|Ordered:||25 January 1934|
|Laid down:||15 June 1935|
|Launched:||3 October 1936|
|Commissioned:||7 January 1939|
|Fate:||Sunk at Battle of North Cape on 26 December 1943the|
|Class and type:||Scharnhorst|
|Displacement:||31,552 tonnes (standard) 38,900 tonnes (full load)|
|Length:||235. This article is about the World War I Armored cruiser Scharnhorst for the World War II Battlecruiser of the same name see German Events 41 - After a night of negotiation Claudius is accepted as Roman Emperor by the Senate Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history Year 1935 ( MCMXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In the World War II naval Battle of the North Cape, ships of the Royal Navy sank the German Battlecruiser ''Scharnhorst'' off Norway Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 4 m (772. 3 ft) overall|
229. 8 m (753. 9 ft) waterline
|Beam:||30 m (98. 4 ft)|
|Draft:||9. 93 m (32. 5 ft) at 37,500 long tons (38,100 tonnes)|
|Propulsion:||3 Brown-Boveri geared turbines;|
3 three-bladed propellers, 4. 8 m (15. 75 ft) diameter;
161,164 shp (120. 18 MW)
|Speed:||33 knots (61 km/h)|
|Range:||10,100 nmi (18,710 km) at 19 knots (18,700 km at 35 km/h)|
|Complement:||1,968 (60 officers, 1,909 enlisted)|
14 × 10. 5 cm/65 (4. 1") SK C/33
16 × 3. 7 cm/L83 (1. 5") SK C/30
10 (later 16) × 2 cm/65 (0. 79") C/30 or C/38
6 × 533 mm torpedo tubes
|Armor:||Main belt: 350 mm (13. 78 inch)|
Deck: 95 mm max.
|Aircraft carried:||3 Arado Ar 196A-3, 1 catapult|
Scharnhorst was a famous World War II capital ship, the lead of her class, referred to as either a light battleship or a battlecruiser of the German Kriegsmarine. The Ar 196 was a shipboard Reconnaissance aircraft built by the German firm Arado starting in 1936 World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The capital ships of a Navy are its "important" warships the ones with the heaviest Firepower and Armor. Design and classification Like the " Pocket battleships quot of the ''Deutschland'' class Scharnhorst and Gneisenau were political A battleship is a large heavily armored Warship with a main battery consisting of the largest Calibre of Guns Battleships were Battlecruisers were large Warships in the first half of the 20th century that were first introduced by the British Royal Navy. The Kriegsmarine (English "War navy" was the name of the German Navy between 1935 and 1945 during the Nazi regime superseding the This 31,500 tonne ship was named after the Prussian general and army reformer Gerhard von Scharnhorst and to commemorate the World War I armoured cruiser SMS Scharnhorst that was sunk in the Battle at the Falkland Islands in December 1914. The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and from 1871 was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising Gerhard Johann David von Scharnhorst ( 12 November 1755 - 28 June 1813) was a General in Prussian service Chief World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The armored cruiser, or armoured cruiser (see spelling differences) is a type of Cruiser, a naval warship. This article is about the World War I Armored cruiser Scharnhorst for the World War II Battlecruiser of the same name see German The Battle of the Falkland Islands was a British naval victory over the Imperial German Navy on 8 December 1914 during the First World War Scharnhorst often sailed into battle accompanied by her sister-ship, Gneisenau. Construction She was laid down in February 1934 at Deutsche Werke Kiel. She was sunk after being engaged by Allied forces at the Battle of North Cape in December 1943. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. In the World War II naval Battle of the North Cape, ships of the Royal Navy sank the German Battlecruiser ''Scharnhorst'' off Norway
The ship was built at Wilhelmshaven, Germany, launched on 3 October 1936, and commissioned on 7 January 1939. Wilhelmshaven (vɪlhɛlmsˈhaːfən is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The first commander was Otto Ciliax (until 23 September 1939). Otto Ciliax ( 30 October 1891 &ndash 12 December 1964) was an Admiral in the German Navy. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. After initial service, she was modified in mid-1939, with a new mainmast located further aft and her straight bow replaced by an "Atlantic bow" to improve her seaworthiness. The mast of a sailing ship is a tall vertical or near vertical Spar, or arrangement of Spars which supports the Sails Large ships have several masts However, her relatively low freeboard ensured that she was always "wet" when at heavy seas. The gunnery report after the engagement with HMS Renown reports serious flooding in the "A" turret that severely reduced its effectiveness. Her armour was equal to that of a battleship and if it had not been for her relatively small-calibre guns she would have been classified as a battleship by the British. A battleship is a large heavily armored Warship with a main battery consisting of the largest Calibre of Guns Battleships were The German navy always classified Scharnhorst and Gneisenau as Schlachtschiffe (battleships). These two ships, considered handsome and fast (with a top speed of 31. 5 knots), were invariably mentioned at the same time, often fondly being referred to as "the ugly sisters"  because they prowled together and wrought havoc on British shipping.
