Giallo (pronounced IPA: ['ʤallo]) is an Italian 20th century genre of literature and film. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest A genre (ˈʒɑːnrə also /ˈdʒɑːnrə/ from French "kind" or "sort" from Latin: genus (stem gener-) is a loose set Literature is the Art of written works Literally translated the word means "acquaintance with letters" (from Latin littera letter It is closely related to the French fantastique genre, crime fiction, horror fiction and eroticism. The Fantastique is a French term for a literary and cinematic genre that overlaps with Science fiction, horror and Fantasy Crime fiction is the Genre of Fiction that deals with Crimes their detection criminals and their motives It is usually distinguished from Horror fiction is broadly Fiction in any medium intended to scare unsettle or horrify the audience The term is also used to mean an example of the genre, in which case it can take the Italian plural gialli. The word giallo is Italian for "yellow" (see Wiktionary: giallo) and stems from the genre's origin in paperback novels with yellow covers. Paperback, softback, or softcover describe and refer to a Book by the nature of its binding.
The term giallo was originally coined to describe a series of mystery/crime pulp novels first published by the Mondadori publishing house in 1929. Pulp magazines (or pulp fiction; often referred to as "the pulps" were inexpensive Fiction magazines Arnoldo Mondadori Editore, ( Borsa Italiana: MNDI is the second biggest Publishing company in Italy. Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Their yellow covers contained whodunits, much like their American counterparts of the 1920s and 1930s, and this link with English language pulp fiction was reinforced with the Italian authors always taking on English pen names. A whodunit or whodunnit (for "Who done it?" is a complex plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the puzzle is the main feature of interest Pulp magazines (or pulp fiction; often referred to as "the pulps" were inexpensive Fiction magazines A pen name, nom de plume, or literary double, is a Pseudonym adopted by an Author or their publishers to conceal their identity Many of the earliest "gialli" were however English-language novels translated into Italian. 
Published as cheapish paperbacks, the success of the "giallo" novels soon began attracting the attention of other publishing houses, who began releasing their own versions (not forgetting to keep the by-now-traditional yellow cover). The novels were so popular that even the works of established foreign mystery and crime writers, such as Agatha Christie, Edgar Wallace and Georges Simenon, were labelled "gialli" when first published in Italy. Agatha Mary Clarissa Lady Mallowan, DBE (née Miller; 15 September 1890 &ndash 12 January 1976 commonly known as Agatha Christie, was an English Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace ( April 1, 1875 &ndash February 10, 1932) was a prolific British Crime writer, Journalist Georges Joseph Christian Simenon (ʒɔʀʒ simˈnɔ̃ in French ( February 13, 1903 &ndash September 4, 1989) was a Belgian writer Giallo Mondadori is currently published every month, as one of the most long-lived publications of the genre in the world.
This led to the word "giallo" to become, in Italian language, a synonym of the mystery, crime and detective story genre, with a more generic significance than that it has currently in English, especially when it defines the cinema genre (see below). Italian ( or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken by about 63 million people as a First language, primarily in Italy. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
The film genre that emerged from these novels in the 1960s began as literal adaptations of the books, but soon began taking advantage of modern cinematic techniques to create a unique genre. Films known abroad as "gialli" are called thrilling or simply "thriller" in Italy, the first term usually referring to Italian 1970s classics by directors like Dario Argento or Mario Bava. Dario Argento (born September 7 1940) is an Italian Film director, producer and Screenwriter. Mario Bava ( July 31 1914 – April 25 1980) was an Italian director, Screenwriter, and Cinematographer
"Giallo" films are characterized by extended murder sequences featuring excessive bloodletting, stylish camerawork and unusual musical arrangements. The literary whodunit element is retained, but combined with modern slasher horror, while being filtered through Italy's longstanding tradition of opera and staged grand guignol drama. A whodunit or whodunnit (for "Who done it?" is a complex plot-driven variety of the detective story in which the puzzle is the main feature of interest The slasher film (sometimes referred to as bodycount films and dead teenager movies) is a Sub-genre Opera is an art form in which Singers and Musicians perform a Dramatic work (called an opera which combines a text (called a Libretto The Grand Guignol ( pronounced giɲɔl was a theatre ( Le Théâtre du Grand-Guignol) in the Pigalle area of Paris (at 20 bis rue They also generally include liberal amounts of nudity and sex.
