The Grand Canyon is a steep-sided gorge carved by the Colorado River in the U.S. state of Arizona. For the song see CANYONMID. For the band see Canyon (band. A canyon (rarely cañon) or gorge The Colorado River (' Aha Kwahwat in Mojave) is a River in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The State of Arizona ( is a state located in the southwestern region of the United States. It is largely contained within the Grand Canyon National Park — one of the first national parks in the United States. Grand Canyon Grand Canyon National Park is one of the United States' oldest national parks and is located in Arizona. A national park is a reserve of land usually declared and owned by a national Government, protected from most Human development and pollution President Theodore Roosevelt was a major proponent of preservation of the Grand Canyon area, and visited on numerous occasions to hunt and enjoy the scenery. Theodore Roosevelt (ˈroʊzəvɛlt October 27 1858 January 6 1919 also known as T
The longstanding scientific consensus has been that the canyon was created by the Colorado River over a period of six million years, but research released in 2008 suggests a much longer 17 million year time span. The Colorado River (' Aha Kwahwat in Mojave) is a River in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately  The canyon is 277 miles (446 km) long, ranges in width from 4 to 18 miles (6. 4 to 29 km) and attains a depth of more than a mile (1. 6 km). Nearly two billion years of the Earth's history have been exposed as the Colorado River and its tributaries cut their channels through layer after layer of rock while the Colorado Plateau was uplifted. EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 Physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a River, slough or ocean Strait consisting of a bed and banks The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the Tectonic uplift is a geological process most often caused by Plate tectonics which increases elevation The "canyon started from the west, then another formed from the east, and the two broke through and met as a single majestic rent in the earth some six million years ago. [. . . ] The merger apparently occurred where the river today, coming from the north, bends to the west, in the area known as the Kaibab Arch. "
During prehistory, the area was inhabited by Native Americans who built settlements within the canyon and its many caves. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Pueblo people considered the Grand Canyon ("Ongtupqa" in Hopi language) a holy site and made pilgrimages to it. The Pueblo people are a Native American people in the Southwestern United States. Hopi is a Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Hopi people (a Pueblo group of northeastern Arizona, USA although today some Hopi are monolingual The first European known to have viewed the Grand Canyon was García López de Cárdenas from Spain, who arrived in 1540. García López de Cárdenas, ( fl 16th century is credited with the first European discovery of the Grand Canyon. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.  In 1869, Major John Wesley Powell, a one-armed Civil War veteran with a thirst for science and adventure, made the first recorded journey through the canyon on the Colorado River. John Wesley Powell ( March 24, 1834 - September 23, 1902) was a U Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Powell referred to the sedimentary rock units exposed in the canyon as "leaves in a great story book". Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and Metamorphic rock)
The Grand Canyon is a massive rift in the Colorado Plateau that exposes uplifted Proterozoic and Paleozoic strata and is also one of the six distinct physiographic sections of the Colorado Plateau province. The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the The Proterozoic (ˌproʊtərəˈzoʊɪk is a geological eon representing a period before the first abundant complex life on Earth. The Paleozoic or Palaeozoic Era (from the Greek palaio (παλαιο "old" and zoe (ζωη "life" meaning "ancient life" The Grand Canyon is unmatched throughout the world for the vistas it offers to visitors on the rim. It is not the deepest canyon in the world — both the Cotahuasi Canyon (11598 feet or 3535 m), Colca Canyon (10499 feet or 3200 m), both in Arequipa, Peru and Hell's Canyon on the Oregon-Idaho border are deeper — but Grand Canyon is known for its overwhelming size and its intricate and colorful landscape. Cotahuasi Canyon near the city of Arequipa in Peru is considered deepest of the Americas. Colca Canyon is a Canyon of the Colca River in southern Peru. For the Cactus Genus, see Oreocereus. Arequipa is the capital of the Arequipa Region in southern Peru Peru (Perú Piruw Piruw officially the Republic of Peru ( reˈpuβlika del peˈɾu is a country in western South America. Hells Canyon is a ten mile wide Canyon located along the border of eastern Oregon and western Idaho in the United States. Geologically it is significant because of the thick sequence of ancient rocks that are beautifully preserved and exposed in the walls of the canyon. These rock layers record much of the early geologic history of the North American continent.
