|Created||November 19, 1863|
|Location||Several copies at various places|
|Purpose||To redefine the purpose of the Union in fighting the Civil War|
The Gettysburg Address is the most famous speech of U.S. President Abraham Lincoln and one of the most quoted speeches in United States history. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal  It was delivered at the dedication of the Soldiers' National Cemetery in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, on the afternoon of Thursday, November 19, 1863, during the American Civil War, four and a half months after the Union armies defeated those of the Confederacy at the decisive Battle of Gettysburg. Gettysburg National Cemetery is located on Cemetery Hill in Gettysburg Pennsylvania. Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1863 ( MDCCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 Background and movement to battle See also [[Gettysburg Campaign]] [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]]
Abraham Lincoln's carefully crafted address, secondary to other presentations that day, came to be regarded as one of the greatest speeches in American history. In just over two minutes, Lincoln invoked the principles of human equality espoused by the Declaration of Independence and redefined the Civil War as a struggle not merely for the Union, but as "a new birth of freedom" that would bring true equality to all of its citizens, and that would also create a unified nation in which states' rights were no longer dominant. The United States Declaration of Independence is a statement adopted by the Continental Congress on July 4 1776 announcing that the thirteen American colonies then The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Political freedom is the absence of interference with the sovereignty of an individual by the use of coercion or aggression States' rights refers to the idea in US politics and constitutional law, that U
Beginning with the now-iconic phrase "Four score and seven years ago. "Twenty" redirects here For the village in England, see Twenty Lincolnshire. . . ", Lincoln referred to the events of the Civil War and described the ceremony at Gettysburg as an opportunity not only to dedicate the grounds of a cemetery, but also to consecrate the living in the struggle to ensure that "government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth". A civil war is a War between a State and domestic political actors that are in control of some part of the territory claimed by the state
Despite the speech's prominent place in the history and popular culture of the United States, the exact wording of the speech is disputed. The five known manuscripts of the Gettysburg Address differ in a number of details and also differ from contemporary newspaper reprints of the speech.
From July 1–3, 1863, more than 160,000 American soldiers clashed in the Battle of Gettysburg, in what would prove to be both a turning point of the Civil War and one of its bloodiest battles. During the American Civil War, the Union was a name used to refer to the federal government of the United States, which was supported by the twenty-three Background and movement to battle See also [[Gettysburg Campaign]] [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]] Timothy H O'Sullivan (c 1840 &ndash January 14 1882) was a Photographer prominent for his work on subjects in the American Civil War and Background and movement to battle See also [[Gettysburg Campaign]] [[Gettysburg Battlefield]] [[Gettysburg Confederate order of battle]] [[Confederate order of battle]]  The battle also had a major impact on the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, which numbered only 2,400 inhabitants. Gettysburg is a borough 38 miles (68 km south by southwest of Harrisburg in Adams County, Pennsylvania, USA, of which it is the  The battlefield contained the bodies of more than 7,500 dead soldiers and several thousand horses of the Union's Army of the Potomac and the Confederacy's Army of Northern Virginia, and the stench of rotting bodies in the humid July air was overpowering. The Army of the Potomac was the major Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. The Confederate States of America (also called the Confederacy, the Confederate States, and CSA) formed as the government set up from 1861 The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War. 
Interring the dead in a dignified and orderly manner became a high priority for the few thousand residents of Gettysburg. Initially, the town planned to buy land for a cemetery and then ask the families of the dead to pay for their burial. However, David Wills, a wealthy 32-year-old attorney, objected to this idea and wrote to the Governor of Pennsylvania, Andrew Gregg Curtin, suggesting instead a National Cemetery to be funded by the states. David Wills (1831 &ndash October 27, 1890) was the principal figure in the establishment of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg Pennsylvania Andrew Gregg Curtin ( April 22, 1817 – October 7, 1894) was a U Wills was authorized to purchase 17 acres (69,000 m²) for a cemetery to honor those lost in the summer's battle, paying $2,475. 87 for the land. 
