Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (18 November 1836 &ndash 29 May 1911 was an English Dramatist, librettist, poet and illustrator best known for his fourteen Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 &ndash 22 November 1900 was an English composer of Irish and Italian descent best known for his operatic Culture The Victorian fascination with novelty resulted in a deep interest in the relationship between modernity and cultural continuities A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (18 November 1836 &ndash 29 May 1911 was an English Dramatist, librettist, poet and illustrator best known for his fourteen A composer (literally meaning 'one who puts together' is a person who creates Music, usually in the medium of notation, for Interpretation and Performance Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 &ndash 22 November 1900 was an English composer of Irish and Italian descent best known for his operatic Together, they wrote fourteen comic operas between 1871 and 1896, of which H.M.S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance, and The Mikado are among the best known. Comic opera, or light opera, denotes a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature usually with a happy ending HMS Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W 
Gilbert, who wrote the words, created fanciful topsy-turvy worlds for these operas, where each absurdity is taken to its logical conclusion—fairies rub elbows with British lords, flirting is a capital offence, gondoliers ascend to the monarchy, and pirates turn out to be noblemen who have gone wrong.  Sullivan, seven years younger than Gilbert, composed the music, contributing memorable melodies that could convey both humour and pathos. 
Producer Richard D'Oyly Carte brought Gilbert and Sullivan together and nurtured their collaboration. Richard D'Oyly Carte (3 May 1844 &ndash 3 April 1901 was an English talent agent theatrical Impresario and hotelier during the latter half of the Victorian  He built the Savoy Theatre in 1881 to present their joint works—which came to be known as the Savoy Operas—and he founded the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, which performed and promoted their works for over a century. The Savoy Theatre is a West End theatre located in the Strand in the City of Westminster, London England Savoy Operas denote a style of Comic opera that developed in Victorian England in the late 19th century with W D'Oyly Carte Opera Company staged performances of Gilbert and Sullivan 's Savoy Operas in the UK Europe North America South Africa Australia and elsewhere from the
The Gilbert and Sullivan operas have enjoyed broad and enduring international success and are still performed frequently throughout the English-speaking world.  The collaboration introduced innovations in content and form that directly influenced the development of musical theatre through the 20th century. Musical theatre is a form of Theatre combining Music, Songs spoken Dialogue and Dance.  The operas have also influenced political discourse, literature, film and television and have been widely parodied and pastiched by humorists.
Gilbert was born in London on 18 November 1836. Sir William Schwenck Gilbert (18 November 1836 &ndash 29 May 1911 was an English Dramatist, librettist, poet and illustrator best known for his fourteen Events 326 - The old St Peter's Basilica is consecrated 1302 - Pope Boniface VIII issues the Papal bull Year 1836 ( MDCCCXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap His father William was a naval surgeon who later wrote novels and short stories, some of which included illustrations by his son. William Gilbert, (20 May 1804&ndash3 January 1890 was a British novelist and Royal Navy Surgeon, and the author of novels biographies histories and  In 1861, the younger Gilbert began to write illustrated stories, poems and articles of his own to supplement his income. Many of these would later be mined as a source of ideas for his plays and operas, particularly his series of illustrated poems called the Bab Ballads. The Bab Ballads are a collection of light verse by W S Gilbert, illustrated with his own comic drawings 
In the Bab Ballads and his early plays, Gilbert developed a unique "topsy-turvy" style, where the humour was derived by setting up a ridiculous premise and working out its logical consequences, however absurd. The Bab Ballads are a collection of light verse by W S Gilbert, illustrated with his own comic drawings Mike Leigh describes the "Gilbertian" style as follows:
|“||With great fluidity and freedom, [Gilbert] continually challenges our natural expectations. Mike Leigh, OBE (born February 20, 1943) is an English film and theatre director screenwriter and playwright First, within the framework of the story, he makes bizarre things happen, and turns the world on its head. Thus the Learned Judge marries the Plaintiff, the soldiers metamorphose into aesthetes, and so on, and nearly every opera is resolved by a deft moving of the goalposts. . . His genius is to fuse opposites with an imperceptible sleight of hand, to blend the surreal with the real, and the caricature with the natural. In other words, to tell a perfectly outrageous story in a completely deadpan way. ||”|
Gilbert developed his innovative theories on the art of stage direction, following theatrical reformer Tom Robertson. Thomas William Robertson ( 9 January 1829 – 3 February 1871) usually known professionally as T  At the time Gilbert began writing, theatre in Britain was in disrepute.  Gilbert helped to reform and elevate the respectability of the theatre, especially beginning with his six short family-friendly comic operas, or "entertainments," for Thomas German Reed. German Reed Entertainment was founded in 1855 and operated by Thomas German Reed (1817&ndash1888 together with his wife Priscilla Reed née Horton (1818&ndash1895 Thomas German Reed ( June 27 1817 &ndash March 21 1888) was an English composer and theatrical manager best known for creating the 
At a rehearsal for one of these entertainments, Ages Ago (1869), the composer Frederic Clay introduced Gilbert to his friend, the young composer Arthur Sullivan. Ages Ago is a musical entertaiment with a libretto by W S Gilbert and music by Frederic Clay that premiered on 22 November 1869 Frederic Emes Clay (3 August 1838&ndash24 November 1889 was an English composer known principally for his music written for the stage Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 &ndash 22 November 1900 was an English composer of Irish and Italian descent best known for his operatic  Two years later, Gilbert and Sullivan would write their first work together. Those two intervening years continued to shape Gilbert's theatrical style. He continued to write humorous verse, stories and plays, including the comic operas Our Island Home (1870) and A Sensation Novel (1871), and the blank verse comedies The Princess (1870), The Palace of Truth (1870), and Pygmalion and Galatea. Our Island Home is a one-act musical entertaiment with a libretto by W A Sensation Novel is a comic Musical play in three acts (or volumes written by Librettist W For an article about a musical farce of the same name by WS Gilbert based on the Tennyson poem see The Princess (play. The Palace of Truth is a three-act Blank verse "Fairy Comedy" by W Pygmalion and Galatea an Original Mythological Comedy is a Blank verse play by W
Sullivan was born in London on 13 May 1842. Sir Arthur Seymour Sullivan MVO (13 May 1842 &ndash 22 November 1900 was an English composer of Irish and Italian descent best known for his operatic Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 1842 ( MDCCCXLII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common His father was a military bandmaster, and by the time Arthur had reached the age of 8, he was proficient with all the instruments in the band. In school he began to compose anthems and songs. The term anthem means either a specific form of Anglican church music (in Music theory and religious contexts or more generally a song (or composition of In 1856, he received the first Mendelssohn Prize and studied at the Royal Academy of Music and at Leipzig, where he also took up conducting. The Royal Academy of Music in London, England, is a well known conservatoire and one of the leading music institutions in the world This sort of fix restores section edit linkpoints to where they belong Conducting is the act of directing a Musical performance by way of visible gestures His graduation piece, completed in 1861, was a suite of incidental music to Shakespeare's The Tempest. The Tempest Incidental music is a set of movements for Shakespeare 's play composed by Arthur Sullivan in 1861-62 William Shakespeare ( baptised The Tempest is a comedy written by William Shakespeare. It is generally dated to 1610-11 and accepted as the last play written solely by him although Revised and expanded, it was performed at the Crystal Palace in 1862 and was an immediate sensation. The Crystal Palace was a cast-iron and Glass building originally erected in Hyde Park, London, England, to house the He began building a reputation as England's most promising young composer, composing a symphony, a concerto, and several overtures, among them the Overture di Ballo, in 1870. The Overture di Ballo is a concert overture by Arthur Sullivan. 
