a division of Simon & Schuster that primarily publishes Paperback books Issues of the comic had described themselves as "graphic prose", or simply as a novel.
European creators were also experimenting with the longer narrative in comics form. In the United Kingdom, Raymond Briggs was producing works such as Father Christmas (1972) and The Snowman (1978), which he himself described as being from the "bottomless abyss of strip cartooning", although they, along with such other Briggs works as the more mature When the Wind Blows (1982), have been re-marketed as graphic novels in the wake of the term's popularity. Raymond Redvers Briggs (born 18 January 1934 is an English Illustrator, Cartoonist, Graphic novelist, and Author who has achieved This article is about the 1982 film For other uses see Snowman (disambiguation. When the Wind Blows is a 1982 Graphic novel, by British artist Raymond Briggs, that shows a nuclear attack on Britain by the Briggs notes, however, "I don't know if I like that term too much". 
Regardless, the term in 1975 appeared in connection with three separate works. Bloodstar by Richard Corben (adapted from a story by Robert E. Howard) used the term on its cover. This article is about the Graphic novel; see Starfish for the species of starfish Richard Corben (born October 1 1940) is an American comic book artist best known for his illustrated Fantasy stories in Robert Ervin Howard ( January 22 1906 &ndash June 11 1936) was an American pulp writer of Fantasy, George Metzger's Beyond Time and Again, serialized in underground comics from 1967-72, was subtitled "A Graphic Novel" on the inside title page when collected as a 48-page, black-and-white, hardcover book published by Kyle & Wheary. George Metzger was an underground comics (comix artist in the mid '60s and early '70s in California Underground comics (or comix) are Small press or self-published Comic books that began to appear in the US in the late 1960s  And the digest-sized Chandler: Red Tide (1976) by Jim Steranko, designed to be sold on newsstands, used the term "graphic novel" in its introduction and "a visual novel" on its cover, although Chandler is more commonly considered an illustrated novel than a work of comics. Digest size is a Magazine size smaller than a conventional size magazine but larger than a standard Paperback book approximately 5½ x 8¼ Inches but Chandler Red Tide is a 1976 illustrated novel, an early form of Graphic novel, by former Marvel Comics Writer - Artist James Steranko (born 5 November, 1938, Reading Pennsylvania, United States) is an American Graphic artist, Comic A newsagent ( British English) newsagency ( Australian English) or newsstand ( American English) is often a small business that sells Illustrated fiction is a hybrid narrative medium in which images and text work together to tell a story Comics (via Latin from the Greek "" kōmikos, of or pertaining to "comedy" from kōmos "revel"
The following year, Terry Nantier, who had spent his teenage years living in Paris, returned to the United States and formed Flying Buttress Publications, later to incorporate as NBM Publishing (Nantier, Beall, Minoustchine), and published Racket Rumba, a 50-page spoof of the noir-detective genre, written and drawn by the single-name French artist Loro. NBM Publishing is a publisher of Graphic novels located in New York State in the United States Nantier followed this with Enki Bilal's The Call of the Stars. Enki Bilal (born Enes Bilalović on October 7, 1951) is a French Comic book creator, Comics artist and Film director The company marketed these works as "graphic albums" 
Similarly, Sabre: Slow Fade of an Endangered Species by writer Don McGregor and artist Paul Gulacy (Eclipse Books, Aug. One of the first Graphic novels, Sabre (subtitled Slow Fade of an Endangered Species) by Writer Don McGregor and Artist Donald F McGregor (born June 15, 1945, Rhode Island, United States) is an American Comic book Writer, and the Paul Gulacy is an American Comic book illustrator Among the many other titles Gulacy has drawn in his characteristic neo- Steranko style are Eclipse Comics was an American Comic book Publisher, one of several influential independent publishers during the 1980s and early 1990s 1978) — the first graphic novel sold in the newly created "direct market" of United States comic-book shops — was called a "graphic album" by the author in interviews, though the publisher dubbed it a "comic novel" on its credits page. The direct market is the dominant distribution and retail network for North American Comic books. "Graphic album" was also the term used the following year by Gene Day for his hardcover short-story collection Future Day (Flying Buttress Press). Howard Eugene Day ( 1951 - 23 September 1982) was a Canadian Comic book Artist best known for Marvel Comics ' NBM Publishing is a publisher of Graphic novels located in New York State in the United States
Another early graphic novel, though it carried no self-description, was The Silver Surfer (Simon & Schuster/Fireside Books, August 1978), by Marvel Comics' Stan Lee and Jack Kirby. Simon & Schuster Inc, a division of CBS Corporation, is a Publisher founded in New York in 1924 by Richard L Stan Lee (born Stanley Martin Lieber; December 28, 1922) is an American Writer, editor, creator of comic book characters Jack Kirby (born Jacob Kurtzberg, August 28, 1917 &ndash February 6, 1994) was an American Comic book Significantly, this was published by a traditional book publisher and distributed through bookstores.