Uplift associated with mountain building events later moved these sediments thousands of feet upward and created the Colorado Plateau. A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak The higher elevation has also resulted in greater precipitation in the Colorado River drainage area, but not enough to change the Grand Canyon area from being semi-arid. The elevation of a Geographic location is its height above a fixed reference point often the mean sea level. In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric The uplift of the Colorado Plateau is uneven, and the north-south trending Kaibab Plateau that Grand Canyon bisects is over a thousand feet higher at the North Rim (about 1,000 ft/300 m) than at the South Rim. The Colorado Plateau, also called the Colorado Plateaus Province, is a physiographic region of the Intermontane Plateaus, roughly centered on the The Kaibab Plateau is located in northern Arizona in the United States. The fact that the Colorado River flows in a curve around the higher North Rim part of the Kaibab Plateau and closer to the South Rim part of the plateau is also explained by this asymmetry. Ivo Lucchitta of the U. S. Geological Survey first suggested that, as the Colorado River developed before significant erosion of the region, it naturally found its way across or around the Kaibab Uplift by following a "racetrack" path to the south of the highest part of the plateau. Almost all runoff from the North Rim (which also gets more rain and snow) flows toward the Grand Canyon, while much of the runoff on the plateau behind the South Rim flows away from the canyon (following the general tilt). Rain is Liquid precipitation. On Earth it is the condensation of atmospheric Water vapor into drops heavy enough to fall often making it to "Snowfall" redirects here For other uses see Snow (disambiguation or Snowfall (disambiguation. The result is deeper and longer tributary washes and canyons on the north side and shorter and steeper side canyons on the south side.
Temperatures on the North Rim are generally lower than the South Rim because of the greater elevation (averaging 8,000 ft/2,438 m above sea level). Temperature is a physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold something that is hotter generally has the greater temperature  Heavy rains are common on both rims during the summer months. Access to the North Rim via the primary route leading to the canyon (State Route 67) is limited during the winter season due to road closures. State Route 67 ( SR 67) is a forty-two mile north-south state highway in northern Arizona. Views from the North Rim tend to give a better impression of the expanse of the canyon than those from the South Rim.
The principal consensus among geologists is that the Colorado River basin (of which the Grand Canyon is a part) has developed in the past 40 million years. The geology of the Grand Canyon area exposes one of the most complete sequences of rock anywhere representing a period of nearly 2 billion years of the Earth 's history A recent study by geologists at the University of New Mexico, led by Victor Polyak, places the origins of the canyon beginning some 17 million years ago. The University of New Mexico ( UNM) is a Public University in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Previous estimates had placed the age of the canyon at 5 to 6 million years. The study, which was published in 2008 in the journal Science, was conducted with the help of the National Science Foundation and utilized uranium-lead dating to analyze calcite deposits found on the walls of nine caves throughout the canyon. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Science is the Academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the world's most prestigious Scientific The National Science Foundation (NSF is a United States Government agency that supports fundamental Research and Education in all the non-medical Uranium-lead is one of the oldest and most refined Radiometric dating schemes with a routine age range of about 1 million years to over 4 Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of Calcium carbonate ( Ca[[carbon C]] O 3  There is a substantial amount of controversy because this research suggests a such substantial departure from prior widely supported scientific belief.  As of 2008 this research is too new to consider the scientific consensus settled.
The result of all this erosion is one of the most complete geologic columns on the planet. Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind
The major geologic exposures in Grand Canyon range in age from the 2 billion year old Vishnu Schist at the bottom of the Inner Gorge to the 230 million year old Kaibab Limestone on the Rim. Interestingly, there is a gap of about one billion years between the stratum that is about 500 million years old and the lower level, which is about 1. 5 billion years old. That indicates a period of erosion between two periods of deposition.