His early major works for the voice included The Masque at Kenilworth (1864); an oratorio, The Prodigal Son (1869); and a dramatic cantata, On Shore and Sea (1871). Kenilworth A Masque of the Days of Queen Elizabeth (commonly referred to as "The Masque at Kenilworth" is a Cantata with music by Arthur Sullivan and An oratorio is a large Musical composition including an Orchestra, a Choir, and soloists The oratorio was somewhat modeled after the Opera The Prodigal Son is an Oratorio by Arthur Sullivan with text taken from the Parable of the same name in the Gospel of Luke. A cantata (derived from the Italian word 'cantare' meaning 'to sing' is a vocal composition with an instrumental Accompaniment and often He composed a ballet, L'Île Enchantée (1864) and incidental music for a number of Shakespeare plays. L'Île Enchantée (literally The Enchanted Island is an 1864 ballet by Arthur Sullivan written as a Divertissement at the end of Vincenzo Bellini 's Other early pieces that were praised were his Symphony in E, Concerto for Cello and Orchestra, and Overture in C (In Memoriam) (all three of which premiered in 1866). The Symphony in E, first performed on March 10 1866, was the only Symphony composed by Arthur Sullivan. The Cello Concerto in D major is Arthur Sullivan ’s only Concerto. The Overture in C "In Memoriam", by Arthur Sullivan, premiered on 30 October 1866 at the Norwich Festival in honour of his father who died  These commissions, however, were not sufficient to keep Sullivan afloat. He worked as a church organist and composed numerous hymns, popular songs, and parlour ballads. A hymn is a type of Song, usually religious specifically written for the purpose of praise adoration or Prayer, and typically addressed to a deity/deities Parlour music is a type of Popular music which as the name suggests is intended to be performed in the Parlours of Middle class homes by amateur singers 
Sullivan's first foray into comic opera was Cox and Box (1866), written with librettist F. C. Burnand for an informal gathering of friends. Cox and Box; or The Long-Lost Brothers, is a one-act Comic opera with a libretto by F Sir Francis Cowley Burnand (29 November 1836 &ndash 21 April 1917 often credited as F Public performance followed, with W. S. Gilbert (then writing dramatic criticism for Fun) saying that Sullivan's score "is, in many places, of too high a class for the grotesquely absurd plot to which it is wedded. " Sullivan and Burnand followed their success with a second comic opera, The Contrabandista (1867). The Contrabandista, or The Law of the Ladrones, is a two-act Comic opera by Arthur Sullivan and F
In 1871, producer John Hollingshead brought Gilbert and Sullivan together to produce a Christmas entertainment, Thespis, at his Gaiety Theatre, a large West End house. The Illustrated London News was a Magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch John Hollingshead ( 9 September 1827 – 9 October 1904) was an English theatrical Impresario, journalist and writer during Thespis, or The Gods Grown Old, is an Operatic Extravaganza that was the first collaboration between dramatist W The Gaiety Theatre London was a West End theatre in the City of Westminster, located on Aldwych at the eastern end of the Strand. West End theatre is a popular term for mainstream professional theatre staged in the large theatres of London 's "Theatreland" The piece was an extravaganza in which the classical Greek gods, grown elderly, are temporarily replaced by a troupe of 19th-century actors and actresses, one of whom is the eponymous Thespis, the Greek father of the drama. Extravaganza refers to a literary or musical work (often Musical theatre) characterized by freedom of style and structure and usually containing elements of burlesque Thespis of Icaria (present-day Icaria) (6th century BC is claimed to be the first person ever to appear on stage as an Actor in a play, although Its mixture of political satire and grand opera parody mimicked Offenbach's Orpheus in the Underworld and La belle Hélène, which (in translation) then dominated the English musical stage. Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century Opera generally in four or five acts characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras and (in their original productions lavish and Jacques Offenbach (born Jacob Offenbach 20 June 1819 in Cologne &ndash 5 October 1880 in Paris) was a German Orphée aux enfers (Orpheus in the Underworld, Opéra bouffe (or Opéra féerie in its revised version is an Operetta by Jacques La belle Hélène (" The Beautiful Helen " or " The Fair Helen " Opéra bouffe in three acts is an Operetta by 
Thespis opened on Boxing Day and ran for 63 performances. Boxing Day is a public holiday in the United Kingdom, Canada, New Zealand and Australia, as well as many other members of the Commonwealth It outran five of its nine competitors for the 1871 holiday season, but no one at the time anticipated that this was the beginning of a great collaboration. Unlike the later G&S works, it was hastily prepared, and its nature was more risqué, like Gilbert's earlier travesties, with a broader style of comedy that allowed for improvisation by the actors. Two of the male characters were played by women, whose shapely legs were put on display in a fashion that Gilbert later condemned. The musical score to Thespis was never published and is now lost, except for one song that was published separately, a chorus that was re-used in The Pirates of Penzance, and the Act II ballet. The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W
Over the next four years, Gilbert and Sullivan did not have occasion to work together again, but each man became more eminent in his field. Gilbert worked with Clay on Happy Arcadia (1872) and with Alfred Cellier on Topsyturveydom (1874), as well as writing several other libretti, farces, extravaganzas, fairy comedies, dramas, adaptations from novels, and translations from the French. Happy Arcadia is a musical entertaiment with a libretto by W S Alfred Cellier (1 December 1844&ndash28 December 1891 was an English composer orchestrator and conductor Background 1874 was a busy year for both Gilbert and Cellier Gilbert illustrated The Piccadilly Annual; supervised a revival of Pygmalion and Galatea Sullivan completed his Festival Te Deum (1872); another oratorio, The Light of the World (1873); his only song cycle, The Window; or, The Song of the Wrens (1871); incidental music to The Merry Wives of Windsor (1874); and more songs, parlour ballads, and hymns, including "Onward, Christian Soldiers" (1872). The Festival Te Deum is the popular name for an 1872 composition by Arthur Sullivan, written to celebrate the recovery of Albert Edward Prince of Wales (later King Song cycles in classical music The first generally accepted example of a song cycle is Ludwig van Beethoven 's An die ferne Geliebte (1816 The Window or The Songs of the Wrens is a Song cycle by Arthur Sullivan with words by Alfred Lord Tennyson. Incidental music is Music in a play, Television program Radio program Video game, film or some other form not primarily musical The Merry Wives of Windsor is a Comedy by William Shakespeare, first published in 1602, though believed to have been written prior to 1597 A hymn is a type of Song, usually religious specifically written for the purpose of praise adoration or Prayer, and typically addressed to a deity/deities " Onward Christian Soldiers " is a 19th century English Hymn.
In 1874, Gilbert wrote a short libretto on commission from producer–composer Carl Rosa, whose wife would have played the leading role, but her death in childbirth cancelled the project and left the libretto an orphan. Not long afterwards, Richard D'Oyly Carte was managing the Royalty Theatre, and he needed a short opera to be played as an afterpiece to Offenbach's La Périchole. Richard D'Oyly Carte (3 May 1844 &ndash 3 April 1901 was an English talent agent theatrical Impresario and hotelier during the latter half of the Victorian The Royalty Theatre was a small London theatre situated at 73 Dean Street, Soho and opened on May 25 1840 as Miss Kelly's Theatre Jacques Offenbach (born Jacob Offenbach 20 June 1819 in Cologne &ndash 5 October 1880 in Paris) was a German La Périchole is an Opéra bouffe in three acts by Jacques Offenbach. Gilbert already had available the libretto he had written for Rosa, and Carte suggested that Sullivan write the score. The composer was delighted with it, and Trial by Jury was composed in a matter of weeks. This article is about the comic opera For the legal institution see Jury trial. 
The piece is one of Gilbert's humorous spoofs of the law and the legal profession, based on his brief experience as a barrister. This article is about the comic opera For the legal institution see Jury trial. A barrister is a Lawyer found in many Common law Jurisdictions that employ a split profession (as opposed to a Fused profession) in relation It concerns a breach of promise of marriage suit. Breach of promise is a former Common law Tort. From at least medieval times until the early 20th century a man's promise of Engagement to marry The defendant argues that damages should be slight, since "he is such a very bad lot," while the plaintiff argues that she loves the defendant fervently and seeks "substantial damages. " After much argument, the judge resolves the case by marrying the lovely plaintiff himself. With Sullivan's brother, Fred, as the Learned Judge, the opera was a runaway hit, outlasting the run of La Périchole. Frederic Sullivan ( –) was an English Actor and singer He is best remembered as the creator of the role of the Learned Judge in Gilbert and Sullivan Provincial tours and productions at other theatres quickly followed. 