The term "graphic novel" began to grow in popularity two months later after it appeared on the cover of the trade paperback edition (though not the hardcover edition) of Will Eisner's groundbreaking A Contract with God, and Other Tenement Stories (Oct. In Comics, a trade paperback ( TPB or simply trade) refers to a collection of stories originally published in comic books, reprinted in book format A hardcover (or hardback or hardbound) is a Book bound with rigid protective covers (typically of cardboard covered with Cloth William Erwin Eisner ( March 6, 1917 – January 3, 2005) was an acclaimed American Comics Writer, Artist and This article is about A Contract with God the graphic novel There is also an article on the form of covenant a Contract With God. 1978). This collection of short stories was a mature, complex work focusing on the lives of ordinary people in the real world, and the term "graphic novel" was intended to distinguish it from traditional comic books, with which it shared a storytelling medium. The short story is a literary genre of Fictional Prose Narrative that tends to be more concise and to the point than longer works of fiction such A comic book (often shortened to simply comic and sometimes called a comic paper or comic magazine) is a Magazine or Book of narrative This established both a new book-publishing term and a distinct category. Eisner cited Lynd Ward's 1930s woodcuts (see above) as an inspiration.
The critical and commercial success of A Contract with God helped to establish the term "graphic novel" in common usage, and many sources have incorrectly credited Eisner with being the first to use it. In fact, it was used as early as November 1964 by Richard Kyle in CAPA-ALPHA #2, a newsletter published by the Comic Amateur Press Alliance, and again in Kyle's Fantasy Illustrated #5 (Spring 1966).
One of the earliest contemporaneous applications of the term post-Eisner came in 1979, when Blackmark's sequel — published a year after A Contract with God though written and drawn in the early 1970s — was labeled a "graphic novel" on the cover of Marvel Comics' black-and-white comics magazine Marvel Preview #17 (Winter 1979), where Blackmark: The Mind Demons premiered — its 117-page contents intact, but its panel-layout reconfigured to fit 62 pages.
Dave Sim's comic book Cerebus had been launched as a funny-animal Conan parody in 1977, but in 1979 Sim announced it was to be a 300-issue novel telling the hero's complete life story. David Victor Sim (born May 17 1956 in Hamilton, Ontario) is a Canadian Comic book Writer and Artist, best known as the Cerebus the Aardvark, or simply Cerebus ( IPA: ˈsɛrəbʌs is an award-winning independent comic book, written and illustrated by Funny animal is a Cartooning term for the Genre of Comics and Animated cartoons in which the main characters are Humanoid or Conan the Barbarian (also known as Conan the Cimmerian, from the name of his homeland Cimmeria) is a Fictional character often associated with In England, Bryan Talbot wrote and drew The Adventures of Luther Arkwright, described by Warren Ellis as "probably the single most influential graphic novel to have come out of Britain to date". Bryan Talbot (born February 24, 1952, Wigan, Lancashire) is a British Comic book Artist and Writer. The Adventures of Luther Arkwright is a comic book Limited series written and drawn by Bryan Talbot. Like Sim, Talbot also began by serializing the story, originally in Near Myths (1978), before it was published as a three-volume graphic-novel series from 1982-87.