Many of the formations were deposited in warm shallow seas, near-shore environments (such as beaches), and swamps as the seashore repeatedly advanced and retreated over the edge of a proto-North America. A swamp is a Wetland featuring temporary or permanent inundation of large areas of land by shallow bodies of water Major exceptions include the Permian Coconino Sandstone, which most (though not all) geologists claim was laid down as sand dunes in a desert, and several parts of the Supai Group. Coconino Sandstone is a geologic formation that spreads across the Colorado Plateau province of the United States, including northern Arizona Leonard Brand is an American Geologist who specializes in Taphonomy, Ichnology, Vertebrate paleontology, Mammalogy, and Philosophy In physical Geography, a dune is a Hill of Sand built by Aeolian processes. A desert is a Landscape or region that receives very little precipitation.
The great depth of the Grand Canyon and especially the height of its strata (most of which formed below sea level) can be attributed to 5,000 to 10,000 feet (1500 to 3000 m) of uplift of the Colorado Plateau, starting about 65 million years ago (during the Laramide Orogeny). Mean sea level (MSL is the average (mean height of the Sea, with reference to a suitable reference surface The Laramide orogeny was a period of Mountain building in western North America, which started in the Late Cretaceous, 70 to 80 million years ago and ended This uplift has steepened the stream gradient of the Colorado River and its tributaries, which in turn has increased their speed and thus their ability to cut through rock (see the elevation summary of the Colorado River for present conditions). Stream gradient is the ratio of drop in a Stream per unit distance usually expressed as feet per Mile or Meters per Kilometer The Colorado River (' Aha Kwahwat in Mojave) is a River in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately
Weather conditions during the ice ages also increased the amount of water in the Colorado River drainage system. An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets The ancestral Colorado River responded by cutting its channel faster and deeper.
The base level and course of the Colorado River (or its ancestral equivalent) changed 5. 3 million years ago when the Gulf of California opened and lowered the river's base level (its lowest point). " Sea of Cortez " redirects here For the book by John Steinbeck, see The Log from the Sea of Cortez. The base level of a River or Stream is the lowest point to which it can flow often referred to as the 'mouth' of the river This increased the rate of erosion and cut nearly all of the Grand Canyon's current depth by 1. 2 million years ago. The terraced walls of the canyon were created by differential erosion. 
About one million years ago, volcanic activity (mostly near the western canyon area) deposited ash and lava over the area, which at times completely obstructed the river. Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Volcanic ash consists of small Tephra, which are bits of pulverized rock and glass created by volcanic eruptions less than in diameter Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures These volcanic rocks are the youngest in the canyon.
In September 1540, under orders from the conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado to search for the fabled Seven Cities of Cibola, Captain Garcia Lopez de Cardenas, along with Hopi guides and a small group of Spanish soldiers, traveled to the South Rim of the Grand Canyon between Desert View and Moran Point. The Sinagua were a Pre-Columbian cultural group occupying an area in central Arizona between the Little Colorado River and the Salt River The Hualapai (also spelled Walapai) are a tribe of Native Americans who live in the mountains of northwestern Arizona, United States. The Havasu ’Baaja (meaning the-people-of-the-blue-green-waters) or more commonly the Havasupai, are a Native American tribe located in the northwestern The Navajo Nation ( Diné in the Navajo language) is a semi- autonomous Native American homeland covering about 26000 square miles (67339 square This article is about the Spanish explorer soldiers of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuriesfor other uses see Conquistador (disambiguation A Conquistador Francisco Vázquez de Coronado y Luján (Born in 1510 &ndash Died on September 22 1554 was a Spanish Conquistador, who visited New Mexico and other Quivira and Cíbola are two of the fantastic Seven Cities of Gold existing only in a myth that originated around the year 1150 when the Moors conquered Mérida García López de Cárdenas, ( fl 16th century is credited with the first European discovery of the Grand Canyon. The Hopi are Native American people who primarily live on the 12635 km² (2531 Pablo de Melgrossa, Juan Galeras, and a third soldier descended some one third of the way into the Canyon until they were forced to return because of lack of water. In their report, they noted that some of the rocks in the Canyon were "bigger than the great tower of Seville. " It is speculated that their Hopi guides must have been reluctant to lead them to the river, since they must have known routes to the canyon floor. Afterwards, no Europeans visited the Canyon for over two hundred years.