Gialli typically introduce strong psychological themes of madness, alienation, and paranoia. For example, Sergio Martino's Your Vice Is a Locked Room and Only I Have the Key (also known as Eye of the Black Cat) was explicitly based on Edgar Allan Poe's short story "The Black Cat". Sergio Martino (born 19 July, 1938 in Rome, Italy) is an Italian Film director, notable for his contributions Your Vice Is a Locked Room and Only I Have the Key ( Il tuo vizio è una stanza chiusa e solo io ne ho la chiave) is a 1972 Giallo Edgar Allan Poe (January 19 1809 – October 7 1849 was an American poet, short-story Writer, editor and Literary critic,
They remain notable in part for their expressive use of music, most notably by Dario Argento's collaborations with Ennio Morricone and his musical director Bruno Nicolai, and later with the band Goblin. Ennio Morricone OMRI (born November 10, 1928) is an acclaimed Italian Academy Award -winning composer Bruno Nicolai ( Rome, May 20, 1926 - Rome, August 16 1991) was an Italian film music composer orchestra director Goblin are an Italian Progressive rock band known for their soundtracks for Dario Argento films (including Deep Red
As well as the literary giallo tradition, the films were also initially influenced by the German "Krimi" phenomenon - originally black and white films of the 1960s that were based on Edgar Wallace stories. The Edgar Wallace movies are Motion pictures based on the works of British novelist and playwright Edgar Wallace. Richard Horatio Edgar Wallace ( April 1, 1875 &ndash February 10, 1932) was a prolific British Crime writer, Journalist
The first film that created the giallo as a cinema genre is La ragazza che sapeva troppo (The Girl Who Knew Too Much) (1963), from Mario Bava. The Girl Who Knew Too Much ( La Ragazza che sapeva troppo) is a 1963 Italian Giallo film. Mario Bava ( July 31 1914 – April 25 1980) was an Italian director, Screenwriter, and Cinematographer Its title referred to Alfred Hitchcock's famous The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956), again establishing strong links with Anglo-American culture. Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock, KBE (13 The Man Who Knew Too Much ( 1956) is a suspense film directed by Alfred Hitchcock, starring James Stewart and Doris Day. In Mario Bava's 1964 film, Blood and Black Lace, the emblematic element of the giallo was introduced: the masked murderer with a shiny weapon in his black leather gloved hand. Blood and Black Lace ( Italian title Sei donne per l'assassino) is a 1964 Italian horror thriller 
Soon the giallo became a genre of its own, with its own rules and with a typical Italian flavour: adding additional layers of intense colour and style. The term giallo finally became synonymous with a heavy, theatrical, and stylised visual element.
The genre had its heyday in the 1970s, with dozens of Italian giallo films released. The most notable directors who worked in the genre were Dario Argento, Mario Bava, Lucio Fulci, Aldo Lado, Sergio Martino, Umberto Lenzi, and Pupi Avati. Dario Argento (born September 7 1940) is an Italian Film director, producer and Screenwriter. Mario Bava ( July 31 1914 – April 25 1980) was an Italian director, Screenwriter, and Cinematographer Lucio Fulci ( June 17, 1927 – March 13, 1996) was an Italian film director, Screenwriter, and Actor Sergio Martino (born 19 July, 1938 in Rome, Italy) is an Italian Film director, notable for his contributions Umberto Lenzi (born August 6 1931) is an Italian Film director who was very active in low budget crime films, peplums spaghetti Giuseppe Avati, better known as Pupi Avati (born November 3, 1938) is an Italian Film director, producer and Screenwriter
Although often based around crime and detective work, Gialli should not be confused with the other popular Italian crime genre of the 1970's, the Poliziotteschi, which refers to 'tough-cop', action-oriented films. Poliziotteschi is a sub-genre of crime and Action film that emerged in Italy in the late 1960s and became popular in the 1970s Directors and stars often moved between both genres, and some films could be considered under either banner, such as Massimo Dallamano's 1974 film What have they done to your daughters?