A Hama Nishiki goldfish (a relation of the Pearlscale fancy goldfish variety)
|Carassius auratus auratus|
The goldfish, Carassius auratus, was one of the earliest fish to be domesticated, and is still one of the most commonly kept aquarium fish and water garden fish. In biology trinomial nomenclature refers to names for taxa below the rank of species Carl Linnaeus (Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as, May 23 new style (13 May old style 1707 who laid the foundations for Fish are aquatic Vertebrate animals that are typically ectothermic (previously Cold-blooded) covered with scales, and equipped with two Domestication (from Latin domesticus) refers to the process whereby a Population of Animals A vast number of species of Fish have been successfully kept in the home Aquarium. Water gardens, also known as aquatic gardens, backyard ponds and Garden ponds, have been made popular by Andy Holt in recent years A relatively small member of the carp family, the goldfish is a domesticated version of a dark-gray/brown carp native to East Asia. The family Cyprinidae, from the Ancient Greek κυπρῖνος ( kuprīnos "carp" consists of the Carps It was first domesticated in China and introduced to Europe in the late 17th century. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National
Goldfish can grow to a maximum length of 23 inches (59 cm) and a maximum weight of 9. 9 pounds (4. 5 kg), although this is rare; few goldfish reach even half this size. The oldest recorded goldfish lived to 49 years, but most household goldfish generally live only six to eight years, due to being kept in bowls.  The collective noun for a group of goldfish is a "troubling". 
During the Tang Dynasty, it was popular to dam carp in ponds. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by As the result of a dominant genetic mutation, some of these carp displayed gold (actually yellowish orange) rather than silver coloration. In biology mutations are changes to the Nucleotide sequence of the Genetic material of an organism People began to breed the gold variety instead of the silver variety, and began to display them in small containers. The fish were not kept in the containers permanently, but would be kept in a larger body of water, such as a pond, and only for special occasions at which guests were expected would they be moved to the much smaller container. 
In 1162, the Empress of the Song Dynasty ordered the construction of a pond to collect the red and gold variety of those carp. An emperor (from the Latin " Imperator " is a (male Monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an Empire or another type of The Song Dynasty ( Wade-Giles: Sung Ch'ao was a ruling dynasty in China between 960&ndash1279 CE it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms By this time, people outside the imperial family were forbidden to keep goldfish of the gold (yellow) variety, yellow being the imperial color. This is probably the reason why there are more orange goldfish than yellow goldfish, even though the latter are genetically easier to breed. 
The occurrence of other colors was first recorded in 1276. The first occurrence of fancy tailed goldfish was recorded in the Ming dynasty. The Ming Dynasty ( or Empire of the Great Ming ( was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol -led In 1502, goldfish were introduced to Japan, where the Ryukin and Tosakin varieties were developed. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Description The ryukin is a hardy and attractive variety of goldfish with a pointed head and has a pronounced hump on the back behind the head
In 1611, goldfish were introduced to Portugal and from there to other parts of Europe. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Goldfish were first introduced to North America around 1850 and quickly became popular in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the 
The longest goldfish was measured at 47. 4 cm (18. 7 in) from snout to tail-fin end on March 24, 2003 in Hapert, The Netherlands. A snout is the protruding portion of an animal's face consisting of its nose mouth and jaw It was owned by Joris Gijsbers. 