Fathers Francisco Atanasio Domínguez and Silvestre Vélez de Escalante were two Spanish Priests who, with a group of Spanish soldiers, explored southern Utah and traveled along the North Rim of the Canyon in Glen and Marble Canyons in search of a route from Santa Fe to California in 1776. Francisco Atanasio Domínguez, a native of Mexico City, was ordained a Franciscan priest and Missionary and explorer of the Southwest United States Silvestre Vélez de Escalante was a Franciscan Missionary and explorer of the Southwest United States during the late 18th century The State of Utah (ˈjuːtɔː or) is a western state of the United States. Santa Fe ( Navajo: Yootó is the Capital of the state of New Mexico. California ( is a US state on the West Coast of the United States, along the Pacific Ocean. They eventually found a crossing at present-day Lees Ferry. Lee's Ferry (also Lees Ferry or Lee Ferry) is a site on the Colorado River in Coconino County, Arizona, United States
Also in 1776, Fray Francisco Garces, a Franciscan missionary, spent a week near Havasupai, unsuccessfully attempting to convert a band of Indians. He described the Canyon as "profound".  Jacob Hamblin (a Mormon missionary) was sent by Brigham Young in the 1850s to locate easy river crossing sites in the Canyon. Jacob Hamblin ( April 6, 1819 &ndash August 31, 1886) was a Western pioneer, Mormon missionary and Diplomat TalkMormon#Latter Day Saint vs Latter-day Saint --> Mormon Brigham Young (June 1 1801 &ndash August 29 1877 was an American leader in the Latter Day Saint movement. Building good relations with local Native Americans and white settlers, he discovered Lee's Ferry in 1858 and Pierce Ferry (later operated by, and named for, Harrison Pierce) - the only two sites suitable for ferry operation. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Lee's Ferry (also Lees Ferry or Lee Ferry) is a site on the Colorado River in Coconino County, Arizona, United States He also acted as an advisor to John Wesley Powell before his second expedition to the Grand Canyon, acting as a diplomat between Powell and the local native tribes to ensure the safety of his party. John Wesley Powell ( March 24, 1834 - September 23, 1902) was a U
In 1857 Edward Fitzgerald Beale superintendent of an expedition to survey a wagon road along the 35th parallel from Fort Defiance to the Colorado river led a small party of men in search of water on the Coconino plateau on the south rim of the Grand Canyon. Edward Fitzgerald "Ned" Beale ( February 4, 1822 &ndash April 22, 1893) was a prominent person in 19th century America On September 19th near present day National Canyon they came upon what May Humphreys Stacey described in his journal as ". . . a wonderful canyon four thousand feet deep. Everyone (in the party) admitted that he never before saw anything to match or equal this astonishing natural curiosity. "
Also in 1857, the U. S. War Department asked Lieutenant Joseph Ives to lead an expedition to assess the feasibility of an up-river navigation from the Gulf of California. The United States Department of War, sometimes also called the War Office, was the department of the United States government 's executive branch Also in a stern wheeler steamboat "Explorer", after two months and 350 miles (560 km) of difficult navigation, his party reached Black Canyon some two months after George Johnson. The "Explorer" struck a rock and was abandoned. Ives led his party east into the Canyon — they were the first Europeans to travel the Diamond Creek drainage and traveled eastwards along the South Rim.
