Lateral moraine on a glacier joining the Gorner Glacier, Zermatt, Switzerland. The moraine is the high bank of debris in the top left hand quarter of the picture. For more explanation, click on the picture.
Glaciology (from Middle French dialect (Franco-Provençal): glace, "ice"; or Latin: glacies, "frost, ice"; and Greek: λόγος, logos, "speech" lit. grc-Latn Logos (ˈloʊːgɒs ( Greek, logos) is an important term in Philosophy, Analytical psychology, Rhetoric and Religion "to talk about ice") is the study of glaciers, or more generally ice and natural phenomena that involve ice. "Glacial" and "Glaciation" redirect here For the geological periods see Glacial period. Ice is a Solid phase, usually crystalline, of a Non-metalic substance that is liquid or gas at Room temperature, such as Ammonia
Glaciology is an interdisciplinary earth science that integrates geophysics, geology, physical geography, geomorphology, climatology, meteorology, hydrology, biology, and ecology. Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences) is an all-embracing term for the Sciences related to the planet Geophysics, a major discipline of Earth sciences, is the study of the Earth by quantitative physical methods especially by seismic, electromagnetic Geology (from Greek γη gê, "earth" and λόγος Logos, "speech" lit Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the three major subfields of Geography. Geomorphology (from Greek: γη ge, "earth" μορφή morfé, "form" and λόγος Logos, "knowledge" Climatology (from Greek grc κλίμα klima, "region zone" and grc -λογία -logia) is the study of Climate, scientifically Meteorology (from Greek grc μετέωρος metéōros, "high in the sky" and grc -λογία -logia) is the Interdisciplinary Hydrology (from Greek Yδωρ hudōr, "water" and λόγος logos, "study" is the study of the movement distribution and quality of Foundations of modern biology There are five unifying principles Ecology (from Greek grc οἶκος oikos, "house(hold" and grc -λογία -logia) is the scientific study of The impact of glaciers on humans adds the fields of human geography and anthropology. Human geography is a branch of Geography that focuses on the study of patterns and processes that shape human interaction with the environment with particular reference to Anthropology (/ˌænθɹəˈpɒlədʒi/ from Greek grc ἄνθρωπος anthrōpos, "human" -λογία -logia) is the study of The presence of ice on Mars and Europa brings in an extraterrestrial component to the field. TemplateInfobox Planet.--> Europa (jʊˈroʊpə; or as
Areas of study within glaciology include glacial history and the reconstruction of past glaciation. A glaciologist is a person who studies glaciers. Glaciology is one of the key areas of polar research.
There are two general categories of glaciation which glaciologists distinguish: alpine glaciation, accumulations or "rivers of ice" confined to valleys; and continental glaciation, unrestricted accumulations which once covered much of the northern continents.
- Alpine - ice flows down the valleys of mountainous areas and forms a tongue of ice moving towards the plains below. Alpine glaciers tend to make the topography more rugged. Topography ( topo-, "place" and graphia, "writing" is the study of Earth 's Surface features or those of Planets
- Continental - an ice sheet found today, only in high latitudes (Greenland/Antarctica), thousands of square kilometers wide and thousands of meters thick. Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the These tend to smooth out the landscape.
Zones of glaciers
- Accumulation, where the formation of ice is faster than its removal.
- Wastage or Ablation, where the sum of melting and evaporation (sublimation) is greater than the amount of snow added each year.
- wastage of the glacier through sublimation, ice melting and iceberg calving. Ablation is defined as the removal of material from the surface of an object by Vaporization, Chipping, or other erosive processes
- an acute ridge of rock where two cirques abut. This article is about a glacial landform See Arete for other meanings
- crevasse formed near the head of a glacier, where the mass of ice has rotated, sheared and torn itself apart in the manner of a geological fault. A bergschrund is a Crevasse that forms where the moving glacier ice separates from the stagnant ice above
- Cirque, corrie or cwm
- bowl shaped depression excavated by the source of a glacier. A cirque ( French for " Circus " is an Amphitheatre -like Valley, or valley head formed at the head of a Glacier by A cirque ( French for " Circus " is an Amphitheatre -like Valley, or valley head formed at the head of a Glacier by
- adjustment to stress at a molecular level. Creep is the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform permanently under the influence of stresses It occurs as a result of long term exposure to levels of Stress is a measure of the average amount of Force exerted per unit Area. In Chemistry, a molecule is defined as a sufficiently stable electrically neutral group of at least two Atoms in a definite arrangement held together by
- movement (of ice) in a constant direction. Fluid mechanics is the study of how Fluids move and the Forces on them
- brittle failure (breaking of ice) under the stress raised when movement is too rapid to be accommodated by creep. A fracture is the (local separation of an object or material into two or more pieces under the action of stress. It happens for example, as the central part of a glacier movinges faster than the edges.