Selective breeding over centuries has produced several color variations, some of them far removed from the "golden" color of the originally domesticated fish. This article focuses on selective breeding in domesticated animals Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Goldfish may also lose their "golden" color, or rather any goldfish color, by being kept in a dark room, which causes the scales to turn white. There are also different body shapes, fin and eye configurations. fin is a surface used to produce lift and Thrust or to steer while traveling in Water, air or other Fluid media Eyes are organs that detect Light, and send signals along the Optic nerve to the visual areas of the brain Some extreme versions of the goldfish need to be kept in an aquarium — they are much less hardy than varieties closer to the "wild" original. An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a Vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which Water -dwelling Plants However, some variations are hardier, such as the Shubunkin. Description The shubunkin nicknamed "Poor Mans Koi" are similar to the Common goldfish and Comet goldfish in appearance
The main goldfish varieties are: Black Moor, Bubble eye, Butterfly tail, Calico, Celestial eye, Comet, Common, Fantail, Lionchu, Lionhead, Oranda, Panda Moor, Pearlscale, Pompom, Ranchu, Ryukin, Shubunkin, Telescope eye, Veiltail
In Chinese goldfish keeping, goldfish are classified into 4 main types, which are not commonly used in the west. This article is about a breed of fish Black moor might also refer to a member of an ethnic group a subgroup of the present-day Moors. Description The Bubble Eye normally has an evenly curved back that lacks a dorsal fin Description and production Butterfly tail is also called as star tailed Calico or nacreous goldfish are Goldfish of any breed that sport a mixture of metallic and transparent scales Origins Celestials first appeared as a direct Mutation of the Telescope goldfish in the 18th century Origins The comet-tailed goldfish is an American development The first one appeared in the ponds of the U As pets The common goldfish became a popular pet around the world due to their hardy nature Description The Fantail goldfish may have either metallic or nacreous scales and normal or telescope eyes. Description The Western criteria for lionchus combine the traditional characteristic side-view profiles of the ranchu and the lionhead. Description The tremendous hood or headgrowth and fat cheeks of lionheads give them a facial appearance similar to canine Puppies. Description Due to the fleshy outgrowth on the upper half of its head and sides of its face the oranda has become one of the most popular goldfish Description Panda moors have delicate projecting eyes deep bodies and long flowing fins Description The characteristic feature of the pearlscale is its thick domed scales with pearl-like appearance Description The pompom has a similar body shape and finnage to the lionhead but instead of supporting a headgrowth it has nasal outgrowths Origins and evolution The modern-day ranchu is a Japanese development of the lionhead Description The ryukin is a hardy and attractive variety of goldfish with a pointed head and has a pronounced hump on the back behind the head Description The shubunkin nicknamed "Poor Mans Koi" are similar to the Common goldfish and Comet goldfish in appearance Description Except for its enlarged projecting eyes the demekin is similar to the Ryukin. Description The veiltail has a modified deep-and-round Ryukin -shaped body though without the dorsal 'hump' characteristic of ryukins
Goldfish are popular pond fish, since they are small, inexpensive, colourful, and very hardy. Description Although it has a body shaped like that of the Ryukin, its undivided tail fin opens and spreads so flat and wide horizontally causing the front ends to flip Description Although it has a body shaped like that of the Ryukin, its undivided tail fin opens and spreads so flat and wide horizontally causing the front ends to flip Description Although it has a body shaped like that of the Ryukin, its undivided tail fin opens and spreads so flat and wide horizontally causing the front ends to flip Variant The phoenix is a Chinese variety with an egg-shaped body and a long tail without a dorsal fin and no headgrowth The Curled-gill or Reversed-gill Goldfish is another uncommon variety of Fancy Goldfish that has been developed by specialist Enthusiasts The Curled-gill or Reversed-gill Goldfish is another uncommon variety of Fancy Goldfish that has been developed by specialist Enthusiasts Nacre, also known as mother of pearl, is an organic-inorganic Composite material produced by some Mollusks as an inner shell layer Description Due to the fleshy outgrowth on the upper half of its head and sides of its face the oranda has become one of the most popular goldfish Description The Bubble Eye normally has an evenly curved back that lacks a dorsal fin Willows, sallows and osiers form the Genus Salix, around 400 species of Deciduous Trees and Shrubs found primarily Description The shubunkin nicknamed "Poor Mans Koi" are similar to the Common goldfish and Comet goldfish in appearance Description and production Butterfly tail is also called as star tailed A comet is a small Solar System body that orbits the Sun and when close enough to the Sun exhibits a visible coma (atmosphere or a tail — A comet is a small Solar System body that orbits the Sun and when close enough to the Sun exhibits a visible coma (atmosphere or a tail — Origins and evolution The modern-day ranchu is a Japanese development of the lionhead This article is about a breed of fish Black moor might also refer to a member of an ethnic group a subgroup of the present-day Moors. Description The Bubble Eye normally has an evenly curved back that lacks a dorsal fin Origins and evolution The modern-day ranchu is a Japanese development of the lionhead Origins and evolution The modern-day ranchu is a Japanese development of the lionhead Origins and evolution The modern-day ranchu is a Japanese development of the lionhead In a pond, they may even survive if brief periods of ice form on the surface, as long as there is enough oxygen remaining in the water and the pond does not freeze solid. Ice is a Solid phase, usually crystalline, of a Non-metalic substance that is liquid or gas at Room temperature, such as Ammonia Oxygen (from the Greek roots ὀξύς (oxys (acid literally "sharp" from the taste of acids and -γενής (-genēs (producer literally begetteris the
Common goldfish, London and Bristol shubunkins, jikin, wakin, comet and sometimes fantail can be kept in a pond all year round in temperate and subtropical climates. Moor, veiltail, oranda and lionhead are only safe in the summer.