Fred Sullivan was the prototype for the "patter" (comic) baritone roles in the later operas. The patter song is a staple of Comic opera, but it has also been used in musicals and other situations This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. F. C. Burnand wrote that he "was one of the most naturally comic little men I ever came across. Sir Francis Cowley Burnand (29 November 1836 &ndash 21 April 1917 often credited as F He, too, was a first-rate practical musician. . . As he was the most absurd person, so was he the very kindliest. . . " Fred's creation would serve as a model for the rest of the collaborators' works, and each of them has a crucial comic little man role, as Burnand had put it. The "patter" baritone (or "principal comedian", as these roles later were called) would often assume the leading role in Gilbert and Sullivan's comic operas, and was usually allotted the speedy patter songs. The patter song is a staple of Comic opera, but it has also been used in musicals and other situations
After the success of Trial by Jury, Gilbert and Sullivan were suddenly in demand to write more operas together. Over the next two years, Richard D'Oyly Carte was one of several theatrical managers who negotiated with the team but were unable to come to terms. Carte also proposed a revival of Thespis for the 1875 Christmas season, which Gilbert and Sullivan would have revised, but he was unable to obtain financing for the project.
Carte's real ambition was to develop an English form of light opera that would displace the bawdy burlesques and badly translated French operettas then dominating the London stage. Burlesque is a genre of entertainment also known as Travesty. Operetta is a genre of light Opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter He assembled a syndicate and formed the Comedy Opera Company, with Gilbert and Sullivan commissioned to write a comic opera that would serve as the centrepiece for an evening's entertainment.
Gilbert found a subject in one of his own short stories, "The Elixir of Love," which concerned the complications arising when a love potion is distributed to all the residents of a small village. The leading character was a Cockney businessman who happened to be a sorcerer, a purveyor of blessings (not much called for) and curses (very popular). The term Cockney has both geographical and linguistic associations Gilbert and Sullivan were tireless taskmasters, seeing to it that The Sorcerer opened as a fully polished production, in marked contrast to the under-rehearsed Thespis. For other uses see Sorcerer. Sorctrialjpg|right|thumb|300px|1878 programme cover]] The Sorcerer is a two-act Comic opera  While The Sorcerer won critical acclaim, it did not duplicate the success of Trial by Jury. Nevertheless, Carte and his syndicate were sufficiently encouraged to commission another full-length opera from the team.
Gilbert and Sullivan scored their first international hit with H.M.S. Pinafore (1878), satirising the rise of unqualified people to positions of authority and poking good-natured fun at the Royal Navy and the English obsession with social status (building on a theme introduced in The Sorcerer, love between members of different social classes). HMS Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by As with many of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas, a surprise twist changes everything dramatically near the end of the story.
Gilbert oversaw the designs of sets and costumes, and he directed the performers on stage.  He sought realism in acting, shunned self-conscious interaction with the audience, and insisted on a standard of characterisation where the characters were never aware of their own absurdity.  Gilbert insisted that his actors know their words perfectly and obey his stage directions, which was something new to many actors of the day.  Sullivan personally oversaw the musical preparation. The result was a new crispness and polish in the English musical theatre.  As Jessie Bond wrote later:
|“||Our stage discipline was strict and unbending. Jessie Bond (10 January 1853 – 17 June 1942 was an English singer and actress best known for creating the Mezzo-soprano Soubrette roles in the Gilbert Gilbert's word was law; he thoroughly worked out in his own mind every bit of action, by-play and grouping, and allowed no deviation from his plan. He. . . made drawings and took measurements with the minutest care. . . . He had unlimited fertility of invention in comic business and would allow no gag, no clowning, no departure from his own definite conception. Sullivan's musical conception was equally clear-cut and decided. Every part must be made subservient to the whole, and his sarcasms overwhelmed the transgressor with scorn. "And now, might I trouble you to try over my music," he would say to a singer too anxious to display his or her top notes. But there was nothing to hurt or offend us in this unswerving discipline, we took their good-humoured raillery as our due when we failed in our rendering or overstepped the bounds; and the patience and enthusiasm of that artistic pair so infected all of us that we worked willingly for hours and hours at rehearsals, trying with all our might to realize the conceptions of those two brilliant minds. ||”|
H. M. S. Pinafore ran in London for 571 performances, the second longest run of any musical theatre piece in history up to that time (after the operetta Les cloches de Corneville). Operetta is a genre of light Opera, light in terms both of music and subject matter Palmayserpolettejpg|right|thumb|220px| Ilka Palmay as Serpolette in an 1893 Berlin production]] Les cloches de Corneville (known in English as The Chimes  Hundreds of unauthorized, or "pirated", productions of Pinafore appeared in America.  During the run of Pinafore, Richard D'Oyly Carte split up with his former investors. The disgruntled former partners, who had each invested in the production with no return, staged a public fracas, sending a group of thugs to seize the scenery during a performance. Stagehands successfully managed to ward off their backstage attackers.  This event cleared the way for Carte, Gilbert and Sullivan to form the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, which then produced all of their succeeding operas.
The libretto of H. M. S. Pinafore relied on stock character types, many of which were familiar from European opera (and some of which grew out of Gilbert's earlier association with the German Reeds): the heroic protagonist (tenor) and his love-interest (soprano); the older woman with a secret or a sharp tongue (contralto); the baffled lyric baritone—the girl's father; and a classic villain (bass-baritone). A stock character is one which relies heavily on cultural types or names for his or her personality manner of speech and other characteristics The tenor is the highest male voice within the Modal register, just above the Baritone voice This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. A bass-baritone is a high-lying bass that shares certain qualities with the Baritone Voice type. Gilbert and Sullivan added the element of the comic patter-singing character. The patter song is a staple of Comic opera, but it has also been used in musicals and other situations With the success of H. M. S. Pinafore, the D'Oyly Carte repertory and production system was cemented, and each opera would make use of these stock character types. Before The Sorcerer, Gilbert had constructed his plays around the established stars of whatever theatre he happened to be writing for, as had been the case with Thespis and Trial by Jury. Building on the team he had assembled for The Sorcerer, Gilbert no longer hired stars; he created them. He and Sullivan selected the performers, writing their operas for ensemble casts rather than individual stars.
The repertory system ensured that the comic patter character who performed the role of the sorcerer, John Wellington Wells, would become the ruler of the Queen's navy as Sir Joseph Porter in H.M.S. Pinafore, then join the army as Major-General Stanley in The Pirates of Penzance, and so on. HMS Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W Similarly, Mrs. Partlet in The Sorcerer transformed into Little Buttercup in Pinafore, then into Ruth, the piratical maid-of-all-work in Pirates. Relatively unknown performers whom Gilbert and Sullivan engaged early in the collaboration would stay with the company for many years, becoming stars of the Victorian stage. These included George Grossmith, the principal comic; Rutland Barrington, the lyric baritone; Richard Temple, the bass-baritone; and Jessie Bond, the mezzo-soprano soubrette. George Grossmith (9 December 1847 &ndash 1 March 1912 was an English Comedian, Writer, Composer, Actor, and singer Rutland Barrington (15 January 1853 &ndash 31 May 1922 was an English singer Actor, comedian and Edwardian musical comedy star Richard Barker Cobb Temple ( March 2 1847 &ndash October 19 1912) was an English opera singer actor and stage director best known Jessie Bond (10 January 1853 – 17 June 1942 was an English singer and actress best known for creating the Mezzo-soprano Soubrette roles in the Gilbert This article is related to a series of articles under the main article Voice type. Soubrette is a term referring to a type of female role&mdashspecifically a Stock character &mdashin Opera and Theatre.