Wills originally planned to dedicate this new cemetery on Wednesday, October 23, and invited Edward Everett, who had served as Secretary of State, U.S. Senator, U.S. Representative, Governor of Massachusetts, president of Harvard University, and Vice Presidential candidate, to be the main speaker. David Wills (1831 &ndash October 27, 1890) was the principal figure in the establishment of the National Cemetery at Gettysburg Pennsylvania Events 4004 BC - Creation of the world begins according to the calculations of Archbishop James Ussher 42 BC - Edward Everett ( April 11, 1794 January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, United States. The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death  At that time, Everett was a widely famed orator.  In reply, Everett told Wills and his organizing committee that he would be unable to prepare an appropriate speech in such a short period of time, and requested that the date be postponed. The committee agreed, and the dedication was postponed until Thursday, November 19. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land 
Almost as an afterthought, Wills and the event committee invited President Lincoln to participate in the ceremony. Wills's letter stated, "It is the desire that, after the Oration, you, as Chief Executive of the nation, formally set apart these grounds to their sacred use by a few appropriate remarks. A chief executive officer ( CEO) or chief executive is typically the highest-ranking corporate officer ( executive) or administrator " Lincoln received formal notice of his invitation to participate only seventeen days before the ceremony, while Everett had been invited 40 days earlier: "Although there is some evidence Lincoln expected Wills's letter, its late date makes the author appear presumptuous. . . Seventeen days was extraordinarily short notice for presidential participation even by nineteenth-century standards. " Furthermore, Wills's letter "made it equally clear to the president that he would have only a small part in the ceremonies", perhaps akin to the modern tradition of inviting a noted public figure to do a ribbon-cutting at a grand opening. A “ Grand Opening ” is a term used when a business public office or private association wishes to announce their official opening of their new location
Lincoln arrived by train in Gettysburg on November 18, and spent the night as a guest in Wills's house on the Gettysburg town square, where he put the finishing touches on the speech he had written in Washington, D.C. Contrary to popular belief, Lincoln neither completed his address while on the train nor wrote it on the back of an envelope. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D  This story is at odds with the existence of several early drafts on Executive Mansion stationery as well as the reports of Lincoln's final editing while a guest of David Wills in Gettysburg.  On the morning of November 19 at 9:30 a. m. , Lincoln, astride a chestnut bay horse and riding between Secretary of State William H. Seward and Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chase, joined in a procession with the assembled dignitaries, townspeople, and widows marching out to the grounds to be dedicated. This article is about the New York Governor and Secretary of State The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until Salmon Portland Chase ( January 13, 1808 – May 7, 1873) was an American politician and jurist in the Civil War era
Approximately 15,000 people are estimated to have attended the ceremony, including the sitting governors of six of the 24 Union states: Andrew Gregg Curtin of Pennsylvania, Augustus Bradford of Maryland, Oliver P. Morton of Indiana, Horatio Seymour of New York, Joel Parker of New Jersey, and David Tod of Ohio. Andrew Gregg Curtin ( April 22, 1817 – October 7, 1894) was a U Augustus Williamson Bradford ( January 9, 1806 March 1, 1881) a Democrat, was the 32nd Governor of Maryland Horatio Seymour ( May 31, 1810 February 12, 1886) was an American Politician. Joel Parker ( November 24, 1816 January 2, 1888) was an American Democratic Party Politician, who served as the David Tod ( February 21 1805 November 13 1868) was a politician and industrialist from the U  Canadian politician William McDougall also attended as Lincoln's guest. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page William McDougall may refer to William McDougall (politician (1822-1905 Candian lawyer and politician from Ontario William McDougall (Quebec  The precise location of the program within the grounds of the cemetery is disputed.  Reinterment of the bodies buried from field graves into the cemetery, which had begun within months of the battle, was less than half complete on the day of the ceremony. 