Small to large ponds are fine though the depth should be at least 80 cm (30 in) to avoid freezing. During winter, goldfish will become sluggish, stop eating, and often stay on the bottom of the pond. This is completely normal; they will become active again in the spring. A filter is important to clear waste and keep the pond clean. Plants are essential as they act as part of the filtration system, as well as a food source for the fish. Plants are furthermore beneficial since they raise oxygen levels in the water.
Compatible fish include rudd, tench, orfe and koi, but the latter will require specialized care. For the submarine class see Tench class submarine. The tench or doctor fish ( Tinca tinca) is a Freshwater The ide or orfe, Leuciscus idus, is a Freshwater Fish of the family Cyprinidae found across northern Europe and (kɔɪ or more specifically (niɕikigoi literally " brocaded carp" are ornamental domesticated varieties of the Common carp Cyprinus carpio. Ramshorn snails are helpful by eating any algae that grows in the pond. The term ramshorn snail is used in the Aquarium trade to describe any kind of Snail whose shell is planispiral meaning that it is a flat coil It is of great importance to introduce fish that will consume excess goldfish eggs in the pond, such as orfe. Without some form of population control, goldfish ponds can easily become overstocked. Koi may also interbreed to produce a sterile new fish.
The goldfish is usually classified as a coldwater fish, and it can live in an unheated aquarium. Coldwater fish, in the context of Aquariums refers to Fish species that prefer cooler water temperatures than Tropical fish, typically below 20 °C (70 Like most carp, goldfish produce a large amount of waste both in their feces and through their gills, releasing harmful chemicals into the water. A chemical substance is a Material with a definite chemical composition. This also happens because goldfish, like other cyprinids, lack a stomach and only have an intestinal tract, and thus cannot digest an excess of proteins, unlike most tropical fish. In Human anatomy, the stomach is a J-shaped hollow muscular organ of the Gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of Digestion, following Tropical fish include Fish found in tropical environments around the world including both freshwater and salt water species Build-up of this waste to toxic levels can occur in a relatively short period of time, which is often the cause of a fish's sudden death. Toxicity is the degree to which a substance is able to damage an exposed organism It may be the amount of water surface area, not the water volume, that decides how many goldfish may live in a container, because this determines how much oxygen diffuses and dissolves from the air into the water; one square foot of water surface area for every inch of goldfish length (370 cm²/cm). If the water is being further aerated by way of water pump, filter or fountain, more goldfish may be kept in the container. For information on Wikipedia project-related discussions see WikipediaVillage pump. A traditional fountain is an arrangement where water issues from a source ( Latin fons) fills a basin of some kind and is drained away 
Goldfish may be coldwater fish, but this does not mean they can tolerate rapid changes in temperature. The sudden shift in temperature that comes at night, for example in an office building where a goldfish might be kept in a small office tank, could kill them, especially in winter. Temperatures under about 10 °C (50 °F) are dangerous to goldfish. Conversely, temperatures over 25 °C (77 °F) can be extremely damaging for goldfish (this is the main reason why they shouldn't be kept in tropical tanks). 
