Gottschalk (Gotteschalchus) (c. 808 – October 30, 867?), a theologian, was born near Mainz, and was given to the monastic life (oblatus) from infancy by his parents. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Events By Place Byzantine Empire September — Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective Mainz (ˈmaɪ̯nʦ (Mayence is a City in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. An oblate in Christian Monasticism (especially Roman Catholic, Orthodox and Anglican) is a person who is specifically dedicated His father was a Saxon, Count Bern. The Saxons or Saxon people were a Confederation of Old Germanic tribes.
He was trained at the monastery of Fulda, then under the abbot Hrabanus Maurus, and became the friend of Walafrid Strabo and Loup de Ferrières. Rabanus Maurus Magnentius (c 780 &ndash 4 February 856) also known as Hrabanus or Rhabanus, was a Frankish Benedictine Walafrid, alternatively spelt Walahfrid, surnamed Strabo (or Strabus, i Lupus Servatus, also Servatus Lupus (c 805 &ndash c 862 in French Loup (means 'wolf' as Lupus in Latin was a Carolingian Benedictine In June 829, at the synod of Mainz, on the pretext that he had been unduly constrained by his abbot, he sought and obtained his liberty, withdrew first to Corbie, where he met Ratramnus, and then to the monastery of Orbais in the diocese of Soissons. Events By Place Europe Egbert of Wessex conquers Mercia and is recognized as Bretwalda. Corbie is a commune of the Somme département, in northern France. Ratramnus (died circa 868 was a Frankish theological controversialist of the second half of the ninth century There he studied St Augustine, with the result that he became an enthusiastic believer in the doctrine of absolute predestination, in one point going beyond his master--Gottschalk believing in a predestination to condemnation as well as in a predestination to salvation, while Augustine had contented himself with the doctrine of preterition as complementary to the doctrine of election. Predestination (also linked with Foreknowledge) is a religious concept which involves the relationship between God and His creation
Between 835 and 840 Gottschalk was ordained priest, without the knowledge of his bishop, by Rigbold, chorepiscopus of Reims. A chorbishop is a rank of Christian clergy below Bishop. The name chorepiscope or chorepiscopus (pl chorepiscopi) is taken from the Before 840, deserting his monastery, he went to Italy, preached there his doctrine of double predestination, and entered into relations with Notting, bishop of Verona, and Eberhard, margrave of Friuli. Events By Place Europe After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Lothar, Charles the Bald and Louis the German Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Eberhard (c 815 &ndash 16 December 866) was the Frankish Duke of Friuli from 846 The dukes and margraves of Friuli were the rulers of the Duchy and March of Friuli in the Midde Ages Driven from Italy through the influence of Hrabanus Maurus, now archbishop of Mainz, who wrote two violent letters to Notting and Eberhard, he travelled through Dalmatia, Pannonia and Norica, but continued preaching and writing. The Archbishopric of Mainz (Erzbistum Mainz or Electorate of Mainz (Kurfürstentum Mainz or Kurmainz) was an influential ecclesiastic and secular Prince-bishopric Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern Pannonia is an ancient province of the Roman Empire bounded north and east by the Danube, coterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy,
In October 848 he presented to the synod at Mainz a profession of faith and a refutation of the ideas expressed by Hrabanus Maurus in his letter to Notting. Events By Place Europe The Saracens destroy Leontini. Charles the Bald, Louis the German and He was convicted, however, of heresy, beaten, obliged to swear that he would never again enter the territory of Louis the German, and handed over to Hincmar, archbishop of Reims, who sent him back to his monastery at Orbais. Louis (also Ludwig or Lewis) the German (also known as Louis II or Louis the Bavarian) (806 &ndash August 28, 876 The next year at a provincial council at Quierzy, presided over by Charles the Bald, he attempted to justify his ideas, but was again condemned as a heretic and disturber of the public peace, was degraded from the priesthood, whipped, obliged to burn his declaration of faith, and shut up in the monastery of Hautvilliers. Charles the Bald ( 13 June 823 – 6 October 877) Holy Roman Emperor (875–877 as Charles II) and King of West Francia
There Hincmar tried again to induce him to retract. Gottschalk however continued to defend his doctrine, writing to his friends and to the most eminent theologians of France and Germany. A great controversy resulted. Prudentius of Troyes, Wenilo of Sens, Ratramnus of Corbie, Loup de Ferrières and Florus of Lyon wrote in his favour. Prudentius (born in Spain died at Troyes, France on 6 April[[ 61]] was Bishop of Troyes, and a celebrated opponent of Hincmar of Reims in the Ratramnus (died circa 868 was a Frankish theological controversialist of the second half of the ninth century Lupus Servatus, also Servatus Lupus (c 805 &ndash c 862 in French Loup (means 'wolf' as Lupus in Latin was a Carolingian Benedictine Florus of Lyon ( Florus Lugdunensis) was a Deacon in Lyon, Ecclesiastical writer in the first half of the Ninth century. Hincmar wrote De praedestinatione and De una non trina deitate against his views, but gained little aid from Johannes Scotus Eriugena, whom he had called in as an authority.
The question was discussed at the councils of Kiersy (853), of Valence (855) and of Savonnires (859). Finally the pope Nicholas I took up the case, and summoned Hincmar to the council of Metz (863). Pope Hincmar either could not or would not appear, but declared that Gottschalk might go to defend himself before the pope. Nothing came of this, however, and when Hincmar learned that Gottschalk had fallen ill, he forbade him the sacraments or burial in consecrated ground unless he would recant. This Gottschalk refused to do. He died on 30 October between 866 and 870.
Gottschalk was a vigorous and original thinker, but also of a violent temperament, incapable of discipline or moderation in his ideas as in his conduct. Of his many works we have the two professions of faith (cf. Migne, Patrologia Latina, cxxi. Jacques Paul Migne (25 October 1800 - 24 October 1875 was a French Priest who published inexpensive and widely-distributed editions of theological works encyclopedias The Patrologia Latina is an enormous collection of the writings of the Church Fathers and other ecclesiastical writers published by Jacques-Paul Migne between c. 347 et seq. ), and some poems, edited by L Traube in Monumenta Germaniae historica: Poetae Latini aevi Carolini (707-738). The Monumenta Germaniae Historica (frequently abbreviated MGH in bibliographies and lists of sources is a comprehensive series of carefully edited and published sources Some fragments of his theological treatises have been preserved in the writings of Hincmar, Erigena, Ratramnus and Loup de Ferrières. Some of Gottschalk's works (including De Praedestinatione) have been newly discovered in 1931 in a library in Bern. D. C. Lambot's Oeuvres théologiques et grammaticales de Godescalc d’Orbais (1945) has good overview of Gottschalk's works.
From the 17th century, when the Jansenists exalted Gottschalk, much has been written on him. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Jansenism was a branch of Catholic Gallican thought which arose in the frame of the Counter-Reformation and the aftermath of the Council of Trent Two studies are F. Picavet, Les Discussions sur la liberté au temps de Gottschalk, de Raban Maur, d'Hincmar, et de Jean Scot, in Comptes rendus de l'acad. François Picavet ( 17 May 1851 -1921 was a French Philosopher, translator and authority on Kant. des sciences morales et politiques (Paris, 1896); and A. Freystedt, Studien zu Gottschalks Leben und Lehre, in Zeitschrsft für Kirchengeschichte (1897), vol. xviii.
It is also worth to mention that he was at the court of the Croat duke Trpimir between 846 and 848. He was witness of the battle between Trpimir and Byzantine strategos (most probably of Dalmatia), when Trpimir was victorious.