By August 1863, the casualty lists from Civil War battles included a quarter of a million names. As a result, anti-war and anti-Lincoln sentiments rose in the north. Peace Democrats known as Copperheads were eager to oust Lincoln in the 1864 election in order to end the war through concessions to the Confederacy, and Lincoln's 1863 drafts were highly unpopular. The Copperheads were a vocal group of Democrats in the Northern United States (see also Union (American Civil War) who opposed the American Civil Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority Governor Curtin warned Lincoln that political sentiments were turning against the war effort. :
If the election were to occur now, the result would be extremely doubtful, and although most of our discreet friends are sanguine of the result, my impression is, the chances would be against us. The draft is very odious in the State. . . the Democratic leaders have succeeded in exciting prejudice and passion, and have infused their poison into the minds of the people to a very large extent, and the changes are against us.
By November 1863, Lincoln was quite sensible of the fact that he needed to do or say something that would revive the Union's spirits toward the war effort.
The program organized for that day by Wills and his committee included:
Everett's speech was the day's principal "Gettysburg address. " His now seldom-read 13,607-word oration began:
And ended two hours later with:
|A modern recording of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address.|
Not long after those well-received remarks, Lincoln spoke in his high-pitched Kentucky accent for two or three minutes. Southern American English is a group of Dialects of the English language spoken throughout the Southern region of the United States, from Southern  Lincoln's "few appropriate remarks" summarized the war in 10 sentences and 271 words.
Despite the historical significance of Lincoln's speech, modern scholars disagree as to its exact wording, and contemporary transcriptions published in newspaper accounts of the event and even handwritten copies by Lincoln himself differ in their wording, punctuation, and structure.  Of these versions, the Bliss version, written well after the speech as a favor for a friend, is viewed by many as the standard text.  Its text differs, however, from the written versions prepared by Lincoln before and after his speech. It is the only version to which Lincoln affixed his signature, and the last he is known to have written. 
Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal. The quotation "All men are created equal" is arguably the best-known phrase in any of America 's political documents as the idea it expresses is generally considered
Now we are engaged in a great civil war, testing whether that nation, or any nation, so conceived and so dedicated, can long endure. We are met on a great battle-field of that war. We have come to dedicate a portion of that field, as a final resting place for those who here gave their lives that that nation might live. It is altogether fitting and proper that we should do this.
But, in a larger sense, we can not dedicate—we can not consecrate—we can not hallow—this ground. The brave men, living and dead, who struggled here, have consecrated it, far above our poor power to add or detract. The world will little note, nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here. It is for us the living, rather, to be dedicated here to the unfinished work which they who fought here have thus far so nobly advanced. It is rather for us to be here dedicated to the great task remaining before us—that from these honored dead we take increased devotion to that cause for which they gave the last full measure of devotion—that we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.
In a review of Garry Wills's book, Lincoln at Gettysburg, Civil War scholar James McPherson notes the parallels between Lincoln's speech and Pericles's Funeral Oration during the Peloponnesian War as described by Thucydides. Henry Kirke Brown ( February 24 1814, Leyden Massachusetts – July 10 1886, Newburgh New York) was an American Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934 in Atlanta Georgia) is an Author and Historian, and a frequent contributor to the New York For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B McPherson James M Pericles' Funeral Oration is a famous speech from Thucydides ' History of the Peloponnesian War. Thucydides ( C 460 BC &ndash C 395 BC) ( Greek Θουκυδίδης Thoukydídēs) was a Greek  Pericles's speech, like Lincoln's, begins with an acknowledgment of revered predecessors: "I shall begin with our ancestors: it is both just and proper that they should have the honour of the first mention on an occasion like the present"; then praises the uniqueness of the State's commitment to democracy: "If we look to the laws, they afford equal justice to all in their private differences"; honors the sacrifice of the slain, "Thus choosing to die resisting, rather than to live submitting, they fled only from dishonour, but met danger face to face"; and exhorts the living to continue the struggle: "You, their survivors, must determine to have as unfaltering a resolution in the field, though you may pray that it may have a happier issue. Democracy is a form of government in which the supreme power is held completely by the people under a free electoral system " In contrast, writer Adam Gopnik, in The New Yorker, notes that while Everett's Oration was explicitly neoclassical, referring directly to Marathon and Pericles, "Lincoln’s rhetoric is, instead, deliberately Biblical. Adam Gopnik, (born August 24, 1956) an American Writer, Essayist and Commentator. The New Yorker is an American Magazine that publishes reportage commentary criticism essays fiction satire cartoons and poetry The marathon is a long-distance foot race with an official distance of 42 Pericles (also spelled Perikles) (c 495 – 429 BC Greek:, meaning "surrounded by glory" was a prominent and influential Statesman, orator (It is difficult to find a single obviously classical reference in all of his speeches. ) Lincoln had mastered the sound of the King James Bible so completely that he could recast abstract issues of constitutional law in Biblical terms, making the proposition that Texas and New Hampshire should be forever bound by a single post office sound like something right out of Genesis. "
