A Given name, First name, Christian name, or forename is a personal name that specifies and differentiates between members of a group of individuals, especially in a family, all of whose members usually share the same family name (surname). A personal name is the Proper name identifying an individual Person. Family denotes a group of People affiliated by consanguinity affinity or co-residence A family name or last name is a type of Surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs A given name is a name given to a person, as opposed to an inherited one such as a family name.  Strictly speaking, the term excludes names acquired by other means — such as changing one's name. This article does not generally assume the strict definition.
In most European countries and in countries that have cultures predominantly influenced by Europe (North and South America and Australia), the given name usually comes before the family name (though generally not in lists and catalogs), and so is known as a forename or first name (see usage below). But in many cultures of the world -- such as that of Hungary, various cultures in Africa and most cultures in East Asia (e. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic g. China, Japan, Korea and Vietnam) -- given names traditionally come after the family name. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially In East Asia, even part of the given name may be shared among all members of a given generation in a family and the family's extensions, to differentiate those generations from other generations.
Under the common Western naming convention, people generally have one or more forenames (either given or acquired). Western culture (sometimes equated with Western Civilization) are terms which are used to refer to Cultures of European origin If more than one, there is usually a main forename (for everyday use) and one or more supplementary forenames. But sometimes two or more carry equal weight. Beyond the fact that forenames come before the surname there is no particular ordering rule. A surname is a name added to a Given name and is part of a Personal name. Often the main forename is at the beginning, resulting in a first name and one or more middle names, but other arrangements are quite common.
Given names are often used in a familiar and friendly manner in informal situations. In more formal situations the surname is used instead, unless it is necessary to distinguish between people with the same surname. The idiom "on a first-name basis" (or "on first-name terms") alludes to the fact that using a person's given name betokens familiarity.
A child's given name or names are usually assigned around the time of birth. In most jurisdictions, the name at birth is a matter of public record, inscribed on the birth certificate or equivalent. The name at birth is the name a child is given by his or her Parents according to a generally universal custom, and legal requirement to file a form of Birth A birth certificate is a Vital record that documents the birth of a child In some jurisdictions, mainly civil-law jurisdictions such as France, Quebec, The Netherlands or Germany, the functionary whose job it is to record acts of birth may act to prevent parents from giving the child a name that may cause him or her harm (in France, by referring the case to a local judge). Civil law or Romano-Germanic law or Continental law is the predominant system of law in the world. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Even spell-checking of the name is done.
Given names most often derive from the following categories:
- Aspiring personal traits (external and internal). For example, the name Clement means "merciful". English examples include Faith, Prudence, Augustus, and Fido (The last coming from the Latin for 'faith'). Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
- Occupations, for example George means "farmer"
- Circumstances of birth, for example Thomas means "twin", or the Latin name Quintus, which was traditionally given to the fifth child. Thomas is a common Given name for males It originated from the Aramaic designation תום or Tôm. 
- Objects, for example Peter means "rock" and Edgar means "rich spear"
- Physical characteristics, for example Calvin means "bald". Peter is a popular male Given name. It comes from the Greek word πετρος (petros meaning "rock" EDGAR, the Electronic Data-Gathering Analysis and Retrieval system performs automated collection validation indexing acceptance and forwarding of submissions by companies (The name "Calvin" in English is a conversion of a surname to a given name, originally in honor of John Calvin, but there are personal names that derive from this source. John Calvin (or Jean Calvin) (10 July 1509 – 27 May 1564 was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and )
- Variations on another name, especially to change the sex of the name (Pauline, Georgia) or to translate from another language (Francis << Tuscan Francisco, "Frenchman," q. v. later in the article).