The Pirates of Penzance (New Year's eve, 1879), conceived in a fit of pique at the American copyright pirates, also poked fun at grand opera conventions, sense of duty, family obligation, the "respectability" of civilisation and the peerage, and the relevance of a liberal education. The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Copyright is a legal concept enacted by Governments, giving the creator of an original work of authorship Exclusive rights to control its distribution usually for Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century Opera generally in four or five acts characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras and (in their original productions lavish and The story also revisits Pinafore's theme of unqualified people in positions of authority, in the person of the "modern Major-General" who has up-to-date knowledge about everything except the military. The Major-General's Song is a Patter song from Gilbert and Sullivan 's 1879 Comic opera The Pirates of Penzance. The Major-General and his many daughters escape from the tender-hearted Pirates of Penzance, who are all orphans, on the false plea that he is an orphan himself. The pirates learn of the deception and re-capture the Major-General, but when it is revealed that the pirates are all peers, the Major-General bids them: "resume your ranks and legislative duties, and take my daughters, all of whom are beauties!"
The piece premiered first in New York rather than London, in an (unsuccessful) attempt to secure the American copyright, and was another big success with both critics and audiences. The Peerage is a system of Titles of Nobility in the United Kingdom, part of the British honours system.  Gilbert, Sullivan and Carte tried for many years to control the American performance copyrights over their operas, without success.  Nevertheless, Pirates was a hit in both New York, again spawning numerous imitators, and then in London, and it became one of the most frequently performed, translated and parodied Gilbert and Sullivan works, also enjoying a successful 1981 Broadway revival by Joseph Papp. Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located Joseph Papp ( June 22 1921 - October 31 1991) was an American Theatrical producer and director.
In 1880, Sullivan wrote the cantata The Martyr of Antioch, presented at the Leeds Triennial Music Festival, with a libretto modified by Gilbert from an 1822 epic poem by Henry Hart Milman concerning the martyrdom of St. Margaret of Antioch in the 3rd century. A cantata (derived from the Italian word 'cantare' meaning 'to sing' is a vocal composition with an instrumental Accompaniment and often The Martyr of Antioch is an Oratorio (originally described as "A Sacred Musical Drama" by the English Composer, Arthur Sullivan. Leeds ( is located on the River Aire in West Yorkshire, England The Very Reverend Henry Hart Milman ( February 10 or November 10, 1791 - September 24, 1868) was an English Historian Saint Margaret,also known as Margaret of Antioch (in Pisidia) virgin and Martyr, is celebrated by the Roman Catholic and Anglican Sullivan became the conductor of the Leeds festival beginning in 1880 and conducted the performance. It could be said that Martyr was the 15th opera of the partnership, since the Carl Rosa Opera Company presented the work as an opera in 1898. 
Patience (1881) satirised the aesthetic movement in general and its colourful poets, in particular, combining aspects of Algernon Charles Swinburne, Dante Gabriel Rossetti, Oscar Wilde, James McNeill Whistler and others in the rival poets Bunthorne and Grosvenor. George Grossmith (9 December 1847 &ndash 1 March 1912 was an English Comedian, Writer, Composer, Actor, and singer Patience, or Bunthorne's Bride, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Patience, or Bunthorne's Bride, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W This article is about aestheticism a term with a root meaning of sensuous Not to be confused with the religious practice of Asceticism: an abstinence from the sensual Algernon Charles Swinburne (5 April 1837 – 10 April 1909 was a Victorian era English poet Dante Gabriel Rossetti (12 May 1828 – 9 April 1882 was an English poet Illustrator, painter and Translator. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of Grossmith, who created the role of Bunthorne, based his makeup, wig and costume on Swinburne and especially Whistler, as seen in the adjacent photo.  The work also lampoons male vanity and chauvinism in the military. The story concerns two rival "aesthetic" poets, who attract the attention of the young ladies of the village, who had been engaged to the members of a cavalry regiment. But the two poets are each in love with Patience, the village milkmaid, who detests one of them and feels that it is her duty to avoid the other despite her love for him. Richard D'Oyly Carte was the booking manager for Oscar Wilde, a then lesser-known proponent of aestheticism, and dispatched Wilde on an American lecture tour in conjunction with the opera's U. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of S. run, so that American audiences might better understand what the satire was all about.
During the run of Patience, Carte built the large, modern Savoy Theatre, which became the partnership's permanent home. The Savoy Theatre is a West End theatre located in the Strand in the City of Westminster, London England It was the first theatre (indeed the world's first public building) to be lit entirely by electric lighting.  Patience moved into the Savoy after six months at the Opera Comique and ran for a total of 578 performances, surpassing the run of H.M.S. Pinafore and becoming the second longest-running work of musical theatre up to that time in history. HMS Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by 
Iolanthe (1882) was the first of the operas to open at the Savoy. Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W The fully electric Savoy made possible numerous special effects, such as sparkling magic wands for the female chorus of fairies. The opera poked fun at English law and the House of Lords and made much of the war between the sexes. The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords" The critics felt that Sullivan's work in Iolanthe had taken a step forward. The Daily Telegraph wrote, "The composer has risen to his opportunity, and we are disposed to account Iolanthe his best effort in all the Gilbertian series. For "The Daily Telegraph" in Australia see The Daily Telegraph (Australia. " Similarly, the Theatre asserted that "the music of Iolanthe is Dr Sullivan's chef d'oeuvre. The quality throughout is more even, and maintained at a higher standard, than in any of his earlier works. . . "
Iolanthe is one of a number of Gilbert's works, including The Wicked World (1873), Broken Hearts (1875), Princess Ida (1884) and Fallen Fairies (1909), where the introduction of men and "mortal love" into a tranquil world of women wreaks havoc with the status quo. The Wicked World is a Blank verse play by W S Gilbert in three acts Broken Hearts is a Blank verse play by W S Gilbert in three acts styled "An entirely original fairy play" Princess Ida, or Castle Adamant, is a Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W Fallen Fairies; or The Wicked World, is a two-act Comic opera, with a Libretto by W  Gilbert had created several "fairy comedies" at the Haymarket Theatre in the early 1870s. Haymarket Theatre (Leicester|Her Majesty's Theatre The Theatre Royal Haymarket or Haymarket Theatre or the Little Theatre is a West End theatre in These plays, influenced by the fairy work of James Planché, are founded upon the idea of self-revelation by characters under the influence of some magic or some supernatural interference. James Robinson Planché (27 February 1796–30 May 1880 was a British Dramatist Antiquary and Officer of arms. 
In 1882, Gilbert had a telephone installed in his home and at the prompt desk at the Savoy Theatre so that he could monitor performances and rehearsals from his home study. Alice Barnett ( May 17 1846 &ndash April 14 1901) was an English singer and Actress, best known for her performances in Gilbert had referred to the new technology in Pinafore in 1878, only two years after the device was invented and before London even had telephone service. Sullivan had one installed as well, and on 13 May 1883, at a party to celebrate the composer's 41st birthday, the guests, including the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII), heard a direct relay of parts of Iolanthe from the Savoy. Events 1497 - Pope Alexander VI excommunicates Girolamo Savonarola. Year 1883 ( MDCCCLXXXIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Prince of Wales (Tywysog Cymru is a title traditionally granted to the Heir Apparent to the reigning monarch of the United Kingdom (and formerly the Kingdom This was probably the first live "broadcast" of an opera. 
During the run of Iolanthe, in 1883, Sullivan was knighted by Queen Victoria. The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals' personal bravery achievement or service to the United Kingdom. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Although it was the operas with Gilbert that had earned him the broadest fame, the honour was conferred for his services to serious music. The musical establishment, and many critics, believed that this should put an end to his career as a composer of comic opera—that a musical knight should not stoop below oratorio or grand opera. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century Opera generally in four or five acts characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras and (in their original productions lavish and  Sullivan, despite the financial security of writing for the Savoy, increasingly viewed his work with Gilbert as unimportant, beneath his skills, and repetitious. Furthermore, he was unhappy that he had to simplify his music to ensure that Gilbert's words could be heard. But paradoxically, in February 1883, just after Iolanthe opened, Sullivan had signed a five-year agreement with Gilbert and Carte requiring him to produce a new comic opera on six months' notice. 