In 1858, John Strong Newberry became probably the first geologist to visit the Grand Canyon. John Strong Newberry ( December 22, 1822 &ndash December 7, 1892) was a U
The federal government administrators who manage park resources face many challenges. Charles Spencer may refer to Nobility Charles Spencer 3rd Earl of Sunderland (1674&ndash1722 Charles Spencer 3rd Duke of Marlborough Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter ( April 4 1869 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania &ndash January 8 1958) was an American architect Ralph Henry Cameron ( October 21, 1863 &ndash February 12, 1953) was an American Republican Politician, and These include issues related to the recent reintroduction into the wild of the highly endangered California Condor, air tour overflight noise levels, water rights disputes with various tribal reservations that border the park, and forest fire management. The California Condor ( Gymnogyps californianus) is a North American Species of Bird in the New World vulture family Cathartidae The Grand Canyon National Park superintendent is Steve Martin. Martin was named superintendent on February 5, 2007 to replace retiring superintendent Joe Alston. Martin was previously the National Park Service Deputy Director and superintendent of several other national parks including Denali and Grand Teton. Denali National Park and Preserve is located in Interior Alaska and contains Mount McKinley (Denali the tallest mountain in North America. Grand Teton National Park is a United States National Park located in northwestern Wyoming, south of Yellowstone National Park. 
There are several historical buildings located along the South Rim; most are in Grand Canyon Village. Grand Canyon Village is a Census-designated place (CDP located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, in Coconino County, Arizona, United
Buckey O'Neill Cabin was built during the 1890s by William Owen O'Neill. Desert View Watchtower is a -high stone building located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona, United He built the cabin because of a copper deposit that was nearby. He had several occupations such as miner, judge, politician, author and tour guide. This cabin is the longest continually standing structure in the South Rim. It is currently used as a guest house; booking is required well in advance.
Kolb Studio was built in 1904 by brothers Ellsworth and Emery Kolb. They were photographers who made a living by photographing visitors walking down the Bright Angel Trail. The Bright Angel Trail is a Hiking Trail located in Grand Canyon National Park in the U In 1911, the Kolb brothers filmed their journey down the Green and Colorado Rivers. The Colorado River (' Aha Kwahwat in Mojave) is a River in the southwestern United States and northwestern Mexico, approximately Emery Kolb showed this movie regularly in his studio until 1976, when he died at the age of 95. Today the building serves as an art gallery and exhibit.
The El Tovar Hotel was built in 1905 and is the most luxurious lodging on the South Rim. The El Tovar Hotel, also known simply as El Tovar, is a former Harvey House situated just 20  ft (6  m) from the south rim of the Grand Canyon The hotel consists of 4 stories with a rustic chalet appearance. It was designed by Charles Whittlesley. A gift shop and restaurant are located inside the hotel.
Hopi House was built by Mary Jane Colter in 1905. It is based on structures that were built in an ancient Hopi settlement called Old Oraibi, located on the Third Mesa in eastern Arizona. Oraibi, also referred to as Old Oraibi, is a Hopi village in Navajo County, Arizona, United States, in the northeastern part It served as a residence for the Hopi Indians who sold arts and crafts to visitors in the South Rim.
Verkamp's Curios was built by John Verkamp in 1905. John Verkamp is a Veteran and former Republican state senator who ran for the United States Senate in Arizona as a Democrat in 2006 He sold arts and crafts as well as souvenirs. It is currently run by his descendants and stands next to the Hopi House.
Grand Canyon Railway Depot was built in 1909 and contains 2 levels. It is one of only three log-cabin-style train stations currently standing in the United States, of the fourteen ever built in the U. S. The depot is the northern terminus of the Grand Canyon Railway which begins in Williams, Arizona. The Grand Canyon Railway, is a passenger Railroad and Heritage railway which operates between Williams Arizona, and the South Rim of Grand Canyon Williams is a city in Coconino County, Arizona, United States.
Lookout Studio was built in 1914 and is another structure that was designed by Mary Colter. Lookout Studio, known also as The Lookout, is a stone building located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, within Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona Photography artwork, books, souvenirs, and rock and fossil specimens are sold here. A great view of Bright Angel Trail can be seen here.
Desert View Watchtower was built in 1932 and is one of Mary Colter's best-known works. Desert View Watchtower is a -high stone building located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon within Grand Canyon National Park in Arizona, United Situated at the far eastern end of the South Rim, 27 miles (43 km) from Grand Canyon Village, the tower sits on a 7,400 foot (2,256 m) promontory. It offers one of the few views of the bottom of the Canyon and the Colorado River. It is designed to mimic an Anasazi watchtower though it is larger than existing ones. "Anasazi" directs here For the X-Files episode see Anasazi (The X-Files. 