Scharnhorst's nine 28 cm (11 inch; in fact 283 mm - 11. 1 inch), main guns, though possessing long range and quite good armour-penetration power because of their high muzzle velocity, were no match for the larger calibre guns of most of the battleships of her day, particularly with the flooding and technical problems that were experienced. The choice of armament was a result of their hasty commissioning.
If a later proposal to upgrade the main armament to six 38 cm (15-inch) guns in three twin turrets had been implemented, Scharnhorst would have been a very formidable opponent, faster than any British capital ship and nearly as well armoured. But due to priorities and constraints imposed by World War II and later the war situation, she retained her 28 cm (11 inch) guns throughout her career. Both Scharnhorst and her sister were designed for an extended range to allow for commerce raiding. Commerce raiding is to destroy the logistics (supplies of an enemy on the open sea rather than engaging the combatants themselves or enforcing a Blockade against them
Scharnhorst's first wartime operation was a sortie into the Iceland-Faroes passage, which lasted six days from 21-27 November 1939, with Gneisenau in which she sank the British Armed Merchant Cruiser HMS Rawalpindi, although her victim fought a tough defensive battle. Sortie is a term for deployment or dispatch of one military unit be it of Aircraft, Ship or in older times of columns of troops from a fort Iceland, officially the Republic of Iceland ( ( Ísland or Lýðveldið Ísland ( The Faroe Islands or Faeroe Islands or simply Faroe(s or Faeroes (Føroyar meaning " Sheep Islands" Færøerne Old Norse Construction She was laid down in February 1934 at Deutsche Werke Kiel. Armed Merchantmen has come to mean merchant ships equipped with guns usually for defensive purposes either by design or after the fact Sinking While patrolling north of the Faroe Islands on 23 November 1939 she investigated a possible enemy sighting only to find that she had encountered two of the most  The Rawalpindi's Captain, Edward Coverley Kennedy (father of naval Historian Ludovic Kennedy), had been notified at around 15:30 hrs that a large warship had been sighted. Sir Ludovic Henry Coverley Kennedy (born 3 November, 1919) is a British Journalist, broadcaster, and Author. Kennedy identified it as the Deutschland. Description Their size and characteristics were severely limited by the Treaty of Versailles, which limited Germany to ships of no more than 10000 tons displacement Sighting another large ship, Kennedy thought it was a British Heavy Cruiser, and hoped it would be Rawalpindi's saving grace. He therefore ignored the warning shots fired by Scharnhorst. Unfortunately the ship sighted was Gneisenau, and Kennedy found himself surrounded. The ensuing battle lasted just 15 minutes. Scharnhorst eventually sank the ship, killing 238 of the crew, including Kennedy. The German squadron stopped to rescue 38 survivors from the freezing seas. The German commanders on both Gneisenau and Scharnhorst commented on the bravery of the Captain and his crew. 