Princess Ida (1884) spoofed women's education and male chauvinism and continued the theme from Iolanthe of the war between the sexes. Princess Ida, or Castle Adamant, is a Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W Female education is a catch-all term for a complex of issues and debates surrounding education ( Primary education, Secondary education, Tertiary education Chauvinism (ˈʃoʊvɨnɪzəm is extreme and unreasoning Partisanship on behalf of a group to which one belongs especially when the partisanship includes malice and hatred The opera is based on Tennyson's poem The Princess: A Medley. Alfred Tennyson 1st Baron Tennyson (6 August 1809 – 6 October 1892 was Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom and remains one of the most popular English poets Gilbert had written a blank verse farce based on the same material in 1870, called The Princess, and he reused a good deal of the dialogue from his earlier play in the libretto of Princess Ida. Blank verse is a type of Poetry, distinguished by having a regular meter, but no Rhyme. The Princess is a Blank verse farcical play in five scenes with music by W Ida is the only Gilbert and Sullivan work with dialogue entirely in blank verse and is also the only one of their works in three acts. Lillian Russell had been engaged to create the title role, but Gilbert did not believe that she was dedicated enough, and when she missed a rehearsal, she was dismissed. Lillian Russell ( December 4[[ 860]] &ndash June 6 1922) was an American actress and Singer. 
Princess Ida was the first of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas that, by the partnership's previous standards, was not a success. A particularly hot summer in London did not help ticket sales. The piece ran for a comparatively short 246 performances and was not revived in London until 1919. Sullivan had been satisfied with the libretto, but two months after Ida opened, Sullivan told Carte that "it is impossible for me to do another piece of the character of those already written by Gilbert and myself. " As Princess Ida showed signs of flagging, Carte realized that, for the first time in the partnership's history, no new opera would be ready when the old one closed. On 22 March 1884, he gave Gilbert and Sullivan contractual notice that a new opera would be required in six months' time. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 1884 ( MDCCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year  In the meantime, when Ida closed, Carte produced a revival of The Sorcerer.
The most successful of the Savoy Operas was The Mikado (1885), which made fun of English bureaucracy, thinly disguised by a Japanese setting. The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W Gilbert initially proposed a story for a new opera about a magic lozenge that would change the characters, which Sullivan found artificial and lacking in "human interest and probability", as well as being too similar to their earlier opera, The Sorcerer. As dramatised in the film Topsy-Turvy, the author and composer were at an impasse until 8 May 1884, when Gilbert dropped the lozenge idea and agreed to provide a libretto without any supernatural elements. This article is about the 1999 film For the Sing-Along Songs video see Disney Sing Along Songs. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1884 ( MDCCCLXXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
The story focuses on a "cheap tailor," Ko-Ko, who is promoted to the position of Lord High Executioner of the town of Titipu. Ko-Ko loves his ward, Yum-Yum, but she loves a musician, who is really the son of the emperor of Japan (the Mikado), and who is in disguise to escape the attentions of the elderly and amorous Katisha. The Mikado has decreed that executions must resume without delay in Titipu. When news arrives that the Mikado will be visiting the town, Ko-Ko assumes that he is coming to ascertain whether Ko-Ko has carried out the executions. Too timid to execute anyone, Ko-Ko cooks up a conspiracy to misdirect the Mikado, which goes awry. Eventually, Ko-Ko must persuade Katisha to marry him, in order to save his own life and the lives of the other conspirators.
With the opening of trade between England and Japan, Japanese imports, art and styles became fashionable in London, making the time ripe for an opera set in Japan. Gilbert said,
|“||I cannot give you a good reason for our. . . piece being laid in Japan. It. . . afforded scope for picturesque treatment, scenery and costume, and I think that the idea of a chief magistrate, who is. . . judge and actual executioner in one, and yet would not hurt a worm, may perhaps please the public. ||”|
Setting the opera in Japan, an exotic locale far away from Britain, allowed Gilbert and Sullivan to satirise British politics and institutions more freely by clothing them in superficial Japanese trappings. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Gilbert wrote, "The Mikado of the opera was an imaginary monarch of a remote period and cannot by any exercise of ingenuity be taken to be a slap on an existing institution. " G. K. Chesterton compared it to Jonathan Swift's Gulliver's Travels: "Gilbert pursued and persecuted the evils of modern England till they had literally not a leg to stand on, exactly as Swift did. Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936 was an influential English writer of the early 20th century Jonathan Swift (30 November 1667 Gulliver's Travels (1726 amended 1735 officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts . . I doubt if there is a single joke in the whole play that fits the Japanese. But all the jokes in the play fit the English. . . About England Pooh-bah is something more than a satire; he is the truth. " Several of the later operas are similarly set in foreign or fictional locales, including The Gondoliers, Utopia Limited, and The Grand Duke. The Gondoliers, or The King of Barataria, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Rutland Barrington as Paramountjpg|right|frame|Barrington as King Paramount]] Utopia Limited, or The Flowers of Progress, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final Savoy Opera written by Librettist W
The Mikado became the partnership's longest-running hit, enjoying 672 performances at the Savoy Theatre, which was the second longest run for any work of musical theatre and one of the longest runs of any theatre piece up to that time.  The Mikado remains the most frequently performed Savoy Opera.  It has been translated into numerous languages and is one of the most frequently played musical theatre pieces in history. 
Ruddigore (1887), a topsy-turvy take on Victorian melodrama, was less successful than most of the earlier collaborations with a run of 288 performances. Ruddigore, or The Witch's Curse, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Melodrama refers to theatre in which music is used to increase the spectator's emotional response or to suggest character types The original title, Ruddygore, together with some of the plot devices, including the revivification of ghosts, drew negative comments from critics.  Gilbert and Sullivan respelled the title and made a number of changes and cuts.  Nevertheless, the piece was profitable, and the reviews were not all bad. For instance, the Illustrated London News praised the work and both Gilbert and, especially, Sullivan: "Sir Arthur Sullivan has eminently succeeded alike in the expression of refined sentiment and comic humour. The Illustrated London News was a Magazine founded by Herbert Ingram and his friend Mark Lemon, the editor of Punch In the former respect, the charm of graceful melody prevails; while, in the latter, the music of the most grotesque situations is redolent of fun. " Further changes were made, including a new overture, when Rupert D'Oyly Carte revived Ruddigore after the First World War, and the piece was regularly performed by the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company thereafter. Rupert D'Oyly Carte ( November 3 1876 - September 12 1948) was an English hotelier theatre owner and Impresario, best known World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All 
Some of the plot elements of Ruddigore were introduced by Gilbert in his earlier one-act opera, Ages Ago (1869), including the tale of the wicked ancestor and the device of the ghostly ancestors stepping out of their portraits. Ages Ago is a musical entertaiment with a libretto by W S Gilbert and music by Frederic Clay that premiered on 22 November 1869 When Ruddigore closed, no new opera was ready. Gilbert again proposed a version of the "lozenge" plot for their next opera, and Sullivan reiterated his desire to leave the partnership. While the two men worked out their artistic differences, Carte produced revivals of such old favourites as H.M.S. Pinafore, The Pirates of Penzance, and The Mikado. HMS Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W