- spire of rock formed by the headward erosion of a ring of cirques around a single mountain. A pyramidal peak, or sometimes in its most extreme form called a glacial horn, is a Mountaintop that has been modified by the action of Ice during Headward erosion is a Fluvial process of Erosion that lengthens a Stream, a Valley or a Gully at its head and also It is an extreme case of an arête.
- where the adhesion of the ice to the rock is stronger than the cohesion of the rock, part of the rock leaves with the flowing ice. Plucking, in the sense relating to Glaciers is when a glacier erodes away chunks of Bedrock to be later deposited as Glacial erratics Glacial plucking Adhesion is the tendency of certain dissimilar molecules to cling together due to Attractive forces.
- a lake formed in the bottom of a cirque when its glacier has melted. A tarn (or corrie loch) is a mountain Lake or pool formed in a Cirque excavated by a Glacier.
- Tunnel valley
- The tunnel is that formed by hydraulic erosion of ice and rock below an ice sheet margin. A tunnel valley is a deep but narrow Valley with a 'U' shaped cross-section and frequently a 'U' shaped plan which is usually found filled with glacial Till The tunnel valley is what remains of it in the underlying rock when the ice sheet has melted.
- Outwash sand/gravel
- from front of glaciers, found on a plain
- block of stagnant ice leaves a depression or pit
- steep sided ridges of gravel/sand, possibly caused by streams running under stagnant ice
- stratified drift builds up low steep hills
- alternating thin sedimentary beds (coarse and fine) of a proglacial lake. A kettle (or kettle hole) is a shallow sediment-filled body of water formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters An esker is a long winding ridge of Stratified Sand and Gravel, examples of which occur in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of A kame is a geological feature an irregularly shaped Hill or Mound composed of Sand, Gravel and Till that accumulates A varve is an annual layer of Sediment or Sedimentary rock. The word 'varve' is derived from the Swedish word varv whose In Geology, a proglacial lake is a lake formed either by the Damming action of a Moraine or Ice dam during the retreat of a melting glacier or Summer conditions deposit more and coarser material and those of the winter, less and finer.
- (glacial flour to boulders) deposited by receding/advancing glaciers, forming moraines, and drumlins
- (Terminal) material deposited at the end; (Ground) material deposited as glacier melts; (lateral) material deposited along the sides. Till is unsorted glacial sediment Glacial drift is a general term for the coarsely graded and extremely heterogeneous Sediments of glacial origin Moraine refers to any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions such as those
- smooth elongated hills composed of till. A drumlin (Irish droimnín, a little hill ridge is an elongated whale-shaped Hill formed by glacial action
- Ribbed moraines
- large subglacial elongated hills transverse to former ice flow.
- Hambrey, Michael and Jürg Alean. Glaciers 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, 2004. Cambridge University Press (known colloquially as CUP is a Publisher given a Royal Charter by Henry VIII in 1534 "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " ISBN 0-521-82808-2
- Benn, Douglas I. and David J. A. Evans. Glaciers and Glaciation. London; Arnold, 1998. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Year 1998 ( MCMXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar) ISBN 0-340-58431-9
- Knight, Peter G. Glaciers Cheltenham; Nelson Thornes, 1999. Education Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) ISBN 0-7487-4000-7
Irish Sea Glacier
This is a list of Glaciers. Due to somewhat sparse information some glaciers especially those in the tropics may no longer exist as listed It is known that during the Ice Age, probably on more than one occasion a huge Glacier referred to as "The Irish Sea Glacier " flowed southwards from
- Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Group, University of Alaska Fairbanks
- Arctic and Alpine Research Group, University of Alberta
- International Glaciological Society
- Glaciers online
- World Data Centre for Glaciology, Cambridge, UK
- National Snow and Ice Data Center, Boulder, Colorado
- Global Land Ice Measurements from Space, USGS
- North Cascade Glacier Climate Project
- Centre for Glaciology, University of Wales
- Caltech Glaciology Group
- Glaciology Group, University of Copenhagen
- Institute of Low Temperature Science, Sapporo
- National Institute of Polar Research, Tokyo
- Glaciology Group, University of Washington
- Glaciology Laboratory, Universidad de Chile-Centro de Estudios Científicos, Valdivia
- Russian Geographical Society (Moscow Centre) - Glaciology Commission
- Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics, Univ. of Innsbruck, Austria.
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- The study of ice and its effect on the landscape, especially the study of glaciers.
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