Bright Angel Lodge was built of logs and stone in 1935. Mary Colter designed the lodge and it was built by Fred Harvey. Mary Elizabeth Jane Colter ( April 4 1869 Pittsburgh Pennsylvania &ndash January 8 1958) was an American architect This article is about Fred Harvey the person For the company he founded see Fred Harvey Company. Inside the lodge is a small museum honoring Fred Harvey, who played a major role in popularizing the Grand Canyon. In the history room is a fireplace that is made of stone from the South Rim that is layered in the same sequence as in the canyon.
Federal officials started a flood in the Grand Canyon in hopes of restoring its ecosystem on March 5, 2008. An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical ( Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian moves from Antioch with an army of 90000 to attack the Sassanid Empire, in a 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The canyon's ecosystem was permanently changed after the construction of the Glen Canyon Dam in 1963. Glen Canyon Dam is a Dam on the Colorado River at Page Arizona, USA operated by the United States Bureau of Reclamation. Year 1963 ( MCMLXIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
Weather in the Grand Canyon varies according to elevation.
The forested rims are high enough to receive winter snowfall, but along the Colorado River in the Inner Gorge, temperatures are similar to those found in Tucson and other low elevation desert locations in Arizona. Conditions in the Grand Canyon region are generally dry, but substantial precipitation occurs twice annually, during seasonal pattern shifts in winter (when Pacific storms usually deliver widespread, moderate rain and high-elevation snow to the region from the west) and in late summer (a phenomenon known as the "monsoon", which delivers waves of moisture from the southeast, causing dramatic, localized thunderstorms fueled by the heat of the day). In Meteorology, precipitation (also known as one class of hydrometeors, which are atmospheric water phenomena is any product of the condensation of atmospheric A monsoon is a seasonal prevailing wind which lasts for several months  Average annual precipitation on the South Rim is less than 16 inches (35 cm), with 60 inches (132 cm) of snow, the higher North Rim usually receives 27 inches (59 cm) of moisture, with a typical snowfall of 144 inches (317 cm), and Phantom Ranch, far below the Canyon's rims along the Colorado River at 2,500 feet (762 m) gets just 8 inches (17. 6 cm) of rain, and snow is a rarity. The weather is different on the north rim and south rim.
Temperatures vary wildly throughout the year, with summer highs within the Inner Gorge commonly exceeding 100 °F (37. 8 °C) and winter minimum temperatures sometimes falling below zero degrees Fahrenheit (-17. Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736 a German Physicist who proposed it in 1724 8 °C) along the canyon's rims.  Visitors are often surprised by these potentially extreme conditions, and this, along with the high altitude of the canyon's rims, can lead to unpleasant side effects such as dehydration, sunburn, and hypothermia. Dehydration ( hypohydration) is the removal of Water ( hydro in ancient Greek) from an object A sunburn is a burn to living tissue such as Skin produced by overexposure to Ultraviolet (UV radiation commonly from the Sun 's rays Hypothermia is a condition in which an organism's temperature drops below that required for normal Metabolism and bodily functions Be prepared for a variety of potential weather conditions when visiting, and keep in mind the Grand Canyon is a rugged natural feature located in a remote area subject to a wide range of environmental hazards.
Weather conditions can greatly affect hiking and canyon exploration, and visitors should obtain accurate forecasts because of hazards posed by exposure to extreme temperatures, winter storms and late summer monsoons. While the park service posts weather information at gates and visitor centers, this is a rough approximation only, and should not be relied upon for trip planning. For accurate weather in the Canyon, hikers should consult the National Weather Service's NOAA weather radio or the official NWS website. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration ( NOAA) is a scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce focused on the conditions of the NWS is an Australian television station owned by the WIN Corporation that is based in Adelaide, Australia 
The Grand Canyon has suffered some problems with air pollution, attributed to the nearby Navajo Generating Station, a coal-burning power plant. Air pollution is the human introduction into the atmosphere of Chemicals Particulate matter, or Biological materials that cause harm or discomfort Navajo Generating Station is a coal-fired powerplant with a power of 2280 Megawatts at Page, Arizona, USA. In 1991 an agreement was reached with the Navajo Generating Station in Page, Arizona to add air pollution control devices to their smokestacks. Page is a town in Coconino County, Arizona, United States, near the Glen Canyon Dam and Lake Powell. 