- Surnames, for example Winston, Harrison, and Ross. A family name or last name is a type of Surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs This article refers to an area of Scotland For other uses see Ross (disambiguation. Such names are common in upper-class American families and often come from families that are frequently intermarried with the family bearing the individual's surname
- Places, for example Brittany and Lorraine
- Time of birth, for example day of the week, as in Kofi Annan, whose given name means "born on Friday," or the holiday on which one was born, for example Natasha, a Russian diminutive of Natalia, which means "Christmas" in Latin
- Combination of the above, for example the Armenian name Sirvart means "love rose"
- Names of unknown or disputed etymology, for example Mary. Brittany (Breizh bʁejs Bretagne; Gallo: Bertaèyn) is a former independent Celtic kingdom and Duchy, now incorporated into Lorraine (Lorraine Lothringen is a historical area in present-day northeast France. Kofi Atta Annan, GCMG (born 8 April 1938 is a Ghanaian Diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations See also Natacha, Natasja Natasha is a Russian female given name originally a pet name variant of Natalia. NataliaAR is the greatest of all greats and if you even take a glimpse of her you are so lucky if you live in australia you are extra lucky i cant tell you much more because no one knows much The Armenian language (hy հայերեն լեզու hajɛɹɛn lɛzu —, conventional short form) is an Indo-European language spoken by the Armenian
In many cultures, given names are reused, especially to commemorate ancestors or the particularly admired, resulting in a limited repertoire of names that sometimes vary by orthography. Namesake (sometimes "name's sake" is a term used to characterize a person place thing quality action state or idea that is called after or named out of regard to The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific Writing system to write the language
The most familiar example of this, to Western readers, is the use of Biblical and saints' names in most of the Christian countries (with Ethiopia, in which names were often ideals or abstractions -- Haile Selassie, "power of the Trinity"; Haile Miriam, "power of Mary" -- as the most conspicuous exception). Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity However, the name Jesus was considered taboo or sacriligious in most of the Christian world; a pious legend says that use of the name Jesus in Spanish- and Portugese-speaking regions came about after the Battle of Lepanto, when the Pope gave the Spanish the right to use the name of Jesus in honor of the victory. Jesus of Nazareth (7–2 BC / BCE —26–36 AD / CE) A taboo is a strong Social prohibition (or ban) against words objects actions or discussions that are considered undesirable or offensive by a group culture Sacrilege is the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal.
Similarly, the name Mary, now popular if not ubiquitous among Christians, particularly Roman Catholics, was considered too holy for secular use until about the 12th century. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth In countries that particularly venerated Mary (Poland, as one example), this remained the case much longer; in Poland, until the arrival in the 17th century of French queens named Marie. Poland (Polska officially the Republic of Poland This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.
Most common given names in English (and many other European languages) can be grouped into broad categories based on their origin:
- Hebrew names, most often from the Bible, are very common in -- or are elements of names used in -- the historically Christian countries. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States For the article on Jewish given and last names see Jewish name. Some have elements meaning "God," especially "El. See technical note on viewing special characters A theophoric name (Greek "bearing a deity" embeds the name of a god both invoking The word "theophory" refers to the practice of embedding the name of a god or a deity in usually a proper name " Examples: Michael, Joshua, Joseph, David, Adam, Elizabeth, Hannah and Mary. Joshua, Jehoshuah, or Yehoshua ( 'יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, Tiberian: jə Joseph or Yosef (יוֹסֵ Standard Yosef Tiberian Yôsēp̄, يوسف Yusuf; "He David, Arabic: داوود or داود dawud, "beloved" was the second king of the united Kingdom of Israel according to the Hebrew Bible The personal name Adam derives from the Hebrew noun ha adamah meaning "the ground" or "earth" A literal translation is "man of the Elizabeth or Elisabeth is the Greek form Ελισ(σάβετ Elis(savet of the Hebrew Elisheva, meaning "my God is an oath" Hannah is a personal name also spelt Hanna or Hana, deriving from the Hebrew language חַנָּה (Channah meaning "He (God has favoured me/favours me (i There are also a handful of names in use derived from the Aramaic, particularly the names of prominent figures in the New Testament -- such as Thomas, Martha and Bartholomew. Aramaic is a Semitic language with THOMAS is the database of United States Congress legislative information started in 1995 Saint Martha ( Judæo-Aramaic מַרְתָּא Martâ "The lady" was the sister of Lazarus Saint Bartholomew was one of the twelve Apostles of Jesus. Bartholomew (Βαρθολομαίος transliterated "Bartholomaios" comes from