The Yeomen of the Guard (1888), their only joint work with a serious ending, concerns a pair of strolling players—a jester and a singing girl—who are caught up in a risky intrigue at the Tower of London during the 16th century. WH Denny ( October 22 1853 &ndash August 31 1915) was an English singer and actor best remembered for his portrayal of Baritone Jessie Bond (10 January 1853 – 17 June 1942 was an English singer and actress best known for creating the Mezzo-soprano Soubrette roles in the Gilbert The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Her Majesty's Royal Palace and Fortress, more commonly known as the Tower of London (and historically as The Tower) is a historic monument in central London The dialogue, though in prose, is quasi-Shakespearian, or early modern English, in style, and there is no satire of British institutions. William Shakespeare ( baptised Early Modern English is the stage of the English language used from about the end of the Middle English period (the latter half of the 15th century to 1650 For some of the plot elements, Gilbert had reached back to his 1875 tragedy, Broken Hearts. Broken Hearts is a Blank verse play by W S Gilbert in three acts styled "An entirely original fairy play" The Times praised the libretto: "It should. . . be acknowledged that Mr. Gilbert has earnestly endeavoured to leave familiar grooves and rise to higher things. " Although not a grand opera, the new libretto provided Sullivan with the opportunity to write his most ambitious score to date. The critics, who had recently lauded the composer for his successful oratorio, The Golden Legend, considered the score to Yeomen to be Sullivan's finest, including its overture, which was written in sonata form, rather than as a sequential pot-pourri of tunes from the opera, as in most of his other overtures. Sonata form is a Musical form that has been used widely since the early Classical period. The Daily Telegraph wrote:
|“||The accompaniments. . . are delightful to hear, and especially does the treatment of the woodwind compel admiring attention. Schubert himself could hardly have handled those instruments more deftly, written for them more lovingly. . . We place the songs and choruses in The Yeomen of the Guard before all his previous efforts of this particular kind. Thus the music follows the book to a higher plane, and we have a genuine English opera. . . ||”|
|“||I have lost the liking for writing comic opera, and entertain very grave doubts as to my power of doing it. Events 538 - Witiges, king of the Ostrogoths ends his siege of Rome and retreats to Ravenna, leaving Year 1889 ( MDCCCLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common . . You say that in a serious opera, you must more or less sacrifice yourself. I say that this is just what I have been doing in all our joint pieces, and, what is more, must continue to do in comic opera to make it successful. ||”|
Sullivan insisted that the next opera must be a grand opera. Grand Opera is a genre of 19th-century Opera generally in four or five acts characterised by large-scale casts and orchestras and (in their original productions lavish and Gilbert did not feel that he could write a grand opera libretto, but he offered a compromise that Sullivan ultimately accepted. The two would write a light opera for the Savoy, and at the same time, Sullivan a grand opera (Ivanhoe) for a new theatre that Carte was constructing to present British grand opera. Ivanhoe is a romantic Opera in three acts based on the novel by Sir Walter Scott, with Music by Sir Arthur Sullivan and After a brief impasse over the choice of subject, Sullivan accepted an idea connected with Venice and Venetian life, as "this seemed to me to hold out great chances of bright colour and taking music. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the "
The Gondoliers (1889) takes place partly in Venice and partly in a kingdom ruled by a pair of gondoliers who attempt to remodel the monarchy in a spirit of "republican equality. Rutland Barrington (15 January 1853 &ndash 31 May 1922 was an English singer Actor, comedian and Edwardian musical comedy star Charles Courtice Pounds ( May 30 1862 &ndash December 21 1927) better known by the stage name Courtice Pounds, was an English The Gondoliers, or The King of Barataria, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W " Gilbert recapitulates a number of his earlier themes, including the satire of class distinctions figuring in many of his earlier librettos. The libretto also reflects Gilbert's fascination with the "Stock Company Act", highlighting the absurd convergence of natural persons and legal entities, which plays an even larger part in the next opera, Utopia Limited. Press accounts were almost entirely favourable. The Illustrated London News reported:
|“||. . . Gilbert has returned to the Gilbert of the past, and everyone is delighted. He is himself again. The Gilbert of the Bab Ballads, the Gilbert of whimsical conceit, inoffensive cynicism, subtle satire, and playful paradox; the Gilbert who invented a school of his own, who in it was schoolmaster and pupil, who has never taught anybody but himself, and is never likely to have any imitator—this is the Gilbert the public want to see, and this is the Gilbert who on Saturday night was cheered till the audience was weary of cheering any more. The Bab Ballads are a collection of light verse by W S Gilbert, illustrated with his own comic drawings ||”|
Sullivan's old collaborator on Cox and Box (later the editor of Punch magazine), F. C. Burnand, wrote to the composer: "Magnificento!. Cox and Box; or The Long-Lost Brothers, is a one-act Comic opera with a libretto by F Punch was a British weekly Magazine of Humour and Satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002 Sir Francis Cowley Burnand (29 November 1836 &ndash 21 April 1917 often credited as F . . I envy you and W. S. G. being able to place a piece like this on the stage in so complete a fashion. " The opera enjoyed a run longer than any of their other joint works except for H.M.S. Pinafore and The Mikado. HMS Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W There was a command performance of The Gondoliers for Queen Victoria and the royal family at Windsor Castle in 1891, the first Gilbert and Sullivan opera to be so honoured. Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901 was from 20 June 1837 the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland Windsor Castle, in Windsor in the English county of Berkshire, is the largest inhabited Castle in the world and dating back to the time of The Gondoliers was Gilbert and Sullivan's last great success.
Gilbert and Sullivan sometimes had a strained working relationship, partly caused by the fact that each man saw himself allowing his work to be subjugated to the other's, and partly caused by the opposing personalities of the two—Gilbert was often confrontational and notoriously thin-skinned (though prone to acts of extraordinary kindness), while Sullivan eschewed conflict.  In addition, Gilbert imbued his libretti with "topsy-turvy" situations in which the social order was turned upside down. A libretto is the text used in an extended Musical work such as an Opera, Operetta, Masque, sacred or secular Oratorio and After a time, these subjects were often at odds with Sullivan's desire for realism and emotional content.  Also, Gilbert's political satire often poked fun at the wealthy and powerful whom Sullivan sought out for friendship and patronage. 
Gilbert and Sullivan quarrelled several times over the choice of a subject. After both Princess Ida and Ruddigore, which were less successful than the seven other operas from H. M. S. Pinafore to The Gondoliers, Sullivan asked to leave the partnership, saying that he found Gilbert's plots repetitive and that the operas were not artistically satisfying to him. While the two artists worked out their differences, Carte kept the Savoy open with revivals of their earlier works. On each occasion, after a few months' pause, Gilbert responded with a libretto that met Sullivan's objections, and the partnership was able to continue successfully. 
During the run of The Gondoliers, however, Gilbert challenged Carte over the expenses of the production. Carte had charged the cost of a new carpet for the Savoy Theatre lobby to the partnership. Gilbert believed that this was a maintenance expense that should be charged to Carte alone. As scholar Andrew Crowther has explained:
|“||After all, the carpet was only one of a number of disputed items, and the real issue lay not in the mere money value of these things, but in whether Carte could be trusted with the financial affairs of Gilbert and Sullivan. Gilbert contended that Carte had at best made a series of serious blunders in the accounts, and at worst deliberately attempted to swindle the others. It is not easy to settle the rights and wrongs of the issue at this distance, but it does seem fairly clear that there was something very wrong with the accounts at this time. Gilbert wrote to Sullivan on 28 May, 1891, a year after the end of the "Quarrel", that Carte had admitted "an unintentional overcharge of nearly £1,000 in the electric lighting accounts alone. ||”|
Sullivan sided with Carte, who was building a theatre in London for the production of new English grand operas, with Sullivan's Ivanhoe as the inaugural work. Ivanhoe is a romantic Opera in three acts based on the novel by Sir Walter Scott, with Music by Sir Arthur Sullivan and While the protracted quarrel worked itself out in the courts and in public, Gilbert wrote The Mountebanks with Alfred Cellier and the flop Haste to the Wedding with George Grossmith, and Sullivan also wrote Haddon Hall with Sidney Grundy. The Mountebanks is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Alfred Cellier and a libretto by W Alfred Cellier (1 December 1844&ndash28 December 1891 was an English composer orchestrator and conductor Haste to the Wedding is a three-act Comic opera with a libretto by W George Grossmith (9 December 1847 &ndash 1 March 1912 was an English Comedian, Writer, Composer, Actor, and singer Haddon Hall is an English light opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by Sydney Grundy.
In 1891, after many failed attempts at reconciliation by the pair and their producer, Richard D'Oyly Carte, Gilbert and Sullivan's music publisher, Tom Chappell, stepped in to mediate between two of his most profitable artists, and within two weeks he had succeeded. Chappell & Co was an English company that published music and manufactured Pianos It was founded in 1810 by Samuel Chappell. 