Regarding the provenance of Lincoln's famous phrase "government of the people, by the people, for the people," there are several theories advanced by Lincoln scholars to explain its origin. In a discussion "A more probable origin of a famous Lincoln phrase," in The American Monthly Review of Reviews, Albert Shaw credits a correspondent with pointing out the writings of William Herndon, Lincoln's law partner, who wrote in the 1888 work Abraham Lincoln: The True Story of A Great Life that he had brought to Lincoln some of the sermons of abolitionist minister Theodore Parker, of Massachusetts, and that Lincoln was moved by Parker's use of this idea:
I brought with me additional sermons and lectures of Theodore Parker, who was warm in his commendation of Lincoln. William Herndon may refer to William Herndon (naval officer (1813&ndash1857 an officer and explorer in the United States Navy William Herndon Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies In Christian churches, a minister is someone who is authorized by a church or religious organization to perform clergy functions such as teaching of beliefs Theodore Parker (August 24 1810 – May 10 1860 was an American Transcendentalist and reforming minister of the Unitarian The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. One of these was a lecture on 'The Effect of Slavery on the American People'. . . which I gave to Lincoln, who read and returned it. He liked especially the following expression, which he marked with a pencil, and which he in substance afterwards used in his Gettysburg Address: 'Democracy is direct self-government, over all the people, for all the people, by all the people. '
Craig R. Smith, in "Criticism of Political Rhetoric and Disciplinary Integrity", suggested Lincoln's view of the government as expressed in the Gettysburg Address was influenced by the noted speech of Massachusetts Senator Daniel Webster, the "Second Reply to Hayne", in which Webster famously thundered "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable!" Specifically, in this January 26, 1830 speech before the United States Senate, Webster described the Federal Government as: "made for the people, made by the people, and answerable to the people," foreshadowing Lincoln's "government of the people, by the people, for the people. The United States Senate is the Upper house of the bicameral United States Congress, the Lower house being the House of Representatives Daniel Webster (January 18 1782 &ndash October 24 1852 was a leading American Statesman during the nation's Antebellum Period. The Webster-Hayne debate was a famous debate in the US between Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Senator Robert Y Events 1340 - King Edward III of England is declared King of France. For the game see 1830 (board game. Year 1830 ( MDCCCXXX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display " Webster also noted, "This government, Sir, is the independent offspring of the popular will. It is not the creature of State legislatures; nay, more, if the whole truth must be told, the people brought it into existence, established it, and have hitherto supported it, for the very purpose, amongst others, of imposing certain salutary restraints on State sovereignties. "
Wills observed Lincoln's usage of the imagery of birth, life, and death in reference to a nation "brought forth," "conceived," and that shall not "perish. " Others, including Allen C. Guelzo, the director of Civil War Era studies at Gettysburg College in Pennsylvania, suggested that Lincoln's formulation "four score and seven" was an allusion to the King James Version of the Bible's Psalms 90:10, in which man's lifespan is given as "threescore years and ten". The Rev'd Dr Allen Carl Guelzo (born February 2, 1953 in Yokohama Japan) is the Henry R Gettysburg College is a private national four-year liberal arts college founded in 1832 in Gettysburg Pennsylvania, adjacent to the famous battlefield 
The five known manuscript copies of the Gettysburg Address are each named for the associated person who received it from Lincoln. Lincoln gave a copy to each of his private secretaries, John Nicolay and John Hay. John George Nicolay (born February 26, 1832, as Johann Georg in, Rhineland-Palatinate &ndash September 26, 1901) was an John Milton Hay ( October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman diplomat author journalist and private secretary  Both of these drafts were written around the time of his November 19 address, while the other three copies of the address, the Everett, Bancroft, and Bliss copies, were written by Lincoln for charitable purposes well after November 19. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land  In part because Lincoln provided a title and signed and dated the Bliss Copy, it has become the standard text of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. 