In the spring of 1940, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau covered the invasion of Norway. Operation Weserübung was the codename for Nazi Germany 's assault on Denmark and Norway during World War II and the opening operation Norway ( Norwegian: Norge ( Bokmål) or Noreg ( Nynorsk) officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Constitutional They engaged the British battlecruiser HMS Renown on 9 April 1940, with inconclusive results. Events 193 - Septimius Severus is proclaimed Roman Emperor by the army in Illyricum (in the Balkans) Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
As a sideline to Operation Juno, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau sank the British aircraft carrier HMS Glorious and her escorting destroyers Acasta and Ardent on 8 June at around 64 degrees N off Norway. Operation Juno was a German naval offensive late in the Norwegian campaign. Genesis Glorious was built by Harland and Wolff, Belfast. The design was for a light Battlecruiser; while having guns she was actually In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy Footnotes See also List of shipwrecks in 1940 Construction and commissioning HMS Ardent was ordered on 6 March 1928 from the yards of Scotts Shipbuilding and Engineering Company, Greenock, Events 68 - The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba. 536 - St Silverius becomes Pope (probable Scharnhorst's salvos hit Glorious at 16:32, before her torpedo-bombers could be launched.  Scharnhorst's second salvo, at 16:38, struck Glorious at the extreme range of 24,000m (26,300yd), one of the longest range hits ever recorded. A Gneisenau salvo subsequently hit the bridge. The destroyers had started to lay smoke to protect Glorious and themselves. Ardent and Acasta made continual attempts to launch torpedoes at the German ships. At about 17:39, Scharnhorst was hit by one of four torpedoes launched by Acasta.  Fifty sailors were killed, 2500 tons of water flooded into her and her aft turret was put out of action. Ardent was sunk at around 17:20 having made seven attacks with torpedoes.
Admiral Wilhelm Marschall, aboard his flagship Gneisenau ordered Scharnhorst to cease fire and wasting ammunition on Glorious. At this point Gneisenau was 4,000 metres closer to Glorious than Scharnhorst.  Glorious sank shortly after 18:30. Scharnhorst in company with Gneisenau made for Trondheim for repairs, due to their exposed position they were not able to stop to rescue survivors of any of the ships. On the 13 June Fleet Air Arm Blackburn Skua bombers from Ark Royal attacked Scharnhorst in harbour; only a single bomb struck her. Events 1525 - Martin Luther marries Katharina von Bora, against the Celibacy rule decreed by the Roman Catholic Church for The Fleet Air Arm is the branch of the Royal Navy responsible for the operation of the aircraft on board their ships WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout
It was not until 23 June that she was able to reach Kiel and a dry dock. Events 1180 - First Battle of Uji, starting the Genpei War in Japan 1305 - The Flemish For the city in the United States, see Kiel Wisconsin. For the name see Kiel (name. A drydock is a narrow basin or vessel that can be flooded to allow a load to be floated in then drained to allow that load to come to rest on a dry platform She remained there under repair for most of the rest of 1940. In late December 1940, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau attempted to pass through the British blockade into the north Atlantic shipping lanes, but turned back when Gneisenau was damaged by heavy seas.
As a result of the action, between 1, 474 and 1, 530 British sailors were killed. 
From 22 January until 22 March 1941, Scharnhorst and Gneisenau successfully "broke out" into the Atlantic shipping lanes, the first and only time the ship was to do so. "Operation Berlin" redirects here For the rescue attempt during Operation Market Garden, see Operation Berlin (Arnhem rescue Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Under the command of Admiral Günther Lütjens, on 3 February they broke through the Denmark Strait and the next day reached southern Greenland. Günther Lütjens ( 25 May 1889 &ndash 27 May 1941) was a German Admiral whose military service spanned three decades Events 1112 - Ramon Berenguer III of Barcelona and Douce I of Provence marry uniting the fortunes of those two states The Denmark Strait (Danmarksstrædet Grænlandssund the latter meaning Greenland Strait is a Strait between Greenland (northwest and Iceland Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat meaning "Land of the Greenlanders" Grønland is a self-governing Danish Province located between the Convoy HX-106 was attacked on 8 February, but the attack was broken off when the Royal Navy battleship HMS Ramillies was sighted. Convoy HX-106 consisted of