Grand Canyon National Park is one of the world’s premier natural attractions, attracting about five million visitors per year. Overall, 83% were from the United States: California (12. 2%), Arizona (8. 9%), Texas (4. 8%), Florida (3. 4%) and New York (3. 2%) represented the top domestic visitors. Seventeen percent of visitors were from outside the United States; the most prominently represented nations were the United Kingdom (3. 8%), Canada (3. 5%), Japan (2. 1%), Germany (1. 9%) and The Netherlands (1. 2%). 
Aside from casual sightseeing from the South Rim (averaging 7000 feet (2100 metres) above sea level), whitewater rafting, hiking and running are especially popular. Wikitravel is a Web -based project "to create a free, complete up-to-date and reliable worldwide travel guide. The Grand Canyon Skywalk is a tourist attraction along the Colorado River on the edge of the Grand Canyon (Grand Canyon West in the U Rafting or whitewater rafting is a challenging recreational activity utilizing a Raft to navigate a River or other bodies of water The floor of the valley is accessible by foot, muleback, or by boat or raft from upriver. Hiking down to the river and back up to the rim in one day is discouraged by park officials because of the distance, steep and rocky trails, change in elevation, and danger of heat exhaustion from the much higher temperatures at the bottom. Hyperthermia, in its advanced state referred to as heat stroke or sunstroke, is an acute condition which occurs when the Body produces or absorbs more Rescues are required annually of unsuccessful rim-to-river-to-rim travelers. Nevertheless, hundreds of fit and experienced hikers complete the trip every year.
Camping on the North and South Rims is generally restricted to established campgrounds and reservations are highly recommended, especially at the busier South Rim. There is at large camping available along many parts of the North Rim managed by Kaibab National Forest. At 16 million acres the Kaibab National Forest borders both the north and south rims of the Grand Canyon, in north-central Arizona. Keep in mind North Rim campsites are only open seasonally due to road closures from weather and winter snowpack. All overnight camping below the rim requires a backcountry permit from the Backcountry Country Office (BCO). Each year Grand Canyon National Park receives approximately 30,000 requests for backcountry permits. The park issues 13,000 permits, and close to 40,000 people camp overnight.  The earliest a permit application is accepted is the first of the month, four months prior to the proposed start month. Applying as soon as allowed will improve your chances of obtaining an overnight backcountry use permit for the dates of your choice. If you are unable to secure a permit from the Grand Canyon Backcountry Office, or you are not comfortable hiking the Canyon on your own you can go with a professional guide.
Tourists wishing for a more vertical perspective can board helicopters and small airplanes in Las Vegas, Phoenix and Grand Canyon National Park Airport (seven miles from the South Rim) for canyon flyovers. History Since 400 AD Chinese children have played with bamboo flying toys. Las Vegas ( Spanish: "The Meadows" is the most populous City in the state of Nevada, the seat of Clark County, and an internationally Phoenix (ˈfiːˌnɪks O'odham Skikik, Yavapai Wasinka, Western Apache Fiinigis, Navajo Hoozdo, Grand Canyon National Park Airport is a public airport located in the Tusayan area of unincorporated Coconino County, Arizona, near Scenic flights are no longer allowed to fly within 1500' of the rim within the national park because of a late 90s crash. The last aerial video footage from below the rim was filmed in 1984. However, some helicopter flights land on the Havasupai and Hualapai Indian Reservations within Grand Canyon (outside of the park boundaries). Recently, the Hualapai Tribe opened the glass-bottomed Grand Canyon Skywalk on their property, Grand Canyon West. The Grand Canyon Skywalk is a tourist attraction along the Colorado River on the edge of the Grand Canyon (Grand Canyon West in the U The Skywalk has seen mixed reviews since the site is only accessible by driving down a 14-mile (23 km) dirt road, costs a minimum of $85 in total for reservation fees, a tour package and admission to the Skywalk itself and the fact that cameras are not permitted on the Skywalk at any time. The Skywalk is located 242 miles from the South Rim National Park. Many people mistake the west side of the park by Hermit's Rest as the location of the Skywalk. This however is incorrect information. However, the views of the canyon at the South Rim are better than you can get at the Skywalk, so that is one benefit to this common mistake.