The two earliest drafts of the Address are associated with some confusion and controversy regarding their existence and provenance. Nicolay and Hay were appointed custodians of Lincoln's papers by Lincoln's son Robert Todd Lincoln in 1874. Robert Todd Lincoln ( August 1, 1843 &ndash July 26, 1926) was an American lawyer and politician and the first son of President  After appearing in facsimile in an article written by John Nicolay in 1894, the Nicolay Copy was presumably among the papers passed to Hay by Nicolay's daughter Helen upon Nicolay's death in 1901. A facsimile (From Latin fac simile, "make like" is a copy or reproduction of an old Book, Manuscript, Map, Robert Lincoln began a search for the original copy in 1908, which resulted in the discovery of a handwritten copy of the Gettysburg Address among the bound papers of John Hay—a copy now known as the "Hay Draft. "
The Hay Draft differed from the version of the Gettysburg Address published by John Nicolay in 1894 in a number of significant ways: it was written on a different type of paper, had a different number of words per line and number of lines, and contained editorial revisions in Lincoln's hand. 
Both the Hay and Nicolay copies of the Address are within the Library of Congress, encased in specially-designed, temperature-controlled, sealed containers with argon gas in order to protect the documents from oxidation and continued degeneration. This article pertains to the chemical element For other uses see Argon (disambiguation. 
The Nicolay Copy[a] is often called the "first draft" because it is believed to be the earliest copy that exists.  Scholars disagree over whether the Nicolay Copy was actually the reading copy Lincoln held at Gettysburg on November 19. Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land In an 1894 article that included a facsimile of this copy, Nicolay, who had become the custodian of Lincoln's papers, wrote that Lincoln had brought to Gettysburg the first part of the speech written in ink on Executive Mansion stationery, and that he had written the second page in pencil on lined paper before the dedication on November 19. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land  Matching folds are still evident on the two pages, suggesting it could be the copy that eyewitnesses say Lincoln took from his coat pocket and read at the ceremony.  Others believe that the delivery text has been lost, because some of the words and phrases of the Nicolay Copy do not match contemporary transcriptions of Lincoln's original speech.  The words "under God", for example, are missing in this copy from the phrase "that this nation (under God) shall have a new birth of freedom. . . " In order for the Nicolay draft to have been the reading copy, either the contemporary transcriptions were inaccurate, or Lincoln would have had to depart from his written text in several instances. This copy of the Gettysburg Address apparently remained in John Nicolay's possession until his death in 1901, when it passed to his friend and colleague John Hay.  It is on permanent display as part of the American Treasures exhibition of the Library of Congress in Washington, D. C. 
The existence of the Hay Copy[b] was first announced to the public in 1906, after the search for the "original manuscript" of the Address among the papers of John Hay brought it to light. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal  Significantly, it differs markedly from the manuscript of the Address described by John Hay in his article, and contains numerous omissions and inserts in Lincoln's own hand, including omissions critical to the basic meaning of the sentence, not simply words that would be added by Lincoln to strengthen or clarify their meaning.