The popular image of a goldfish in a small fishbowl is an enduring one. However, some countries have banned the sale of bowls of that type under animal rights legislation due to the risk of stunting, deoxygenation and ammonia/nitrite poisoning in such a small environment. 
The supposed reputation of goldfish dying quickly is often due to poor care amongst uninformed buyers looking for a cheap pet.  The true lifespan of a well-cared-for goldfish in captivity can extend beyond 10 years.
Goldfish, like all fish that are kept as pets, do not like to be petted. In fact, touching a goldfish can be quite dangerous to its health, as it can cause the protective slime coat to be damaged or removed, which opens the fish’s skin up to infection from bacteria or parasites in the water.
Fancy goldfish are unlikely to survive for long in the wild as they are handicapped by their bright fin colors; however it is not beyond the bounds of possibility that such a fish, especially the more hardy varieties such as the Shubunkin, could survive long enough to breed with its wild cousins. Common and comet goldfish can survive, and even thrive, in any climate in which a pond for them can be created. Introduction of wild goldfish can cause problems for native species. Within three breeding generations, the vast majority of the goldfish spawn will have reverted to their natural olive color. Since they are carp, goldfish are also capable of breeding with certain other species of carp and creating hybrid species. 
Research by Dr. Yoshiichi Matsui, a professor of fish culture at Kinki University in Japan, suggests that there are subtle differences which demonstrate that while the crucian carp is the ancestor of the goldfish, they have sufficiently diverged to be considered separate species. "Crucian carps" is also used for the Genus Carassius as a whole Divergent evolution is the accumulation of differences between groups which can lead to the formation of new species usually a result of different groups of the same species adapting to different 
If left in the dark for a period of time, a goldfish will turn almost gray. Goldfish have pigment production in response to light, which is almost like our tanning in the sun. Fish have cells called chromatophores that produce pigments which reflects light, and gives colouration. Chromatophores are pigment -containing and light-reflecting cells found in Amphibians Fish, Reptiles Crustaceans and The colour of a goldfish is determined by which pigments are in the cells, how many pigments molecules there are, and whether the pigment is grouped inside the cell or is spaced throughout the cytoplasm. So if a goldfish is kept in the dark it will appear lighter in the morning, and over a long period of time will lose its colour.
Like most fish, goldfish are opportunistic feeders. When an excess of food is offered, they will produce more waste and feces, partly due to incomplete digestion of protein. Overfed fish can sometimes be recognized by feces trailing from their cloaca. In zoological anatomy a cloaca is the posterior opening that serves as the only such opening for the intestinal and urinary tracts of certain animal species Goldfish need only be fed as much food as they can consume in one to two minutes, and no more than three times a day. Extreme overfeeding can be fatal, typically by bursting of the intestines. In Anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the Stomach to the Anus and in humans and other mammals consists This happens most often with selectively bred goldfish, which have a convoluted intestinal tract as opposed to a straight one in common goldfish. Novice fishkeepers who have newly purchased ryukin, fantail, oranda, lionhead or other fancy goldfish will need to watch their fish carefully for a few days, as it is important to know how much the goldfish will eat in a couple minutes of time. They also die without eating in 4-8 days.
Special goldfish food has a lower protein and higher carbohydrate content. It is sold in two consistencies - flakes that float at the top of the aquarium, and pellets that sink slowly to the bottom. An aquarium (plural aquariums or aquaria) is a Vivarium consisting of at least one transparent side in which Water -dwelling Plants
Goldfish enthusiasts will supplement this diet with shelled peas (with outer skins removed), blanched green leafy vegetables, and bloodworms. A pea (inaccurately called a '''sweet pea''' by food distubutors is most commonly the small spherical Seed or the seed-pod of the Legume Pisum Blanching (also spelled blenching) is a cooking term that describes a process of Food preparation wherein the food substance usually a vegetable or fruit is plunged Leaf vegetables, also called potherbs, greens, or leafy greens, are plant leaves eaten as a Vegetable, sometimes accompanied Young goldfish also benefit from the addition of brine shrimp to their diet. Brine shrimp are a species of aquatic Crustaceans of the Genus Artemia. As with all animals, individual goldfish will display varied food preferences. In any case, it is better to feed them a variety of foods listed above.