Utopia, Limited (1893), their penultimate opera, was a very modest success, and The Grand Duke (1896) was an outright failure. Rutland Barrington as Paramountjpg|right|frame|Barrington as King Paramount]] Utopia Limited, or The Flowers of Progress, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final Savoy Opera written by Librettist W  Neither work entered the "canon" of regularly-performed Gilbert and Sullivan works until the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company made the first complete professional recordings of the two operas in the 1970s. Gilbert also offered Sullivan His Excellency (1894), but Gilbert's insistence on casting Nancy McIntosh, his protégée from Utopia, led to Sullivan's refusal, and it was instead composed by F. Osmond Carr. His Excellency is a two-act Comic opera with a libretto by W S NancyMc as Princess Zarajpg|right|frame|with Charles Kenningham in Utopia Limited ]] Nancy McIntosh (1874 &ndash February 20, 1954 Frank Osmond Carr (23 April 1858&ndash29 August 1916 known as F 
After The Grand Duke, the partners saw no reason to work together again. Sullivan, by this time in exceedingly poor health, died four years later, although to the end he continued to write new comic operas for the Savoy with other librettists, most successfully with Basil Hood in The Rose of Persia (1899), and The Emerald Isle (1901) (finished by Edward German after Sullivan's death). Basil Charles Hood ( April 5 1864 &ndash August 7 1917) was a British librettist and lyricist perhaps best known for his libretti of a half The Rose of Persia; or The Story-Teller and the Slave, is a two-act Comic opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and a libretto by Basil The Emerald Isle; or The Caves of Carrig-Cleena, is a two-act Comic opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and Edward German, and a Sir Edward German ( 17 February 1862 &ndash 11 November 1936) was an English musician and composer of Welsh descent best remembered By the time of Sullivan's death, Gilbert wrote that any memory of their rift had been "completely bridged over," and "the most cordial relations existed between us. " He stated that Sullivan was "A composer of the rarest genius — who, because he was a composer of the rarest genius, was as modest and as unassuming as a neophyte should be, but seldom is. . . I remember all that he has done for me in allowing his genius to shed some of its lustre upon my humble name. " Gilbert went into semi-retirement, although he continued to direct revivals of the Savoy Operas and wrote new plays occasionally. He wrote only one more comic opera, Fallen Fairies (1909; music by Edward German), which was not a success. Fallen Fairies; or The Wicked World, is a two-act Comic opera, with a Libretto by W Year 1909 ( MCMIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year starting Sir Edward German ( 17 February 1862 &ndash 11 November 1936) was an English musician and composer of Welsh descent best remembered  Richard D'Oyly Carte died in 1901, and his widow, Helen, and then his son, Rupert, followed by his granddaughter, Bridget, continued to direct the activities of the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company, which staged revivals of the Gilbert and Sullivan operas until it closed in 1982. Richard D'Oyly Carte (3 May 1844 &ndash 3 April 1901 was an English talent agent theatrical Impresario and hotelier during the latter half of the Victorian Helen Carte or Helen Lenoir ( May 12 1852 &ndash May 5 1913) was the second wife of impresario and hotelier Richard D'Oyly Carte Rupert D'Oyly Carte ( November 3 1876 - September 12 1948) was an English hotelier theatre owner and Impresario, best known Dame Bridget Cicely D'Oyly Carte DBE ( March 25 1908 &ndash May 2 1985) was the granddaughter of impresario Richard D'Oyly Carte
Sir Henry Wood explained the enduring success of the collaboration as follows:
|“||. Henry Wood is the name of Henry Wood (writer (1834–1908 New Thought writer and novelist Evelyn Wood (British Army officer (1838–1919 . . Sullivan has never had an equal for brightness and drollery, for humour without coarseness and without vulgarity, and for charm and grace. His orchestration is delightful: he wrote with full understanding of every orchestral voice. Above all, his music is perfectly appropriate to the words of which it is the setting. . . He found the right, the only cadences to fit Gilbert's happy and original rhythms, and to match Gilbert's fun or to throw Gilbert's frequent irony, pointed although not savage, into relief. Sullivan's music is much more than the accompaniment of Gilbert's libretti, just as Gilbert's libretti are far more than words to Sullivan's music. We have two masters who are playing a concerto. Neither is subordinate to the other; each gives what is original, but the two, while neither predominates, are in perfect correspondence. This rare harmony of words and music is what makes these operas entirely unique. They are the work not of a musician and his librettist nor of a poet and one who sets his words to music, but of two geniuses. ||”|
Because of the unusual success of the operas, the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company were able, from the start, to license the works to other professional companies, such as the J. C. Williamson Gilbert and Sullivan Opera Company, and to amateur societies. James Cassius Williamson ( August 26 1845 - July 6 1913) was an American actor and later a theatrical manager in Australia born in For almost a century, until the British copyrights expired in 1961, and even afterwards, the D'Oyly Carte Opera Company influenced productions of the operas worldwide, creating a "performing tradition" for most of the operas that is still referred to today by many directors. D'Oyly Carte produced several well-regarded recordings of most of the operas, helping to keep them popular through the decades.
Today, numerous professional repertory companies, opera companies, amateur societies, churches, schools and universities continue to produce the works.  The most popular G&S works are still performed from time to time by major opera companies, A three-week long International Gilbert and Sullivan Festival is held every August in Buxton, England. The International Gilbert and Sullivan Festival is held every summer at the Opera House in Buxton, Derbyshire. Buxton is a Spa town in Derbyshire, England. Located close to the county boundary with Cheshire to the west and Staffordshire to the south
In the past 125 years, Gilbert and Sullivan have pervasively influenced popular culture in the English-speaking world, and lines and quotations from the Gilbert and Sullivan operas have become part of the English language (even if not originated by Gilbert), such as "short, sharp shock", "What never? Well, hardly ever!", "let the punishment fit the crime", and "A policeman's lot is not a happy one". In the past 125 years Gilbert and Sullivan have pervasively influenced Popular culture in the English-speaking world. The phrase "Short sharp shock" is a phrase meaning "punishment that is quick and severe  The operas have influenced political style and discourse, literature, film and television, have been widely parodied by humorists, and have been quoted in legal rulings. 