This version has been described as "the most inexplicable" of the drafts and is sometimes referred to as the "second draft. " The "Hay Copy" was made either on the morning of the delivery of the Address, or shortly after Lincoln's return to Washington. Those that believe that it was completed on the morning of his address point to the fact that it contains certain phrases that are not in the first draft but are in the reports of the address as delivered and in subsequent copies made by Lincoln. It is probable, they conclude, that, as stated in the explanatory note accompanying the original copies of the first and second drafts in the Library of Congress, Lincoln held this second draft when he delivered the address. The Library of Congress is the De facto National library of the United States and the research arm of the United States Congress  Lincoln eventually gave this copy to his other personal secretary, John Hay, whose descendants donated both it and the Nicolay Copy to the Library of Congress in 1916. John Milton Hay ( October 8, 1838 – July 1, 1905) was an American statesman diplomat author journalist and private secretary 
The Everett Copy,[c] also known as the "Everett-Keyes Copy," was sent by President Lincoln to Edward Everett in early 1864, at Everett's request. Edward Everett ( April 11, 1794 January 15, 1865) was a Whig Party politician from Massachusetts. Everett was collecting the speeches at the Gettysburg dedication into one bound volume to sell for the benefit of stricken soldiers at New York's Sanitary Commission Fair. The United States Sanitary Commission was an official agency of the United States government created by legislation signed by President of the United States The draft Lincoln sent became the third autograph copy, and is now in the possession of the Illinois State Historical Library in Springfield, Illinois, where it is currently on display in the Treasures Gallery of the Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum. Springfield is the capital of the US state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County with a population of 116482 (U The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum documents the life of the 16th U
The Bancroft Copy[d] of the Gettysburg Address was written out by President Lincoln in February 1864 at the request of George Bancroft, the famed historian and former Secretary of the Navy whose comprehensive ten volume History of the United States later led him to be known as the "father of American History. George Bancroft (October 3 1800 &ndash January 17 1891 was an American Historian and Statesman who was prominent in promoting Secondary education The United States Secretary of the Navy ( SECNAV) is the Civilian head of the Department of the Navy. " Bancroft planned to include this copy in Autograph Leaves of Our Country's Authors, which he planned to sell at a Soldiers' and Sailors' Sanitary Fair in Baltimore. As this fourth copy was written on both sides of the paper, it proved unusable for this purpose, and Bancroft was allowed to keep it. This manuscript is the only one accompanied both by a letter from Lincoln transmitting the manuscript and by the original envelope addressed and franked by Lincoln. Franking (or "Franks") are any and all devices or markings such as Postage stamps (including printed and/or embossed on Postal stationery  This copy remained in the Bancroft family for many years, was sold to various dealers and purchased by Nicholas and Marguerite Lilly Noyes, who donated the manuscript to Cornell in 1949. It is now held by the Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections in the Carl A. Kroch Library at Cornell University.  It is the only one of the five copies to be privately owned. 
Discovering that his fourth written copy could not be used, Lincoln then wrote a fifth draft, which was accepted for the purpose requested. The Bliss Copy,[e] named for Colonel Alexander Bliss, Bancroft's stepson and publisher of Autograph Leaves, is the only draft to which Lincoln affixed his signature. Lincoln is not known to have made any further copies of the Gettysburg Address. Because of the apparent care in its preparation, and in part because Lincoln provided a title and signed and dated this copy, it has become the standard version of the address and the source for most facsimile reproductions of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address. 
This draft now hangs in the Lincoln Room of the White House, a gift of Oscar B. Cintas, former Cuban Ambassador to the United States. The Lincoln Bedroom is located on the second floor of the White House, part of a guest suite of rooms that includes the Lincoln Sitting Room. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence Oscar Benjamin Cintas, (b Sagua la Grande Cuba 1887 d New York City N The Republic of Cuba (ˈkjuːbə or) consists of the island of Cuba (the largest and second-most populous island of the Greater Antilles) Isla de la  Cintas, a wealthy collector of art and manuscripts, purchased the Bliss Copy at a public auction in 1949 for $54,000, at that time the highest price ever paid for a document at public auction.  Cintas' properties were claimed by the Castro government after the Cuban Revolution in 1959, but Cintas, who died in 1957, willed the Gettysburg Address to the American people, provided it would be kept at the White House, where it was transferred in 1959. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of the United States proxy ruler General Fulgencio Batista 's regime on January 1, 
Garry Wills concluded the Bliss Copy "is stylistically preferable to others in one significant way: Lincoln removed 'here' from 'that cause for which they (here) gave. . . ' The seventh 'here' is in all other versions of the speech. " Wills noted the fact that Lincoln "was still making such improvements," suggesting Lincoln was more concerned with a perfected text than with an 'original' one.