some 41 ships eastbound from Halifax Nova Scotia to Liverpool, England Events 421 - Constantius III becomes co- Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. The Royal Navy of the United Kingdom is the oldest of the British armed services (and is therefore known as the Senior Service) Construction and launch Ramillies was built by William Beardmore and Company at Dailmuir in Scotland. Twelve days later, on 22 February, four Allied merchant ships were sighted and sunk east of Newfoundland. Events 1495 - King Charles VIII of France enters Naples to claim the city's throne Newfoundland and Labrador (ˈnuːfɨn(dlənd ən(d ˈlæbrəˌdɔr (Terre-Neuve-et-Labrador is a province of Canada, the tenth and latest to join the Confederation By operating in a region of the Atlantic where British air cover was weak to non-existent, the German ships managed to elude the Royal Navy and between the 7th and 9th of March they attacked convoy SL-67, only breaking off the attack when the battleship HMS Malaya was sighted. An unescorted convoy of empty and returning tankers was attacked south-east of Newfoundland on 15 March, and the next day another mixed convoy was detected and attacked with the sinking of 13 ships, four by the Scharnhorst. Events 44 BC - Julius Caesar, Dictator of the Roman Republic, is stabbed to death by Marcus Junius Brutus, This was the last engagement before the battlecruisers entered the French port of Brest on 22 March. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Brest (bʁɛst in French, in Breton) is a city in the Finistère department in Bretagne in northwestern France. Events 238 - Gordian I and his son Gordian II are proclaimed Roman emperor. The Scharnhorst sank eight ships with total tonnage of 49,300 out of the squadron's total of 22 ships with a combined tonnage of 115,600. The Operation lasted exactly two months, and the journey of 17,800 nautical miles (33,000 km) in 59 days was a record for German capital ships. 
The next few months would see RAF Bomber Command attack the ship while berthed. RAF Bomber Command was the organisation that controlled the RAF 's bomber forces from 1936 to 1968 The most successful raid was carried out on 24 July 1941 in which Scharnhorst was struck by armour-piercing bombs that caused some flooding, along with an 8° list to starboard. Events 1132 - Battle of Nocera between Ranulf II of Alife and Roger II of Sicily. Year 1941 ( MCMXLI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (the link will display 1941 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The damage took four months to repair. 
Whilst in Brest, the German ships were the target of repeated, but poorly organised and somewhat hasty air attacks. In July 1941 the Scharnhorst sailed to the port of La Rochelle to the south of Brest. La Rochelle is a city in western France, and a Seaport on the Bay of Biscay, a part of the Atlantic Ocean. Having been alerted to the sailing via aerial reconnaissance and the French Resistance, the Allies were concerned that the Scharnhorst was about to commence raiding. Reconnaissance (also scouting) is a military and medical term denoting exploration conducted to gain information The French Resistance is the collective name used for the French Resistance movements which fought against the Nazi German They therefore mounted a raid of 15 Handley Page Halifax bombers from RAF Stanton Harcourt. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout Stanton Harcourt is a village in Oxfordshire, England (919 in parish United Kingdom Census 2001) The resulting bomb damage was serious enough to cause a large amount of flooding. This forced the Scharnhorst to return once more to Brest for repairs. The resulting damage from this and other raids, together with the troubles with the defective boiler superheater tubes, kept Scharnhorst non-operational into late 1941, when it was decided to send the two battlecruisers and the heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen back to Germany. Early war The Prinz Eugen suffered repeated damage before deployment Since it was too risky to attempt this via the North Atlantic, on 11 February–13 February 1942, the three big ships, escorted by dozens of minesweepers and other small craft, made a daring dash — the "Channel Dash" — through the English Channel, called Operation Cerberus, to reach Germany. Events 660 BC - Traditional founding date of Japan by Emperor Jimmu. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Caught off guard and under heavy German radar jamming, the British were unable to stop the ships with air and surface attacks, though both Scharnhorst and Gneisenau suffered mine damage; Scharnhorst hitting two mines off Flushing and Ameland and Gneisenau one mine off Terschelling. Vlissingen ( or Flushing in English is a Municipality and a City in the southwestern Netherlands on the former island of Walcheren Ameland ( West Frisian: It Amelân) is a Municipality and one of the West Frisian Islands off the north coast of the Netherlands Terschelling ( Skylge Terschelling dialect: Schylge) is a Municipality and an Island in the northern Netherlands, one