The American and British musical owes a tremendous debt to G&S, who were admired by and copied by early authors and composers such as Ivan Caryll, Adrian Ross, Lionel Monckton, P. G. Wodehouse, Guy Bolton, Victor Herbert, and Ivor Novello, and later Irving Berlin, Jerome Kern, Oscar Hammerstein II, and Andrew Lloyd Webber. Musical theatre is a form of Theatre combining Music, Songs spoken Dialogue and Dance. Felix Tilkins ( May 12 1861 &ndash November 29 1921) better known by his Pen name Ivan Caryll, was a Belgian For the NFL player see Adrian Ross (American football Arthur Reed Ropes ( December 23 1859 &ndash September 10 1933 Lionel John Alexander Monckton (18 December 1861 – 15 February 1924 was an English writer and Composer of Musical theatre. Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE (15 October 1881 – 14 February 1975 (ˈwʊdhaʊs was an English Comic novelist who enjoyed enormous popular success Guy Reginald Bolton ( November 23, 1884 - September 6, 1979) was a British - American Playwright and writer of Victor August Herbert ( February 1 1859 &ndash May 26 1924) was a Cellist, conductor and Composer best known David Ivor Davies (15 January 1893 &ndash 6 March 1951 better known as Ivor Novello, was a Welsh Composer, Singer and Actor, who Irving Berlin (11 May 1888 &ndash 22 September 1989 was a Russian-born American Composer and Lyricist, and one of the most prolific American songwriters Jerome David Kern ( January 27, 1885 &ndash November 11, 1945) was an American Composer of popular music Oscar Hammerstein II (ˈhæmɚstaɪn (born Oscar Greeley Clendenning Hammerstein) ( July 12, 1895 – August 23, 1960) was Andrew Lloyd Webber Baron Lloyd-Webber (born 22 March 1948 is a British Composer of Musical theatre, the elder son of William Lloyd Webber  Gilbert's lyrics served as a model for such 20th-century Broadway lyricists as Cole Porter, Ira Gershwin, and Lorenz Hart. Broadway theater, commonly called simply Broadway, refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 39 large professional theaters with 500 seats or more located Cole Albert Porter (June 9 1891 &ndash October 15 1964 was an American Composer and songwriter from Peru, Indiana. Ira Gershwin ( 6 December 1896 &ndash 17 August 1983) was an American Lyricist who collaborated with his younger Lorenz "Larry" Hart ( May 2, 1895 &ndash November 22, 1943) was the lyricist half of the famed Broadway songwriting team  Noel Coward wrote:
|“||I was born into a generation that still took light music seriously. Sir Noël Peirce Coward ( 16 December 1899 26 March 1973) was an English Actor, Playwright The lyrics and melodies of Gilbert and Sullivan were hummed and strummed into my consciousness at an early age. My father sang them, my mother played them, my nurse, Emma, breathed them through her teeth while she was washing me, dressing me and undressing me and putting me to bed. My aunts and uncles, who were legion, sang them singly and in unison at the slightest provocation. . . ||”|
Gilbert and Sullivan's work provides a rich cultural resource outside of their influence upon musicals. The works of Gilbert and Sullivan are themselves frequently pastiched.  Well known examples of this include Tom Lehrer's The Elements, Allan Sherman's, The Two Ronnies and Anna Russell's famous routines, and the animated TV series Animaniacs' HMS Yakko episode. Thomas Andrew "Tom" Lehrer (born April 9 1928)is an American Singer-songwriter, satirist, Pianist, and mathematician " The Elements " ( 1959) is a song by musical humorist Tom Lehrer, which recites the names of all the Chemical elements known at the time of writing Allan Sherman (November 30 1924 – November 20 1973 was an American Musician, parodist, satirist, and Television producer The Two Ronnies was a British Sketch show that aired on BBC 1 from 1971 to 1987 Anna Russell, née Anna Claudia Russell-Brown ( 27 December 1911 - 18 October 2006) was an English – Canadian Steven Spielberg Presents Animaniacs, usually referred to as Animaniacs, is an American animated series, distributed by Warner Bros Gilbert and Sullivan comic operas are commonly referenced in literature, film and television in various ways that include extensive use of Sullivan's music or where action occurs during a performance of a Gilbert and Sullivan opera. There are also a number of Gilbert and Sullivan biopics, such as Mike Leigh's Topsy-Turvy. Mike Leigh, OBE (born February 20, 1943) is an English film and theatre director screenwriter and playwright This article is about the 1999 film For the Sing-Along Songs video see Disney Sing Along Songs.
|“||The musical is not, of course, the only cultural form to show the influence of G&S. Even more direct heirs are those witty and satirical songwriters found on both sides of the Atlantic in the twentieth century like Michael Flanders and Donald Swann in the United Kingdom and Tom Lehrer in the United States. Michael Henry Flanders OBE, ( March 1, 1922 &ndash April 14, 1975) was an English Actor, broadcaster Donald Ibrahím Swann ( September 30, 1923 – March 23, 1994) was a British composer musician and entertainer Thomas Andrew "Tom" Lehrer (born April 9 1928)is an American Singer-songwriter, satirist, Pianist, and mathematician The influence of Gilbert is discernible in a vein of British comedy that runs through John Betjeman's verse via Monty Python and Private Eye to. Sir John Betjeman, CBE ( 28 August 1906 &ndash 19 May 1984 was an English poet writer and broadcaster who described himself in Who's Who Monty Python (sometimes known as The Pythons) is the collective name of the six creators of Monty Python's Flying Circus, a British Television Private Eye is a fortnightly British satirical Magazine, edited by Ian Hislop. . . television series like Yes, Minister. Yes Minister is a multi-award winning satirical British sitcom written by Antony Jay and Jonathan Lynn that was first transmitted . . where the emphasis is on wit, irony, and poking fun at the establishment from within it in a way which manages to be both disrespectful of authority and yet cosily comfortable and urbane.||”|
It is not surprising, given the focus of Gilbert on politics, that politicians and political observers have often found inspiration in these works. U. S. Supreme Court Justice William Rehnquist added gold stripes to his judicial robes after seeing them used by the Lord Chancellor in a production of Iolanthe. William Hubbs Rehnquist (October 1 1924 – September 3 2005 was an American lawyer, jurist, and a political figure who served as an Associate Justice The Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain, or Lord Chancellor is a senior and important functionary in the Government of the United Kingdom.  Alternatively, Lord Chancellor Charles Falconer is recorded as objecting so strongly to Iolanthe's comic portrayal of Lord Chancellors that he supported moves to disband the office. Charles Leslie Falconer Baron Falconer of Thoroton, PC, QC (born 19 November 1951 is a British Barrister and Labour Party  British politicians, beyond quoting some of the more famous lines, have delivered speeches in the form of Gilbert and Sullivan pastiches. These include Conservative Peter Lilley's speech mimicking the form of "I've got a little list" from The Mikado, listing those he was against, including "sponging socialists" and "young ladies who get pregnant just to jump the housing queue". Peter Bruce Lilley (born 23 August 1943, Hayes, Kent, England) is a British Conservative Party politician who  Political humour based on Gilbert and Sullivan's style and characters continues to be written. 
|Three little maids from school|
|From The Mikado (1. The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W 6 Mb)|
Major works and original London runs
Gilbert and Sullivan operas have been translated into many languages, including Portuguese, Yiddish, Hebrew, Swedish, Danish, Estonian, Spanish (reportedly including a version of Pinafore transformed into zarzuela style), and many others. Thespis, or The Gods Grown Old, is an Operatic Extravaganza that was the first collaboration between dramatist W This article is about the comic opera For the legal institution see Jury trial. For other uses see Sorcerer. Sorctrialjpg|right|thumb|300px|1878 programme cover]] The Sorcerer is a two-act Comic opera HMS Pinafore, or The Lass that Loved a Sailor, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by The Pirates of Penzance, or The Slave of Duty is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W The Martyr of Antioch is an Oratorio (originally described as "A Sacred Musical Drama" by the English Composer, Arthur Sullivan. The Very Reverend Henry Hart Milman ( February 10 or November 10, 1791 - September 24, 1868) was an English Historian Patience, or Bunthorne's Bride, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Iolanthe, or The Peer and the Peri, is a Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Princess Ida, or Castle Adamant, is a Comic opera with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W The Mikado, or The Town of Titipu, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and Libretto by W Ruddigore, or The Witch's Curse, is a Comic opera in two acts with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W The Yeomen of the Guard, or The Merryman and his Maid, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W The Gondoliers, or The King of Barataria, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur Sullivan and libretto by W Rutland Barrington as Paramountjpg|right|frame|Barrington as King Paramount]] Utopia Limited, or The Flowers of Progress, is a Savoy Opera, with music by Arthur The Grand Duke, or The Statutory Duel, was the final Savoy Opera written by Librettist W For the Victor Herbert musical of the same name see Sweethearts (musical Sweethearts is a comic play billed as a "dramatic Zarzuela (θarˈθwela in Spain in Latin America is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternates between spoken and sung scenes the latter incorporating Operatic
There are many German versions of Gilbert and Sullivan operas, including the popular Der Mikado. There is even a German version of The Grand Duke. Some German translations were made by Friedrich Zell and Richard Genée, librettists of Die Fledermaus, Eine Nacht in Venedig and other Viennese operettas, who even translated one of Sullivan's lesser-known operas, The Chieftain, as ("Der Häuptling"). Die Fledermaus ( The Bat; in French La chauve-souris) is an Operetta composed by Johann Strauss II to a German Libretto Eine Nacht in Venedig ( A Night in Venice) is an Operetta in three acts by Johann Strauss II and was premiered in Berlin on 3 October The Chieftain is a two-act comic opera by Arthur Sullivan and F