Lipan Point is a promontory located on the South Rim. This point is located to the east of the Grand Canyon Village along the Desert View Drive. Grand Canyon Village is a Census-designated place (CDP located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon, in Coconino County, Arizona, United There is a parking lot for visitors who care to drive along with the Canyon's bus service that routinely stops at the point. The trailhead to the Tanner Trail is located just before the parking lot. The Tanner Trail is a Hiking Trail located on the South Rim of the Grand Canyon National Park, located in the U The view from Lipan Point shows a wide array of rock strata and the Unkar Creek area in the inner canyon.
Perhaps the most heart-stopping view of the canyon is had from the Toroweap Overlook (Tuweep) situated 3000 vertical feet above the Colorado River, about 50 miles downriver from the South Rim and 70 upriver from the Grand Canyon Skywalk. The Grand Canyon Skywalk is a tourist attraction along the Colorado River on the edge of the Grand Canyon (Grand Canyon West in the U This region — “One of the most remote in the United States” — according to the National Park Service, is reached only by one of three lengthy dirt tracks, that start from St. George, Utah, Colorado City or near Pipe Spring National Monument (both in Arizona). St George is a city located in the southwestern part of the U These roads traverse wild, uninhabited land for 97, 62 and 64 miles respectively. A visit to this area can be challenging, but rewarding. The Park Service manages the area for its primitive values and, therefore, improvements and services are minimal.
About 600 deaths have occurred in the Grand Canyon since the 1870s. Some of these deaths occurred as the result of overly zealous photographic endeavors, some were the result of airplane collisions within the canyon, and some visitors drowned in the Colorado River. Many hikers overestimate their fitness level, become dehydrated and confused, and must be rescued. The Park Service now posts a picture of an attractive and fit young man at several trailheads with the caption "Every year we rescue hundreds of people from the Canyon. Most of them look like him", in an attempt to discourage hikers from feats which are beyond their abilities.
According to Over the Edge: Death in the Grand Canyon, 50 fatalities have resulted from falls; 65 deaths were attributable to environmental causes, including heat stroke, cardiac arrest, dehydration, and hypothermia; 7 were caught in flash floods; 79 were drowned in the Colorado River; 242 perished in airplane and helicopter crashes (128 of them in the 1956 disaster mentioned below); 25 died in freak errors and accidents, including lightning strikes and rock falls; 47 committed suicide; and 23 were the victims of homicides.
In 1956 the Grand Canyon was the site of the deadliest commercial aviation disaster in the United States at the time. The 1956 Grand Canyon mid-air collision occurred on June 30 1956 when United Airlines Flight 718, a Douglas DC-7 named Mainliner Vancouver The United States of America —commonly referred to as the
On the morning of June 30, 1956, a TWA Lockheed Super Constellation and a United Airlines Douglas DC-7 departed Los Angeles International Airport within three minutes of one another on eastbound transcontinental flights. Events 350 - Roman usurper Nepotianus, of the Constantinian dynasty, is defeated and killed by troops of the Usurper Trans World Airlines ( TWA) renamed TWA Airlines LLC in 2001 was a major U WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout United Air Lines Inc, trading as United Airlines ( is a major airline of the United States. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Approximately 90 minutes later, the two propeller-driven airliners collided above the canyon while both were flying in unmonitored airspace.
The wreckage of both planes fell into the eastern portion of the canyon, on Temple and Chuar buttes, near the confluence of the Colorado and Little Colorado rivers. The disaster killed all 128 passengers and crew members aboard both planes.
This accident led to the institution of high-altitude flightways and positive control by en route ground controllers. Air traffic control ( ATC) is a service provided by ground-based controllers who direct Aircraft on the ground and in the air