Repair work and grounding kept Scharnhorst out of action until March 1943, when she went to northern Norway to join the battleship Tirpitz and other German ships threatening the Arctic convoys' route to the Soviet Union. Operation Zitronella, also known as Operation Sizilien, was the German raid and temporary occupation of Spitsbergen on September 6&ndash9 1943 Operational history This battleship was launched on 1 April 1939 and she was planned to be deployed in a manner similar to the ''Bismarck'', as a Commerce raider The Arctic Convoys of World War II travelled from the United Kingdom and the United States to the northern ports of the Soviet The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Training exercises over the next several months climaxed in a bombardment of Spitsbergen on 8 September 1943, together with the Tirpitz. Spitsbergen (formerly known as West Spitsbergen, and sometimes misspelled Spitzbergen) is a Norwegian island the largest Island of the Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
On Christmas day 1943, Scharnhorst and several destroyers, under the command of Konteradmiral (Rear Admiral) Erich Bey, put to sea with the purpose of attacking the Russia-bound Arctic convoys JW 55B and RA 55A north of Norway. Unternehmen Ostfront ("Operation Ostfront" or "Operation East Front" was the Sortie into the Arctic Ocean by the German In the World War II naval Battle of the North Cape, ships of the Royal Navy sank the German Battlecruiser ''Scharnhorst'' off Norway In naval terminology a destroyer is a fast and maneuverable yet long-endurance Warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, Convoy Erich Bey ( 23 March 1898 – 26 December 1943) was a German naval officer who most notably served as a Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending Unfortunately for the Germans, their orders had been decoded by the British codebreakers and the Admiralty were able to direct their forces to intercept. Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden" and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie" is the study of methods for The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. The next day, in heavy weather and unable to locate the convoy, Bey detached the destroyers and sent them south, leaving Scharnhorst alone. Less than two hours later, the ship encountered the convoy's escort force of the cruisers HMS Belfast, Norfolk, and Sheffield. A cruiser is a large type of Warship, which had its prime period from the late 19th century to the end of the Cold War. Early history The Town class cruisers were constrained to less than 10000 tons by the Washington Naval Treaty. Battle honours Atlantic 1941 ''Bismarck'' 1941 Arctic 1941–1943 North Africa 1942 North Cape 1943 Norway 1945 War service At the outbreak of war Sheffield served with the 18th Cruiser Squadron patrolling the Denmark Straits and then in April 1940 she was engaged Belfast had picked up Scharnhorst at 08:40 and 35,000 yards (32,000 m) using her Type 273 radar and by 09:41, Sheffield had made visual contact. This page is a List of World War II British naval Radar. Nomenclature These sets were initially numbered as Wireless telegraph Under cover of snow, the British cruisers opened fire. Belfast attempted to illuminate Scharnhorst with starshell, but was unsuccessful. Norfolk, however, opened fire using her radar to spot the fall of shot and scored two hits. One of these demolished Scharnhorst's main radar aerial, disabling the set and leaving her unable to return accurate fire in low visibility. Norfolk suffered minor damage.
In order to try to get around the cruisers to the convoy, Bey ordered Scharnhorst to take a southeast course away from the cruisers. In the late afternoon, the convoy's covering force, including the British battleship HMS Duke of York, made contact and opened fire. Despite suffering the loss of its hangar and a turret, Scharnhorst temporarily increased its distance from its pursuers. The Duke of York caught up again and fired again - the second salvo wrecked the "A" turret, detonating the charges in "A" magazine which led to the same in "B" magazine. Partial flooding of the magazines quenched the explosions. No Royal Navy ship received any serious damage, though the flagship was frequently straddled, and one of her masts was smashed by an 11-inch (280 mm) shell. At 18:00 Scharnhorst's main battery went silent; at 18:20 another round from Duke of York destroyed a boiler room, reducing Scharnhorst's speed to about 22 knots (41 km/h) and leaving her open to attacks from the destroyers. Duke of York fired her 77th salvo at 19:28. 