Another contemporary source of the text is the Associated Press dispatch, transcribed from the shorthand notes taken by reporter Joseph L. The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio Gilbert. It also differs from the drafted text in a number of minor ways. 
Eyewitness reports vary as to their view of Lincoln's performance. In 1931, the printed recollections of 87-year-old Mrs. Sarah A. Cooke Myers, who at the age of 19 was present, suggest a dignified silence followed Lincoln's speech: "I was close to the President and heard all of the Address, but it seemed short. Then there was an impressive silence like our Menallen Friends Meeting. There was no applause when he stopped speaking. " According to historian Shelby Foote, after Lincoln's presentation, the applause was delayed, scattered, and "barely polite. Shelby Dade Foote Jr ( November 17 1916 &ndash June 27 2005) was an American Novelist and a noted historian of the " In contrast, Pennsylvania Governor Curtin maintained, "He pronounced that speech in a voice that all the multitude heard. Governors Pennsylvania was one of the original Thirteen colonies, and was admitted as a state on December 12 1787 The crowd was hushed into silence because the President stood before them. . . It was so Impressive! It was the common remark of everybody. Such a speech, as they said it was!"
In an oft-repeated legend, Lincoln is said to have turned to his bodyguard Ward Hill Lamon and remarked that his speech, like a bad plow, "won't scour. Ward Hill Lamon ( January 6, 1828 - May 7, 1893) was a personal friend and self-appointed Bodyguard of the American " According to Garry Wills, this statement has no basis in fact and largely originates from the unreliable recollections of Lamon.  In Garry Wills's view, "[Lincoln] had done what he wanted to do [at Gettysburg]. "
In a letter to Lincoln written the following day, Everett praised the President for his eloquent and concise speech, saying, "I should be glad if I could flatter myself that I came as near to the central idea of the occasion, in two hours, as you did in two minutes. " Lincoln was glad to know the speech was not a "total failure". 
Other public reaction to the speech was divided along partisan lines. The next day the Democratic-leaning Chicago Times observed, "The cheek of every American must tingle with shame as he reads the silly, flat and dishwatery utterances of the man who has to be pointed out to intelligent foreigners as the President of the United States. The Chicago Times was a Newspaper in Chicago from 1854 to 1895 when it merged with the Chicago Herald. " In contrast, the Republican-oriented New York Times was complimentary. A Massachusetts paper printed the entire speech, commenting that it was "deep in feeling, compact in thought and expression, and tasteful and elegant in every word and comma. "
William R. Rathvon is the only known eyewitness of both Lincoln's arrival at Gettysburg and the address itself to have left an audio recording of his recollections. William Roedel Rathvon, CSB ( December 31 1854 – March 2 1939) sometimes incorrectly referred to as William V  One year before his death in 1939, Rathvon's reminiscences were recorded on February 12, 1938 at the Boston studios of radio station WRUL, including his reading the address, itself, and a 78 rpm record was pressed. Events 1429 - English Forces under Sir John Fastolf defend a supply convoy carrying rations to the army besieging Orleans from attack by the Year 1938 ( MCMXXXVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The title of the 78 record was "I Heard Lincoln That Day - William R. Rathvon, TR Productions. " A copy wound up at National Public Radio (NPR) during a "Quest for Sound" project in 1999. NPR continues to air them around Lincoln's birthday.