Following this, Marvel from 1982 to 1988 published the Marvel Graphic Novel line of 10"x7" trade paperbacks — although numbering them like comic books, from #1 (Jim Starlin's The Death of Captain Marvel) to #35 (Dennis O'Neil, Mike Kaluta, and Russ Heath's Hitler's Astrologer, starring the radio and pulp fiction character the Shadow, and, uniquely for this line, released in hardcover). Marvel Graphic Novel ( MGN) was a series of Graphic novel Trade paperbacks published from 1982 to 1993 by Marvel Comics. James P "Jim" Starlin (born October 9 1949) is an American Comic book writer and artist who has worked for Marvel Comics Mar-Vell, better known as Captain Marvel, is a fictional Comic book alien, a Superhero in the Marvel Comics universe Dennis O'Neil (often credited as Denny O'Neil) is a Comic book Writer and editor, principally for Marvel Comics and DC Comics Michael William Kaluta, sometimes credited as Mike Kaluta or Michael Wm Russell Heath Jr (born September 29, 1926, New York City, New York) is an American artist best known for his Comic book Radio is the transmission of signals by Modulation of electromagnetic waves with frequencies below those of visible Light. Pulp magazines (or pulp fiction; often referred to as "the pulps" were inexpensive Fiction magazines A shadow is an area where direct light from a light source cannot reach due to obstruction by an object Marvel commissioned original graphic novels from such creators as John Byrne, J. M. DeMatteis, Steve Gerber, graphic-novel pioneer McGregor, Frank Miller, Bill Sienkiewicz, Walt Simonson, Charles Vess, and Bernie Wrightson. John Lindley Byrne (born July 6 1950) is a British -born Canadian - American author and artist of Comic books Since the John Marc DeMatteis (born December 15 1953) is an American Writer of Comic books. Stephen Ross "Steve" Gerber ( September 20, 1947 - February 10, 2008) was an American Comic book Writer best Frank Miller (born January 27, 1957) is an American Writer, Artist and Film director best known for his dark Boleslav (William Felix Robert Sienkiewicz ( IPA: 'kɛvɪʧ Polish 'kjeviʧ born May 3, 1958, Blakely, Pennsylvania Walter "Walt" Simonson (born September 2 1946) is an American Comic book writer and artist Charles Vess (b June 10, 1951 in Lynchburg Virginia) is an American fantasy artist and comic-book illustrator who has specialized in the illustration Bernie "Berni" Wrightson (born October 27, 1948, Baltimore Maryland, U While most of these starred Marvel superheroes, others, such as Rick Veitch's Heartburst featured original SF/fantasy characters; others still, such as John J. Muth's Dracula, featured adaptations of literary stories or characters; and one, Sam Glanzman's A Sailor's Story, was a true-life, World War II naval tale. A superhero (sometimes rendered super-hero or super hero) is a Fictional character "of unprecedented physical prowess dedicated to acts of derring-do Rick Veitch is an American Comic book artist and writer who has worked in mainstream underground, and Alternative comics. Jon J Muth (July 28 1960 is an American comic artist His works include J Dracula is an 1897 novel by Irish author Bram Stoker, featuring as its primary Antagonist the vampire Count Dracula. Sam J Glanzman (born 1924 is an American Comic-book Artist, best known for his Charlton Comics series Hercules, about World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
In England, Titan Books held the license to reprint strips from 2000 AD, including Judge Dredd, beginning in 1981, and Robo-Hunter, 1982. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Watchmen is a twelve-issue Comic book Limited series written by Alan Moore, and illustrated by Dave Gibbons and John Higgins DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company Titan Publishing Group is an independently owned publishing company established in 1981 Titan Publishing Group is an independently owned publishing company established in 1981 For the 1995 film see Judge Dredd (film. For the Reggae / Ska performer see Judge Dread. Robo-Hunter is a recurring strip in the British Comic 2000 AD, initially written by John Wagner and illustrated by Ian Gibson The company also published British collections of American graphic novels — including Swamp Thing, notable for being printed in black and white rather than in color as originally — and of British newspaper strips, including Modesty Blaise and Garth. The Swamp Thing is a Fictional character created by Len Wein and Berni Wrightson for DC Comics and featured in a long-running horror-fantasy Modesty Blaise is a Comic strip featuring a Fictional character of the same name created by Peter O'Donnell (writer and Jim Holdaway Garth was a Comic strip Igor Goldkind was the marketing consultant who worked at Titan and moved to 2000 AD and helped to popularize the term "graphic novel" as a way to help sell the trade paperbacks they were publishing. Igor Goldkind (born April 20 1960 was a marketing consultant who worked for a number of publishers before moving into writing comics He admits that he "stole the term outright from Will Eisner" and his contribution was to "take the badge (today it's called a 'brand') and explain it, contextualise it and sell it convincingly enough so that bookshop keepers, book distributors and the book trade would accept a new category of 'spine-fiction' on their bookshelves". 
DC Comics likewise began collecting series and published them in book format. DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company Two such collections garnered considerable media attention, and they, along with Art Spiegelman's Pulitzer Prize-winning Maus (1986), helped establish both the term and the concept of graphic novels in the minds of the mainstream public. Art Spiegelman (born February 15, 1948) is an American Comics artist editor and advocate for the medium of comics best known for his The Pulitzer Prize, ˈpʊlɨtsɚ PULL-it-sər is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in Newspaper journalism, Maus A Survivor's Tale is a memoir by Art Spiegelman, presented as a Graphic novel. These were Batman: The Dark Knight Returns (1986), a collection of Frank Miller's four-part comic-book series featuring an older Batman faced with the problems of a dystopian future; and Watchmen (1987), a collection of Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons' 12-issue limited series in which Moore notes he "set out to explore, amongst other things, the dynamics of power in a post-Hiroshima world". Batman The Dark Knight Returns, originally published under the title Batman The Dark Knight, is a Batman comic book mini-series A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος alternatively cacotopia, kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is the vision of a society Watchmen is a twelve-issue Comic book Limited series written by Alan Moore, and illustrated by Dave Gibbons and John Higgins Alan Moore (born November 18 1953 in Northampton) is an English Writer most famous for his influential work in Comics, including the acclaimed Dave Gibbons (born April 14, 1949) is a British Comic book Artist, writer and sometime letterer A limited series is a term originated by Marvel Comics referring to a Comic book series with a set number of issues .