Research by the School of Psychology at the University of Plymouth in 2003 demonstrated that goldfish have a memory-span of at least three months and can distinguish between different shapes, colors and sounds. food is Plant or Animal material intended for consumption by pet Fish kept in Aquariums or Ponds. The University of Plymouth is the largest University in the southwest of England, with over 30000 students and is the fifth largest UK university based on student They were trained to push a lever to earn a food reward; when the lever was fixed to work only for an hour a day, the fish soon learned to activate it at the correct time. 
Behaviour can vary widely both because goldfish are housed in a variety of environments, and because their behaviour can be conditioned by their owners.
Scientific studies done on the matter have shown that goldfish have strong associative learning abilities, as well as social learning skills. In addition, their strong visual acuity allows them to distinguish between different humans. In Psychology, visual perception is the ability to interpret information from Visible light reaching the Eyes The resulting Perception is also It is quite possible that owners will notice the fish react favorably to them (swimming to the front of the glass, swimming rapidly around the tank, and going to the surface mouthing for food) while hiding when other people approach the tank. Over time, goldfish should learn to associate their owners and other humans with food, often “begging” for food whenever their owners approach. Auditory responses from a blind goldfish proved that he recognized one particular family member and a friend by voice, or vibration of sound. This behavior was very remarkable because it showed that he recognized the vocal vibration or sound of two people specifically out of seven in the house.
Goldfish also display a range of social behaviours. In Biology, Psychology and Sociology social behavior is behavior directed towards society or taking place between members of the same species When new fish are introduced to the tank, aggressive "bully-like" social behaviours may sometimes be seen, such as chasing the new fish, or fin nipping. These usually stop within a few days.  Fish that have been living together are often seen displaying schooling behaviour, as well as displaying the same types of feeding behaviours. The SWARM Remote Weapon System (Stabilised Weapon And Reconnaissance Mount is a fully armored Remote weapon system designed and built by the Thales Group in Goldfish may display similar behaviours when responding to their reflections in a mirror.
Goldfish that have constant visual contact with humans also seem to stop associating them as a threat. After being kept in a tank for several weeks,sometimes months, it becomes possible to feed a goldfish by hand without it reacting in a frightened manner. Some goldfish have been trained to swim through mazes, push a ball through a hoop, or even swim in a synchronized routine by their owners. A maze is a complex Tour puzzle in the form of a complex branching passage through which the solver must find a route 
Goldfish have behaviours, both as groups and as individuals that stem from native carp behaviour. They are a generalist species with varied feeding, breeding, and predator avoidance behaviors that contribute to their success in the environment. A generalist species is able to thrive in a wide variety of environmental conditions and can make use of a variety of different resources (for example a Heterotroph As fish they can be described as “friendly” towards each other, very rarely will a goldfish harm another goldfish, nor do the males harm the females during breeding. Reproduction is the Biological process by which new individual Organisms are produced The only real threat that goldfish present to each other is in food competition. Competition is a rivalry between individuals groups nations or animals for territory or resources Commons, comets, and other faster varieties can easily eat all the food during a feeding before fancy varieties can reach it. As pets The common goldfish became a popular pet around the world due to their hardy nature Origins The comet-tailed goldfish is an American development The first one appeared in the ponds of the U This can be a problem that leads to stunted growth or possible starvation of fancier varieties when they are kept in a pond with their single-tailed brethren. Starvation (also called inanition) is a severe reduction in Vitamin, Nutrient, and Energy intake and is the most extreme form of As a result, when mixing breeds in an aquarium environment, care should be taken to combine only breeds with similar body type and swim characteristics.