Battered and crippled as she was, her secondary armament was still firing wildly as the cruiser HMS Jamaica and the destroyers Musketeer, Matchless, Opportune, and Virago closed and launched torpedoes at 19:32. The Arctic Convoys Battle of the Barents Sea In September 1942 Jamaica was employed as a close support for convoys in the Arctic  The last three torpedoes, fired by Jamaica at 19:37 from under two miles (3 km) range, was the final crippling blow.
A total of 55 torpedoes and 2,195 shells had been fired at Scharnhorst. 
Marineunteroffizier (Petty Officer) Wilhelm Gödde described the scene:
On the deck, all was calm and orderly. There was hardly any shouting. I saw the way the First Petty Officer helped hundreds of men over the rails. The Captain (Fritz Hintze) checked our life-jackets. Once again before he and the Admiral (Erich Bey) took leave of each other with a handshake. They said to us, "If any of you get out of this alive, say hello to the folks back home, and tell them we did our duty to the last. "
Marineunteroffizier (Petty Officer) Helmut Backhaus describes the moment of sinking:
I stopped and turned in the water to get my bearings. It was then that I saw the keel and propellers. She had capsized and was going down stern first. 
Scharnhorst sank at 19:45 hours on 26 December 1943 with her propellers still turning. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Of a total complement of 1,968 men, only 36 survivors - none an officer - were rescued from the frigid seas; 30 by HMS Scorpion and 6 by Matchless. Ten vessels of the British Royal Navy have been named HMS Scorpion after the carnivorous arthropod: HMS ''Scorpion'' (1746, a 14-gun sloop
HNoMS Stord (Royal Norwegian Navy) and HMS Scorpion fired their torpedoes from an easterly direction. See also List of World War II ships The Royal Norwegian Navy (often abbreviated as RNoN) is the branch of the Norwegian Defence Force responsible for naval operations Stord fired her eight torpedoes as she was about 1,500 yards (1,400 m) from Scharnhorst, while also firing with her guns and scoring hits.
After the battle, Admiral Fraser sent the following message to the Admiralty: ". . . Please convey to the C-in-C Norwegian Navy. Stord played a very daring role in the fight and I am very proud of her. . . ". In an interview in The Evening News on 5 February 1944 the commanding officer of HMS Duke of York said: ". Events 1576 - Henry of Navarre converts to Roman Catholicism in order to ensure his right to the throne of France. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. . . the Norwegian destroyer Stord carried out the most daring attack of the whole action. . . ".
Later that evening, Admiral Bruce Fraser briefed his officers on board Duke of York: "Gentlemen, the battle against Scharnhorst has ended in victory for us. Admiral of the Fleet Bruce Austin Fraser 1st Baron Fraser of North Cape GCB, KBE ( 5 February 1888 &ndash 12 February I hope that if any of you are ever called upon to lead a ship into action against an opponent many times superior, you will command your ship as gallantly as Scharnhorst was commanded today".
On 3 October 2000, the submerged wreck of Scharnhorst was located at about , approximately 70 nautical miles (130 km) north-northeast of North Cape at a depth of nearly 300 m and photographed by the Royal Norwegian Navy. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's 2000 ( MM) was a Leap year that started on Saturday of the Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. For other uses see North Cape. North Cape (Norwegian Nordkapp) is a cape on the island of Magerøya in northern The Royal Norwegian Navy (often abbreviated as RNoN) is the branch of the Norwegian Defence Force responsible for naval operations 
(Promoted to KADM 1 October 1943. Kapitän is a traditional shorted version of several ranks in the German navy, ranging from Kapitänleutnant to Kapitän zur See. Otto Ciliax ( 30 October 1891 &ndash 12 December 1964) was an Admiral in the German Navy. Events 1325 - Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal. 1558 - France takes Calais, the last continental Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Year 1939 ( MCMXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Counter Admiral is an Anglicisation of a Naval rank found in most navies of the world Events 307 - After divorcing his wife Minervina, Constantine marries Fausta, the daughter of the retired Roman Emperor Year 1942 ( MCMXLII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 54 - Nero ascends to the Roman throne 409 - Vandals and Alans crossed the Pyrenees Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. )