- All of the Semitic peoples of history and the present day use at least some names constructed like these in Hebrew (and the ancient Hebrews used names not constructed like these -- such as Moses, probably an Egyptian name related to the names of Pharoahs like Thutmose and Ahmose). In Linguistics and Ethnology, Semitic (from the Biblical " Shem " Hebrew שם translated as "name" Arabic: ساميّ Moses ( Latin: Moyses,; Greek: grc Mωυσής in both the Septuagint and the New Testament; Arabic: ar موسىٰ Pharaoh is the title given in modern parlance to the ancient Egyptian kings of all periods The Muslim world is the best-known example (with names like Saif-al-din, "sword of the faith", or Adb-allah, "servant of God"), but even the Carthagenians had similar names: cf. Hannibal, "the grace of the Lord" (in this case not the Abrahamic God, but the deity -- probably Marduk -- whose title is normally left untranslated, as Baal). Marduk ( Sumerian spelling in Akkadian: AMARUTU 𒀫 𒌓 "solar calf" perhaps from MERI Ba'al (pronounced; Hebrew בעל (ordinarily spelled Baal in English is a Northwest Semitic title and honorific meaning "master" or "lord"
- Germanic names are characteristically warlike; roots with meanings like "glory," "strength," and "will" are common. Germanic Forenames are traditionally formed from two elements ( Dithematic) The "-bert" element common in many such names comes from beraht, which means "bright. " Examples: Albert, Robert, Alfred, Edward, Roger, Rosalind, Emma, Eric and Matilda. The name Robert is derived from Germanic roots hrod and beraht or berht meaning "fame" and "bright" Edward is an English Given name. It is derived from Old English words ead (meaning "happy" or 'prosperous' and weard Voice procedure In Voice procedures "Roger" means "GUM" (got your message in both military- and civilian aviation radio The Given name Eric is derived from the name Ei(rríkr meaning "eternal ruler" compounded from the words ei(r "eternal" (cognate to English
- French forms of Germanic names. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. Since the Norman conquest of England, many English given names of Germanic origin are used in their French forms. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The Germanic languages are a group of related languages that constitute a branch of the Indo-European (IE Language family. This article describes the conventions for using people's names in France, including the norms of custom and practice as well as the legal aspects Examples: Albert, Robert, Charles, Roger. The name Robert is derived from Germanic roots hrod and beraht or berht meaning "fame" and "bright" Voice procedure In Voice procedures "Roger" means "GUM" (got your message in both military- and civilian aviation radio
- Celtic names are sometimes anglicised versions of Celtic forms, but the original form may also be used. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. Anglicisation or anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of conversion of verbal or written elements of any other language into a more comprehensible English The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. Examples: Alan, Brian, Brigid, Mòrag, Ciaran, Jennifer, and Seán. Gender: Masculine Usage: Scottish, Breton, English, Welsh, Irish, Danish, Kurdish, This article refers to the Pagan Goddess Brigid For the Catholic/Orthodox Saint of that name see Saint Brigid. Ciarán, Kieran, Kyran, Keiran, Kieren, or Kieron ( or, ˈkɪərən in English is an Irish personal name meaning 'Little John is an English Name for Males Origins The name "John" originates from יוחנן Yôḥānnān which means " Yahweh These names often have origins in Celtic words, as Celtic versions of the names of internationally known Christian saints, as names of Celtic mythological figures, or simply as long-standing names whose ultimate etymology is unclear. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. The Celtic languages are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic" a branch of the greater Indo-European Language family. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity Celtic mythology is the Mythology of Celtic polytheism, apparently the Religion of the Iron Age Celts Like other Iron Age
- Greek names can be derived from the Greco-Roman gods, or may have other meanings. Greek Given names can be derived from the Greco-Roman gods, along with Ancient Greek traditions or from the Old and In modern Olympic and amateur Wrestling, Greco-Roman wrestling is a particular style and variation A listing of Greek mythological beings Many of the gods and goddesses had Roman and Etruscan equivalents. Some may be derived from the New Testament and early Christian traditions. A Christian is a person who adheres to Christianity, a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Some of the names are often, but not always, anglicised. Anglicisation or anglicization (see -ise vs -ize) is a process of conversion of verbal or written elements of any other language into a more comprehensible English Examples: Eleanor, Stephen, Alexander, Andrew, Peter, Gregory, George, Christopher, Melissa, Margaret, Nicholas, Jason, Timothy, Chloe and Zoë. Alexander is a common male first name Origin The name in English is taken from the Greek name Ἀλέξανδρος (Alexandros Andrew is the English form of a Given name common in many countries Peter is a popular male Given name. It comes from the Greek word πετρος (petros meaning "stone" ( petra in Latin Gregory is a common masculine First name and Family name. It is derived from the Latin "Gregorius" which was from the late Greek Melissa is a Given name for a Female. It has a Greek origin meaning Honey bee. The male Given name Nicholas is derived from the Greek Νικόλαος Nikolaos, a combination of the words for "victory" ( nikē) Jason ( Greek: Ἰάσων, Etruscan: Easun, Laz: Yason) was a late ancient Greek mythological For other uses of "Timothy" see Timothy (disambiguation. Chloe, (also Chloë or Cloe) is a popular first or given name especially in England.