The only known and confirmed photograph of Lincoln at Gettysburg, taken by photographer David Bachrach was identified in the Mathew Brady collection of photographic plates in the National Archives and Records Administration in 1952. Note that Mathew B Brady spelled his first name with only one "t" The United States National Archives and Records Administration ( NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged While Lincoln's speech was short and may have precluded multiple pictures of him while speaking, he and the other dignitaries sat for hours during the rest of the program. Given the length of Everett's speech and the length of time it took for 19th century photographers to get "set up" before taking a picture, it is quite plausible that the photographers were ill prepared for the brevity of Lincoln's remarks.
In 2006, Civil War enthusiast John Richter was credited with identifying two additional photographs in the Library of Congress collection that potentially show President Lincoln in the procession at Gettysburg. 
The words "under God" do not appear in the Nicolay and Hay drafts but are included in the three later copies (Everett, Bancroft, and Bliss). Accordingly, some skeptics maintain that Lincoln did not utter the words "under God" at Gettysburg. In ordinary usage skepticism or scepticism ( Greek 'σκέπτομαι' skeptomai, to look about to consider see also spelling differences  However, at least three reporters telegraphed the text of Lincoln's speech on the day the Address was given with the words "under God" included:
Every stenographic report, good, bad and indifferent, says 'that the nation shall, under God, have a new birth of freedom. ' There was no common source from which all the reporters could have obtained those words but from Lincoln's own lips at the time of delivery. It will not do to say that [Secretary of War] Stanton suggested those words after Lincoln's return to Washington, for the words were telegraphed by at least three reporters on the afternoon of the delivery. Edwin McMasters Stanton ( December 19, 1814 &ndash December 24, 1869) was an American lawyer politician United States 
The reporters present included Joseph Gilbert, from the Associated Press; Charles Hale, from the Boston Advertiser; John R. Young, from the Philadelphia Press (and future Librarian of Congress); and reporters from the Cincinnati Commercial, New York Tribune, and New York Times. The Associated Press ( AP) is an American News agency. The AP is a Cooperative owned by its contributing Newspapers radio John Russell Young ( November 20, 1840 &ndash January 17, 1899) an American journalist author diplomat and the seventh Librarian of Congress The Philadelphia Press ( The Press) was published from August 1, 1857 to October 1, 1920. The Librarian of Congress is the head of the Library of Congress, appointed by the president with the advice and consent of the Senate.  Charles Hale "had notebook and pencil in hand, [and] took down the slow-spoken words of the President".  "He took down what he declared was the exact language of Lincoln's address, and his declaration was as good as the oath of a court stenographer. His associates confirmed his testimony, which was received, as it deserved to be at its face value. "
The importance of the Gettysburg Address in the history of the United States is underscored by its enduring presence in American culture. In addition to its prominent place carved into a stone cella on the south wall of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D. For the Spanish town see Cella Spain Naos redirects here For other meanings see Naos (disambiguation. The Lincoln Memorial is a United States Presidential memorial built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. C. , the Gettysburg Address is frequently referred to in works of popular culture, with the implicit expectation that contemporary audiences will be familiar with Lincoln's words.
In the many generations that have passed since the Address, it has remained among the most famous speeches in American history.  Lincoln's Gettysburg Address is itself referenced in another of those famed orations, Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech. Martin Luther King Jr ( January 15, 1929 April 4, 1968) was an American clergyman, Activist and prominent leader " I Have A Dream " is the popular name given to the historic public speech by Martin Luther King Jr  Standing on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial in August 1963, King began with a reference to President Lincoln and his enduring words: "Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we stand today, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice. "
The Constitution of France (under the present Fifth Republic) states that the principle of the Republic of France is "gouvernement du peuple, par le peuple et pour le peuple" ("government of the people, by the people, and for the people,") a literal translation of Lincoln's words. The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958. See also Government of France The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 
This fame is somewhat ironic, for Lincoln clearly states that he expects that "the world will little note, nor long remember what we say here. "