These works and others were reviewed in newspapers and magazines, leading to such increased coverage that the headline "Comics aren't just for kids anymore" became widely regarded by fans as a mainstream-press cliché.  Variations on the term can be seen in the Harvard Independent and at Poynter Online.  Regardless, the mainstream coverage led to increased sales, with Batman: The Dark Knight Returns, for example, lasting 40 weeks on a UK best-seller lists. 
Some in the comics community have objected to the term "graphic novel" on the grounds that it is unnecessary, or that its usage has been corrupted by commercial interests. Writer Alan Moore believes:
It's a marketing term. Alan Moore (born November 18 1953 in Northampton) is an English Writer most famous for his influential work in Comics, including the acclaimed I mean, it was one that I never had any sympathy with. The term 'comic' does just as well for me. . . . The problem is that 'graphic novel' just came to mean 'expensive comic book' and so what you'd get is people like DC Comics or Marvel comics — because 'graphic novels' were getting some attention, they'd stick six issues of whatever worthless piece of crap they happened to be publishing lately under a glossy cover and call it The She-Hulk Graphic Novel, you know?"
Author Daniel Raeburn wrote "I snicker at the neologism first for its insecure pretension — the literary equivalent of calling a garbage man a 'sanitation engineer' — and second because a 'graphic novel' is in fact the very thing it is ashamed to admit: a comic book, rather than a comic pamphlet or comic magazine. She-Hulk ( Jennifer Susan Walters) is a Marvel Comics superheroine Created by writer Stan Lee and artist John Buscema, she A neologism (from Greek neo = "new" + logos = "word" is a word that although devised relatively recently in a specific time period has been "
Writer Neil Gaiman, responding to a claim that he does not write comic book but graphic novels, said the commenter "meant it as a compliment, I suppose. Neil Richard Gaiman (ˈgeɪmən (born November 10, 1960) is an English author of Science fiction and Fantasy short stories and But all of a sudden I felt like someone who'd been informed that she wasn't actually a hooker; that in fact she was a lady of the evening. |}}
Some alternative cartoonists have coined their own terms to describe extended comics narratives. The cover of Daniel Clowes' Ice Haven describes the book as "a comic-strip novel", with Clowes having noted that he "never saw anything wrong with the comic book". Daniel Gillespie Clowes (born April 14, 1961 in Chicago, Illinois) is an Academy Award -nominated American Author  When The Comics Journal asked the cartoonist Seth why he added the subtitle "A Picture Novella" to his comic It's a Good Life, If You Don't Weaken, he responded, "I could have just put 'a comic book'. The Comics Journal, often abbreviated TCJ, is a US magazine of news and criticism pertaining to Comic books and strips Seth is the Pen name of Gregory Gallant (born September 16, 1962) a Canadian Comic book artist and writer It's a Good Life If You Don't Weaken is the title of a 1996 Graphic novel (or "picture novella" by Seth, published by Drawn and Quarterly . . It goes without saying that I didn't want to use the term graphic novel. I just don't like that term". 
Charles McGrath (former editor, The New York Times Book Review) in The New York Times: "Some of the better-known graphic novels are published not by comics companies at all but by mainstream publishing houses — by Pantheon, in particular — and have put up mainstream sales numbers. Pantheon Books is an American imprint with Editorial independence that is part of the Knopf Publishing Group which was acquired by Random House Persepolis, for example, Marjane Satrapi's charming, poignant story, drawn in small black-and-white panels that evoke Persian miniatures, about a young girl growing up in Iran and her family's suffering following the 1979 Islamic revolution, has sold 450,000 copies worldwide so far; Jimmy Corrigan sold 100,000 in hardback. Persepolis (ISBN 0-224-08039-3 is a French-language autobiographical Graphic novel by Marjane Satrapi depicting her childhood in Marjane Satrapi ( Persian: مرجان ساتراپی) (born November 22, 1969 in Rasht, Iran) is an Iranian ref The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Iranian Revolution' (mostly known as the Islamic Revolution, Persian: انقلاب اسلامی Enghelābe Eslāmi was the Revolution that transformed Jimmy Corrigan the Smartest Kid on Earth is a widely-acclaimed Graphic novel by Chris Ware, published in 2000 . . . "