- Latin names can also be adopted unchanged, or modified; in particular, the inflected element can be dropped, as often happens in borrowings from Latin to English. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Examples: Laura, Victoria, Marcus, Justin, Paul (from Lat. Onomastics Victoria is the female form of the name Victor and also the original Latin word for "victory Justin may refer to Justin (name, a common given name Justin Martyr, early Christian apologist Justin (historian "Paulus"), Julius, Cecilia, Felix, Julia, Pascal (not a traditional-type Latin name, but the adjective-turned-name paschalis, "relating to the Pascha" -- English "Easter"). Pascal (\p(a-scal pas-cal\ is a masculine Francophone Given name derived from the Latin paschalis, which means "relating to Easter Francis might be an example -- but late-Imperial Latin franciscus meant "a Frankish battleaxe," an odd thing for the Catholic Church of that era to let people name children for; and much later in history, medieval Italian Francisco meant "like a Frenchman. Francis is an English and Scottish First name and a Surname ultimately descended from the Latin name Franciscus, the name of " Does Francisco as a given name, in any language, predate St. Francis of Assissi, born Giovanni di Bernardone?
- Word names come from English vocabulary words. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Feminine names of this sort -- in more languages than English, and more cultures than Europe alone -- frequently derive from nature, flower, birds, colors, or gemstones. A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash Examples include Jasmine, Lavender, Dawn, Daisy, Rose, Iris, Petunia, Rowan, and Violet. Jasmine or Jessamine ( Jasminum) (from Persian yasmin, ie "gift from God" via Arabic) is a Genus of Shrubs The Lavenders Lavandula are a Genus of about 25–30 species of Flowering plants in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean Dawn refers to the Twilight before Sunrise. It is recognized by the presence of weak sunlight while the sun itself is still below the horizon The family Asteraceae or Compositae (known as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family) is the largest family of Flowering A rose is a perennial flowering Shrub or vine of the Genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae, that contains over 100 species For Petunia Pig, a Looney Tunes character see Petunia Pig For Aunt Petunia see Aunt Petunia For The rowans or mountain-ashes are Plants in the family Rosaceae, in the Genus Sorbus, subgenus Sorbus Viola, commonly called Violets, is a Genus of Flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species distributed Male names of this sort are less common -- sometimes names like Bronco and Wolf, associated with strong or dangerous animals. Bronco, or bronc, is a term used in the United States and Canada to refer to an untrained Horse or one that habitually bucks The grey wolf or gray wolf ( Canis lupus) also known as the timber wolf or simply wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora (This is more common in some other languages -- such as Turkish -- than in English).
- Trait names most conspicuously include the Christian virtues, mentioned above, and normally used as feminine names (such as the three Christian virtues -- Faith, Hope, and Charity -- and the four inherited from Rome, Prudence, Temperance, Justice, and Fortitude. . . well, maybe not the last two, at least not so often). Male names of this sort are rare, and are not necessarily Christian; "Chance" is an example. (And probably a recent example -- the Catholic Church, which still officially forbids names seen as at cross purposes with the Christian virtues, preserves in this a tradition that was, if anything, much stronger among the Protestant churches, until possibly as late as the 1970s. )
- Nicknames Nicknames are often used to distinguish between two or more people with the same given name. Names that are currently in fashion tend to be varied the most. Nicknames are informal forms of names, often made by abbreviating and adding a y. Shortenings reduce the size of a long name, but nicknames can also be the same length as, or even longer than, the original name. Nicknames are often used especially in childhood; in English, Robert may be shortened to Robby and then Rob. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States The name Robert is derived from Germanic roots hrod and beraht or berht meaning "fame" and "bright" The name Robert is derived from Germanic roots hrod and beraht or berht meaning "fame" and "bright" The name Robert is derived from Germanic roots hrod and beraht or berht meaning "fame" and "bright" In German the names Johann and Margarete are shortened to Hänsel and Gretel in the famous fairy tale. The German language (de ''Deutsch'') is a West Germanic language and one of the world's major languages. John is an English Name for Males Origins The name "John" originates from יוחנן Yôḥānnān which means " Yahweh Margaret is a female first name The name derives from the Greek Margarita, a Pearl, in the feminine and margaros, the Mother-of-pearl Hansel and Gretel ( Hänsel und Gretel) is a Fairy tale of Germanic origin adapted by the Brothers Grimm and earlier by Giambattista Hansel and Gretel ( Hänsel und Gretel) is a Fairy tale of Germanic origin adapted by the Brothers Grimm and earlier by Giambattista A fairy tale or fairy story is a fictional Story that may feature folkloric characters (such as fairies, enchantments]] often involving Examples: Vicky, Rob, Danny, Abby, Ali, Max and Steve. Onomastics Victoria is the female form of the name Victor and also the original Latin word for "victory The name Robert is derived from Germanic roots hrod and beraht or berht meaning "fame" and "bright" Daniel is a Hebrew Masculine Given name and a Surname. It means "God is my judge" and derives from two early Biblical figures ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib (a=علي بن أﺑﻲ طالب|t=ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib 13th Rajab, 24 BH – 21st Ramaḍān, 40 AH