Goldfish natively live in ponds, and other still or slow moving bodies of water in depths up to 20 m (65 ft). A pond is a body of water smaller than a Lake, both being examples of Terrain features Although the term pond is universally used to describe waterbodies that Their native climate is subtropical to tropical and they live in freshwater with a pH of 6. The subtropics are the zones of the Earth immediately north and south of the tropic zone which is bounded by the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of The Tropics are centered on the Equator and limited in Latitude by the Tropic of Cancer in the northern hemisphere at approximately 23°26' (23 Freshwater is a word that refers to bodies of water such as Ponds lakes rivers and streams containing low concentrations of dissolved Salts and other Total dissolved pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. 0–8. 0,preferably a pH of 7. pH is the measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a Solution. 5, a water hardness of 5. 0–19. 0 dGH, and a temperature range of 40 to 90* F (4 to 41 °C) although they will not survive long at the higher temperatures. Degrees of General Hardness (dGH is a unit of water hardness, specifically of General Hardness They are considered ill-suited even to live in a heated tropical fish tank, as they are used to the greater amount of oxygen in unheated tanks, and some believe that the heat burns them. However, goldfish have been observed living for centuries in outdoor ponds in which the temperature often spikes above 86 °F (30 °C). When found in nature, the goldfish are actually an olive green color.
In the wild, the diet consists of crustaceans, insects, and various plants. Structure of crustaceans As Arthropods crustaceans have a stiff Exoskeleton, which must be shed to allow the animal to grow ( Ecdysis or molting Insects ( Class Insecta) are a major group of Arthropods and the most diverse group of Animals on the Earth with over a million described
While it is true that goldfish can survive in a fairly wide temperature range, the optimal range for indoor fish is 68 to 75 °F (20 to 23 °C). Pet goldfish, as with many other fish, will usually eat more food than it needs if given, which can lead to fatal intestinal blockage. They are omnivorous and do best with a wide variety of fresh vegetables and fruit to supplement a flake or pellet diet staple. 
Sudden changes in water temperature can be fatal to any fish, including the goldfish. When transferring a store-bought goldfish to a pond or a tank, the temperature in the storage container should be equalized by leaving it in the destination container for at least 30 minutes before releasing the goldfish. In addition, some temperature changes might simply be too great for even the hardy goldfish to adjust to. For example, buying a goldfish in a store, where the water might be 70 °F (approximately 21 °C), and hoping to release it into your garden pond at 40 °F (4 °C) will probably result in the death of the goldfish, even if you use the slow immersion method just described. A goldfish will need a lot more time, perhaps days or weeks, to adjust to such a different temperature.
Because goldfish like to eat live plants, the presence of goldfish in a planted aquarium can be quite a problem.  Only a few aquarium plant species can survive in a tank with goldfish, for example the Cryptocoryne and Anubias species, but they require special attention to ensure they are not uprooted. Cryptocoryne ( water trumpet) is a Genus of about 50-60 species of aquatic monocot Plants from the family Anubias is a genus of aquatic and semi-aquatic Flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to tropical central and western Africa. Artificial plants made of plastic are often more durable, but might irritate or harm a fish's skin if it comes in contact with the plants. Artificial plants made of silk are a reasonable alternative. 
Goldfish, like all cyprinids, lay eggs. Aquatic plants are used to give the Aquarium a natural appearance oxygenate the Water, and provide habitat for Fish, especially Fry The family Cyprinidae, from the Ancient Greek κυπρῖνος ( kuprīnos "carp" consists of the Carps They produce adhesive eggs that attach to aquatic vegetation. The eggs hatch within 48 to 72 hours, releasing fry large enough to be described as appearing like “an eyelash with two eyeballs”. Within a week or so, the fry begin to look more like a goldfish in shape, although it can take as much as a year before they develop a mature goldfish color; until then they are a metallic brown like their wild ancestors. In their first weeks of existence, the fry grow remarkably fast - an adaptation born of the high risk of getting devoured by the adult goldfish (or other fish and insects) in their environment.
Some scientists believe goldfish can only grow to sexual maturity if given enough water and the right nutrition. However, if kept well, they may breed indoors, but not in a small fishbowl. Breeding usually happens after a significant change in temperature, often in spring. Eggs should then be separated into another tank, as the parents will likely eat any of their young that they happen upon. Dense plants such as Cabomba or Elodea or a spawning mop are used to catch the eggs. Cabomba is a waterplant Genus, one of two belonging to the family Cabombaceae. Elodea is a Genus of Aquatic plants often called the water weeds
Most goldfish can and will breed if left to themselves, particularly in pond settings. Males chase the females around, bumping and nudging them in order to prompt the females to release her eggs, which the males then fertilize. Due to the strange shapes of some extreme modern bred goldfish, certain types can no longer breed among themselves. In these cases, a method of artificial breeding is used called hand stripping. This method keeps the breed going, but can be dangerous and harmful to the fish if not done correctly.
