A golf course consists of a series of holes, each consisting of a teeing area, fairway, rough and other hazards, and the green with the pin and cup. Because a round of golf consists of playing 18 holes, most golf courses have this number of holes. Some however only have nine holes and the course is played twice per round, while others have 27 or 36 and choose two groups of nine holes at a time for novelty and maintenance reasons. Many older golf courses, often coastal, are golf links, of a different style to others. The coast is defined as the part of the land adjoining or near the Ocean. A links Golf course sometimes referred to as a seaside links, is the oldest style of Golf course, first developed in Scotland. For other than municipal courses, there is usually a golf club based at each golf course. A country club is a private Club which offers a variety of recreational Sports facilities usually located in city outskirts or rural areas
The very first section of every hole consists of what is known as the teeing area or tee-box. There is usually more than one available box for a player to place their ball, each one a different distance from the hole. They are generally as level as feasible, and most are slightly raised from the surrounding fairway. The most common tee areas, in increasing order of length from the hole, are the ladies' tee, the men's tee, and the championship tee. Other common tee-boxes include the junior tee, closer to the hole than the ladies' tee, and the senior tee, generally between the ladies' tee and the men's tee. In tournaments, golfers generally tee off from the box one level further from the "normal" box for their class (men use the championship tee, ladies use the senior or men's tee, and juniors use the ladies' tee).
Each tee box has two markers showing the bounds of the legal tee area. The teeing area spans the distance between the markers, and extends from two-club lengths behind the markers up to the markers themselves. A golfer may play the ball from outside the teeing area, but the ball itself must be shot from within the area. A golfer may place his ball directly on the teeing ground (called hitting it "off the deck"), a wooden manufactured stick known as a tee, or any natural substance such as sand placed on the teeing surface.
After teeing off, the player again hits the ball towards the green from where it came to rest. The area between the tee box and the putting green is known as the fairway. The turf of the fairway is generally cut short and evenly and is an advantageous area from which to hit. The area between the fairway and the out-of-bounds markers and also between the fairway and green is the rough, the turf of which is cut higher than that of the fairway and is generally a disadvantageous area from which to hit. Holes with a par of 3 expect the player to be able to drive the ball to the green on their first shot from the tee box. Holes longer than par 3 are expected to require at least one extra shot made from the fairway or rough.
While many holes are designed with a direct line-of-sight from the tee-off point to the green, some of the holes may bend either to the left or to the right. This is called a "dogleg", in reference to a dog's knee. The hole is called a "dogleg left" if the hole angles leftwards, and vice versa; rarely, a hole's direction can bend twice, and is called a "double dogleg. "
Many holes include hazards, which may be of three types: (1) water hazards such as lakes, rivers et cetera; (2) man-made hazards such as bunkers; and (3) natural hazards such as dense vegetation. Special rules apply to playing balls that fall in a hazard. For example, a player may not touch the ground with his club before playing a ball, not even for a practice swing. A ball in any hazard may be played as it lies without penalty. If it cannot be played from the hazard, the ball may be hit from another location, generally with a penalty of one stroke. The strict rules govern exactly from where the ball may be played outside a hazard. The Rules of Golf are standardized procedures in which the game of Golf should be played Bunkers (or sand traps) are shallow pits filled with sand and generally incorporating a raised lip or barrier, from which the ball is more difficult to play than from grass. A bunker or sand trap is a hazard in the game of Golf. It is a depression near the green or fairway that is filled with Sand. As in any hazard, a ball in a sand trap must be played without previously touching the sand with the club.
To putt is to play a stroke using the putter club. Usually, this stroke is played on the green where the ball does not leave the ground. Once on the green, the ball is putted (struck with the eponymous flat-faced club to roll it along the ground) towards the hole until the ball falls into the cup.
The grass of the putting green (more commonly just green) is cut very short so that a ball can roll distances of several yards. Pebble Beach Golf Links is one of several well known courses in Pebble Beach California and probably the most famous Golf course in the Western United States A lawn is an area of recreational or amenity land planted with grass, and sometimes Clover and other plants which are maintained at a low even height The growth direction of the blades of grass affects the ball's roll and is called the grain of the green. The slope or break of the green also affects the roll of the ball. The cup is always found within the green (at least ten feet from the edge), and must have a diameter of 108 mm (4. 25 in. ) and a depth of at least 100 mm (3. 94 in. ). Its position on the green is not fixed and may be changed from day to day. The cup usually has a flag on a pole positioned in it so that it may be seen from a distance, but not necessarily from the tee; this flag-and-pole combination is called the pin or less commonly the flagstaff.
Putting greens are not all of the same quality. Generally, the finest-quality greens are well kept so that a ball will smoothly roll over the closely-mowed grass. Golfers describe a green as fast if a light stroke to the ball makes it roll a long distance; conversely, a slow green is one where a stronger stroke is required to roll the ball the required distance. The exact speed of a green can be found with a stimp meter. The Stimpmeter is a device used to measure the speed of a golf course putting green by applying a known force to a Golf ball and measuring the distance traveled in By collecting sample measurements, golf courses can be compared in terms of average green speed. It is however illegal by strict rules to test the speed of a green while playing by rolling a ball on it, feeling or rubbing the green. The Rules of Golf are standardized procedures in which the game of Golf should be played
Most courses have only 3, 4, and 5 par holes although some courses include par 6 holes. Typical distances for the various holes are as follows.
Harder or easier courses may have longer or shorter distances, respectively. Terrain can also be a factor, where a long downhill hole might be rated a par 4, but a shorter uphill or treacherous hole might be rated a par 5.
Some areas of the course are designated as ground under repair ("G. U. R. "), where greenskeepers are effecting repairs or where the course is damaged. A ball coming to rest in this spot may be lifted, then played from outside the G. U. R. without penalty. Certain man-made objects on the course are defined as obstructions (i. e. distance posts, gardens, etc. ), and specific rules determine how a golfer may proceed when the play is impeded by these.
Often, there is a practice range or driving range, usually with practice greens, bunkers, and driving areas. A driving range is an area where Golfers can practice their swing Markers showing distances are usually included on a practice range to benefit the golfer. There may even be a practice course (often shorter and easier to play than full scale golf courses), where golfers practice to measure how far they can hit with a specific club or to improve their swing technique.
A specialty of landscape design or landscape architecture, golf course architecture is its own field of study. Landscape design is similar to Landscape architecture. Landscape Design focuses more on the artistic merits of design while Landscape Architecture encompasses the artistic Landscape architecture involves the investigation and designed response to the landscape Some golf course architects become celebrities in their own right. The field is represented by the American Society of Golf Course Architects, the European Institute of Golf Course Architects and the Society of Australian Golf Course Architects. The American Society of Golf Course Architects ( abbreviated as ASGCA) is a professional organization of Golf course designers in America