- Feminine variations Many masculine names have feminine variations, often multiple ones. Examples: Charlotte, Stephanie, Philippa, Jacqueline, Danielle, Paula, Patricia and Francesca. Carl is a popular Given name as well as the name of various places Stephanie is a female name It is one include Stephanie Stephannie Stephenie Stefanie Stefani and Stephany with nicknames Steph Stephi Steffi Stephie Stephy Stef Nia Jacqueline (ʒaˈklin in French /ˈdʒæklɨn/ in English is a female given name Danielle is the female variant of the male name Daniel. For its meanings etymology pronunciation and translations see Wiktionary Patricia ( is a common Female Given name of Latin origin It is derived from the Latin word Patrician, meaning "noble" See Francisca for the frankish throwing-axe Francesca is an Italian female Given name, derived from the Latin
Frequently, a given name has versions in many different languages. For example, the biblical Hebrew name Susanna also occurs in its original Hebrew version, Shoshannah, its Spanish and Portuguese version Susana, and its French version, Suzanne, and its Polish version, Zuzanna. Biblical Hebrew, also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of the Hebrew language in which the Hebrew Bible and various Israelite inscriptions Susanna is the name of one of the Women associated with the ministry of Jesus of Nazareth. Biblical Hebrew, also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of the Hebrew language in which the Hebrew Bible and various Israelite inscriptions Portuguese ( or língua portuguesa) is a Romance language that originated in what is now Galicia (Spain and northern Portugal. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Polish ( język polski, polszczyzna) is the Official language of Poland. Slavic names are often of a peaceful character, the compounds being derived from word roots meaning "to protect," "to love," "peace," "to praise [gods]," "to give," and so on. The root is the primary lexical unit of a Word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents
Chinese and Korean given names are often unique, because meaningful Hanzi and Hanja characters can be combined extensively. Chinese given names ( Chinese: 名字 Pinyin: míngzì are often made up of one or two characters Unlike Western personal names there is great variety A Korean name consists of a Family name followed by a Given name, as used by the Korean people in both North Korea and South Korea A Chinese character, also known as a Han character ( is a Logogram used in writing Chinese (hanzi Japanese ( Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. More specifically it refers to those Chinese characters borrowed from Chinese and incorporated However, some parents recycle popular given names as well. The names of famous and successful persons are also reused occasionally. Nevertheless, many Chinese and Korean parents invest a tremendous amount contemplating the names of their newborns before their birth, often with comprehensive dictionaries or with religious guides, formal or informal. A dictionary is a book of alphabetically listed Words in a specific language with definitions etymologies pronunciations and other information or a book of alphabetically Sometimes, especially in traditional families, paternal grandparents are the name-givers. The Chinese language doesn't have a particular set of words that function as given names, which differs from English. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Any combination of Chinese characters theoretically can be used as given names, but usually not any combination of English letters are used as given names, which sometimes make Chinese people think that there may be more English-speaking people sharing identical full names than Chinese. This is not the case, due to the much larger set of words used as family names in English. A family name or last name is a type of Surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs
In many Westernized Chinese locations, many Chinese also take on an unofficial English given name in addition to their official Chinese given name. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States This is also true for East Asian students at colleges in countries like the United States, Canada, and Australia, and people who wish to do business internationally - both as means to ease communication with people who cannot properly pronounce the Romanized Chinese characters. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. For example, a Chinese man named "Wuen-lin" might become "Willie" in the USA. William may refer to William (name, a masculine given name Royalty British William I of England It's also interesting to note that when Chinese immigrants or students give themselves English given names, they tend to pick an English given name with the initial letter identical to that of their family name, e. A family name or last name is a type of Surname and part of a person's name indicating the family to which the person belongs g. a Chinese woman named "Li Ma" might name herself "Mary Ma" or a Chinese man named "Xiaobing Tang" might name himself "Tony Tang. Ma (simplified 马; traditional 馬; Pinyin: mǎ is one of the most common Chinese family names As of 2006 it ranks as the 14th most common Ma (simplified 马; traditional 馬; Pinyin: mǎ is one of the most common Chinese family names As of 2006 it ranks as the 14th most common Anthony or Antony is a Male Given name, (ninth most popular male first name in the United States as of 2006 derived from Antonius "
Many female Japanese names, such as Yoko Ono's, end in ko (子), which means "child. in modern times usually consist of a Family name ( Surname) followed by a Given name. born in Tokyo on February 18 1933 is a Japanese Artist and Musician. " This has caused some confusion among European-Americans, because in some Romance languages, masculine names often end in o, and feminine names often end in a. The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages, or Neolatin languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family comprising all People used to names like Tino/Tina are surprised that Mariko or Yoko is female.