Like some other popular aquarium fish, such as the guppy, goldfish, and other carp are frequently added to stagnant bodies of water in order to reduce the mosquito populations in some parts of the world, especially to prevent the spread of West Nile Virus, which relies on mosquitoes to migrate. The guppy (la '''''Poecilia reticulata''''' also known as the millionfish, is one of the most popular freshwater aquarium fish species in the world Water stagnation occurs when Water stops flowing Stagnant water can be a major Environmental hazard. Mosquitoes are insects in the family Culicidae. They have a pair of scaled wings a pair of Halteres, a slender body and long legs West Nile virus (or WNV is a Virus of the family Flaviviridae; part of the Japanese encephalitis (JE antigenic complex of viruses it is found in However, the introduction of goldfish has often had negative consequences for local ecosystems. An introduced species (also known as naturalized species or exotic species) is an Organism that is not indigenous to a given location but An ecosystem is a natural unit consisting of all plants animals and micro-organisms( Biotic factors in an area functioning together with all of the non-living physical (  As a result, goldfish are considered a pest in many countries, including the USA. 
Although edible, goldfish are rarely eaten. A fad among North American college students for many years was swallowing goldfish as a stunt and as an initiation process for fraternities. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the A stunt is an unusual and difficult physical feat or any act requiring a special skill performed for artistic purposes in TV, Theatre, or cinema Fraternities and sororities (from the Latin words la frater and la soror, meaning "brother" and "sister" respectively are fraternal The first recorded instance was in 1939 at Harvard University.  The practice gradually fell out of popularity over the course of several decades and is now rare. 
In the Belgian city of Geraardsbergen an annual festival is held where the medieval tradition of swallowing a small fish swimming in a cup of wine still survives. The Kingdom of Belgium is a Country in northwest Europe. It is a founding member of the European Union and hosts its headquarters as well as those Geraardsbergen (Grammont is a City and Municipality located in the Belgian province of East Flanders. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice There have been a couple of court cases in the last decade but the tradition seems to survive nonetheless. The fish used is often a goldfish because of its size and price.
In many countries, the operators of carnivals and fairs commonly give goldfish away in plastic bags as prizes for winning games. Carnival is a festival season which occurs immediately before Lent; the main events are usually during February and March A fair is a gathering of people to display or trade produce or other goods to parade or display animals and often to enjoy associated Carnival or Funfair entertainment A prize is an Award given to a person or a group of people to recognise and reward actions or achievements In the United Kingdom, the government proposed banning this practice as part of its Animal Welfare Bill, though this has since been amended to only prevent goldfish being given as prizes to unaccompanied minors. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government.  Rome, Italy, passed a law in late 2005, which banned the use of goldfish or other animals as carnival prizes. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Rome has also banned the keeping of goldfish in goldfish bowls, on the premise that it is cruel for a fish to live in such a small space. 
In the UK, the Animal Welfare Act 2006 prohibits deliberate and “unnecessary suffering” to animals, but contrary to widespread belief, it does not explicitly outlaw the feeding of live feeder fish such as goldfish to other fish. However, it does prohibit introducing two animals for the purpose of “fighting, wrestling or baiting”.  Nonetheless, the assumption is that a legal case could be made to class the use of feeder fish as a "fight" and though as-yet untried in the courts, the risk of such a prosecution has led many retailers and hobbyists simply to treat the use of feeder fish in the UK as illegal.
Several closely related species also have orange varieties:
Black moor • Bubble eye • Butterfly tail • Celestial eye • Comet • Common • Fantail • Lionchu • Lionhead • Oranda • Panda moor • Pearlscale • Pompom • Ranchu • Ryukin • Shubunkin • Telescope eye • Veiltail