Most names in English are specifically masculine or feminine, but there are many unisex names as well, such as Jordan, Jamie, Jesse, Alex, Ashley, Chris, Hillary, Lesley, Joe/Jo, Jackie, Pat, Sam. A unisex name, also known as an epicene name, is a Given name that is often given to either a boy or a girl Jordan, officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (الأردنّ al-Urdunn) is an Arab country in Southwest Asia spanning the southern Jamie is a given name derived as a pet form of James. However it has been used as an independent given name in English speaking countries for several generations Jesse or Yishai ( meaning "God's gift" is the father of the Biblical David mentioned in the Books of Samuel of the Hebrew Bible. Chris may refer to Christopher and Christian - The longer male forms of the name Christina and Christine - The longer Hillary or Hilary is a given and Family name, derived from the Latin hilarius meaning cheerful Often, one gender is predominant. Many culture groups down through history did not gender names strongly, so that many or all of their names were unisex: Norse/Viking, Hebrew (both male and female Noah), Gaullish. Others had gender built in as a matter of grammar: Latin and its descendants Italian and French, Greek.
The term Christian name is sometimes used as a general synonym for given name. Strictly speaking, the term applies to a name formally given to a child at an infant baptism or "christening", practised by some Christian groups. Infant baptism is the Christian religious practice of baptizing infants or young children
Popularity distribution of given names
The popularity (frequency) distribution of given names typically follows a power law distribution.
Since about 1800 in England and Wales and in the U. S. , the popularity distribution of given names has been shifting so that the most popular names are losing popularity. For example, in England and Wales, the most popular female and male names given to babies born in 1800 were Mary and John, with 24% of female babies and 22% of male babies receiving those names, respectively.  In contrast, the corresponding statistics for in England and Wales in 1994 were Emily and James, with 3% and 4% of names, respectively. Not only have Mary and John gone out of favor in the English speaking world, also the overall distribution of names has changed significantly over the last 100 years for females, but not for males. This has led to an increasing amount of diversity for female names. 
Influence of pop culture
Popular culture appears to have an influence on naming trends, at least in the United States and United Kingdom. Popular culture (or pop culture) is the Culture — patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activities significance and importance — The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Newly famous celebrities and public figures may influence the popularity of names. For example, in 2004 , the names "Keira" and "Kiera" respectively became the 51st and 92nd most popular girls' names in the UK, following the rise in popularity of British actress Keira Knightley. Keira Christina Knightley (ˌkɪərəˈnaɪtlɪ born March 26, 1985) is a Golden Globe – BAFTA - and Academy Award –nominated  In 2001, the use of Colby as a boys' name for babies in the United States jumped from 233rd place to 99th, just after Colby Donaldson was the runner-up on Survivor: The Australian Outback. Colby Donaldson (born April 1 1974) is an American television Actor known as the runner-up on Survivor The Australian Outback Survivor The Australian Outback was the second installment of the popular United States Reality show Survivor. 
Characters from fiction also seem to influence naming. After the name Kayla was used for a character on the American soap opera Days of our Lives, the name's popularity increased greatly. Kayla is a Female Given name, meaning " Purity " Dr Kayla Caroline Johnson (née Brady; previously Deveraux) is a Fictional character on the daytime Soap opera Days of our Lives A soap opera is an ongoing episodic work of Fiction, usually broadcast on Television or Radio. Days of Our Lives is an American Soap opera, which has aired nearly every weekday since November 8 1965 on the NBC network in the United The name Tammy, and the related Tamara became popular after the movie Tammy and the Bachelor came out in 1957. Tammy and the Bachelor is a 1957 Romantic comedy film and is the first of the four Tammy movies. Some names were established or spread by being used in literature. Notable examples include Jessica, a name created by William Shakespeare in his play "The Merchant of Venice", Vanessa, created by Jonathan Swift; Fiona, a character from James Macpherson's spurious cycle of Ossian poems; and Wendy, an obscure name popularised by J. M. Barrie in his play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up; and Madison, a character from the movie Splash. The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1596 and 1598 The name Vanessa was invented by Irish Writer Jonathan Swift for Esther Vanhomrigh, whom Swift had met in 1708 and whom he tutored Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 Fiona is a Given name for a female Regularly pronounced /fiːˈəʊnə/ (Fee-OH-Na the name is of Celtic origin and means "white" "pale" or James Macpherson (Seumas Mac a' Phearsain 27 October 1736 17 February 1796) was a Scottish Poet, known as the "translator" Ossian is the narrator and supposed author of a cycle of poems which the Scottish poet James Macpherson claimed to have translated from ancient sources in the Wendy is a female name Its popularity is attributed to the character Wendy Darling from the children's play and novel Peter Pan by J Sir James Matthew Barrie 1st Baronet OM ( 9 May, 1860 &ndash 19 June, 1937) more commonly known as J Peter Pan or The Boy Who Wouldn't Grow Up and Peter and Wendy are the stage play and novel (respectively which tell the well-known story of Surname James Madison, fourth President of the United States Dolley Madison, the wife of James Madison Splash is a 1984 Fantasy film and Romantic comedy film directed by Ron Howard and written by Lowell Ganz and Lara and Larissa were rare in America before the appearance of Doctor Zhivago, and have become fairly common since. Larissa ( Greek: Λάρισα, Lárisa) is the capital city of the Thessaly periphery of Greece, and capital of the Doctor Zhivago ( Доктор Живаго) is a 1965 drama - romance - War film directed by David Lean and loosely
Kayleigh became a particularly popular name in the United Kingdom following the release of a song by the British rock group Marillion. Marillion are a British rock group Formed in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire, England in 1979 their recorded studio output comprises Government statistics in 2005 revealed that 96% of Kayleighs were born after 1985, the year in which Marillion released "Kayleigh". For the more common spelling of the female given name Kayleigh see Kaylee.
Popular culture figures do not seem to have to be admirable in order to influence naming trends. For example, Peyton came in to the top 1000 as a female given name for babies in the United States for the first time in 1992 (at #583), immediately after it was featured as the name of an evil nanny in the film The Hand That Rocks the Cradle. 
In other instances, names become less common because of negative associations in popular culture. For example, Adolf has fallen out of use since the Second World War. Adolf, also spelled Adolph and sometimes Latinised to Adolphus, was a popular Given name, especially in the German -speaking countries World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
In some cultures, twins may be given distinctive pairs of names. Twins are Offspring resulting from the same Pregnancy, either of the same or opposite Sex. Twin names are sometimes similar in sound, for example boy/girl twins named Christian and Christina or twin girls named Sudha and Subha, or Ojor and Omon in Nigeria. The names may have a thematic similarity such as Jesse (or Jessica) and James (named after the American outlaw Jesse James) or Matthew and Mark (named after the first two books of the New Testament in the Bible). Jesse or Yishai ( meaning "God's gift" is the father of the Biblical David mentioned in the Books of Samuel of the Hebrew Bible. Jesse Woodson James (September 5 1847—April 3 1882 was an American Outlaw in the border state of Missouri and the most famous member of the Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin The oldest ever female twins, who both died in 2000, were named Kin Narita and Gin Kanie, gold and silver respectively in Japanese. Gold (ˈɡoʊld is a Chemical element with the symbol Au (from its Latin name aurum) and Atomic number 79 Silver (ˈsɪlvɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol " Ag " (argentum from the Ancient Greek: ἀργήντος - argēntos gen
People may change their names for a variety of reasons. Name change is a basic Legal act that is recognized in practically all legal systems to allow an individual the opportunity to adopt a Name other than the name given In many countries there is a mandatory or voluntary official procedure.
Popular reasons for changing one's name include these:
- professional reasons (as with actors).
- Name is too common or uncommon.
- Name is too hard to spell or say.
- Name is too long.
- Name is too "foreign-sounding".
- Name is too "old-fashioned sounding".
- To mark a religious rite of passage (in Christianity, for example, this may include baptism, confirmation, ordination, or taking religious vows as a monk or nun). Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings
- Family reasons, such as being raised by a step-parent rather than a biological one (most common with children who have no contact with the biological father).
- One feels that a nickname is more "oneself" than the given name (or vice versa).
- Name is unisex.
- Name is not unisex.
- Name conflicts with one's spiritual belief (popular in Asian countries; and often amongst converts to Islam). For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation.
- To effect a clean break from the past and make a fresh start.
- A family member has the same name.
- Name is obscene, vulgar or insulting in another language the name's owner later comes to use.
- Name is too closely identified with someone who became famous or infamous after that person's birth (for instance, Adolf). Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately
- To reflect the identity of a transgender person (e. Transgender (trænzˈdʒɛndɚ from ( Latin) derivatives g. Walter/Wendy Carlos; Jonathan/Joan Roughgarden). Wendy Carlos (born Walter Carlos, November 14 1939 is an American Composer and electronic Musician. Joan E Roughgarden (b Jonathan Roughgarden in Paterson New Jersey on 13 March 1946) is an American Biologist.
Related articles and lists
- Central Asia, Altaic
- Semitic / Near Eastern
- East Asia
- ^ "A name given to a person at birth or at baptism, as distinguished from a surname" – according to the American Heritage Dictionary
- ^ Polish names
- ^ First Name Popularity in England and Wales over the Past Thousand Years
- ^ Analytical Visions: Names
- ^ National Statistics Online
- ^ a b Popular Baby Names, Social Security Administration, USA
- Social Security online - Baby Names - United States Social Security Administration provides a website where people can search the popularity of names and naming trends in the United States. A personal name is the Proper name identifying an individual Person. The most popular given names vary nationally, Regionally and culturally. A name day is a tradition in many countries in Europe and Latin America of celebrating on a particular day of the year associated with the one's Given name A unisex name, also known as an epicene name, is a Given name that is often given to either a boy or a girl A surname is a name added to a Given name and is part of a Personal name. A nickname is a Name of an entity or thing that is not its Proper name. A saint’s name is the name of a Saint given to individuals at their Baptism within the Catholic Church. The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Many people's Names include one or more middle names, placed between the first Given name and the Surname. A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias) A slave name is a term for a Name given to a person who is or has been enslaved or a name inherited from enslaved ancestors See technical note on viewing special characters A theophoric name (Greek "bearing a deity" embeds the name of a god both invoking The word "theophory" refers to the practice of embedding the name of a god or a deity in usually a proper name Germanic Forenames are traditionally formed from two elements ( Dithematic) Dutch names consist of one or several Given names and a Surname. German names consist of one or several Vornamen ( Forenames and a Nachname ( Familienname, Family name) Indian family names are based on a variety of systems and Naming conventions, which vary from region to region A formal Irish-language name consists of a Given name and a Surname, as in English A Lithuanian personal name, like in most European cultures consists of two main elements the Given name ( vardas) followed by Family name ( Prior to the reign of Reza Shah (r 1925 - 1941 the people of Persia ( Iran) did not use surnames By the Republican era and throughout the Imperial era, a Name in Ancient Rome for a male citizen consisted of three parts ( tria A name in Italian consists of a Given name ( nome) and a Surname ( cognome) This article describes the conventions for using people's names in France, including the norms of custom and practice as well as the legal aspects A typical Portuguese name is composed of one or two Given names and two family names. In most Spanish -speaking countries people have two surnames. Compared to other systems the Bulgarian name system can be said to be rather simple Czech names are composed of Given names and Surnames. Surnames used by women differ from the corresponding male surnames A Polish personal name, like names in most European cultures consists of two main elements imię, or the Given name, followed by nazwisko This article gives the general understanding of naming conventions in the Russian language as well as in languages affected by Russian linguistic tradition In Slovakia, each day of the year corresponds to a Personal name (the original list was the Roman Catholic Calendar of saints) This article gives the general understanding of naming conventions in the Russian language as well as in languages affected by Russian linguistic tradition This article refers to personal naming customs in Mongolia. Inner Mongolian customs are similar but do display some differences Old Arabic names are based on a long naming system most Arabs do not simply have given / middle / Family names but a full chain of names For the article on Jewish given and last names see Jewish name. This is a list of names from the Bible, mainly taken from the 19th century Public domain resource: Hitchcock's New and Complete Analysis of the Personal Names in Chinese culture follow a number of conventions different from those of personal names in Western cultures. Indonesia is an Archipelago of over 17000 islands only 6000 of which are inhabited that extends in an arc along the equator The Balinese name is a naming system used by the Balinese people of Bali, Indonesia and neighboring Lombok, Indonesia. Javanese people typically have three-part names each part of which is a Given name. in modern times usually consist of a Family name ( Surname) followed by a Given name. A Korean name consists of a Family name followed by a Given name, as used by the Korean people in both North Korea and South Korea In the Philippines, Filipinos follow the conventional American form Given name - Middle name - Family name. Vietnamese names generally consist of three parts a Family name, a Middle name, and a Given name, used in that order Thai names follow the Indian/Western pattern in which the Family name follows a first or Given name. Ethnic Tibetan personal names typically consist of two juxtaposed elements The United States Social Security Administration ( SSA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government that administers
- Given Name Frequency Project - Analysis of long-term trends in given names in England and Wales. Includes downloadable datasets of names for persons interested in studying given name trends.
- U.S. Census Bureau: Distribution of Names Files Large ranked list of male and female given names in addition to last names.
- The Norwegian Bureau of Statistics maintains a service through which one might learn how many people carry a particular name or combination of names (both given and family). It also shows the historical usage of quite a few first names over the past 120 or so years.
- "Christian Names". Catholic Encyclopedia. The Catholic Encyclopedia, also referred to today as the Old Catholic Encyclopedia, is an English-language Encyclopedia published by The Encyclopedia (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company.
- The meaning of Nigerian names
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- (especially, US and Scotland) A forename or first name: the primary name chosen for a child, usually by the child's parents.
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