Georges Dumézil (March 4, 1898–October 11, 1986) was a French comparative philologist best known for his analysis of sovereignty and power in Proto-Indo-European religion and society. Events 51 - Nero, later to become Roman Emperor, is given the title Princeps iuventutis (head of the youth Year 1898 ( MDCCCXCVIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 1138 - A massive earthquake struck Aleppo, Syria. 1531 - Huldrych Zwingli is killed Year 1986 ( MCMLXXXVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar) See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European (IE peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European The society of the Proto-Indo-Europeans (PIE existed during the Bronze Age (roughly fifth to fourth millennium BC and has been reconstructed He is considered one of the major contributors to mythography, in particular for his creation of the trifunctional hypothesis of social class. A mythographer, or a mythologist, according to a strict dictionary definition is a compiler of myths Mythography (from Greek μυθογραφία The Trifunctional Hypothesis is a controversial conjecture proposed by French mythographer Georges Dumézil. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures.
Dumézil's father was a classicist and so he became interested in ancient languages at a young age—it has been said that he could read the Aeneid in Latin at the age of nine. For the group of nine Ancient Egyptian deities see Ennead. The Aeneid (əˈniːɪd in Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. During his time in secondary school, he was also influenced by Michel Bréal, one of his classmate's grandfathers, who was at the time one of the leading French philologists. Michel Jules Alfred Bréal ( March 26, 1832 - 1915 French Philologist, was born at Landau in Rhenish Bavaria, of French-Jewish See Comparative linguistics for the narrower field of "comparative philology" By the time he entered the École Normale Supérieure in 1916, then, he was already on the road to studying linguistics and the classics. École Normale de Musique de ParisThe École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup’, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or Linguistics is the scientific study of Language, encompassing a number of sub-fields
Dumézil's studies were delayed by World War I, when he was drafted and served as an artillery officer. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All After the war he resumed his studies, where he was particularly influenced by Antoine Meillet. Antoine Meillet ( Paul-Jules-Antoine Meillet, November 11, 1866 - September 21, 1936) was one of the most important French linguists He agregated in 1919 in Classics and then received his doctorate in 1924 after writing a thesis comparing the common origins of the Greek ambrosia and a similarly named Indian drink Amrita which was said to make its imbiber immortal. In France, the agrégation is a civil service Competitive examination for some positions in the Public education system In ancient Greek mythology, ambrosia is sometimes the food sometimes the drink of the gods, often depicted as conferring ageless Immortality The dissertation was controversial because some of the examiners, such as Henri Hubert thought that Dumézil took liberty with the facts in order to generate a more beautiful interpretation (this would come to be a common criticism of Dumézil's work). Henri Hubert ( Paris June 23, 1872 - May 25, 1927) was an archaeologist and sociologist of Comparative
Feeling that he had little place in the French academy, Dumézil moved to Turkey in 1925 to teach at the University of Istanbul, created as part of Atatürk's attempt to create a modern, secular nation. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches Istanbul University (İstanbul Üniversitesi is Turkey 's main and oldest prestige University. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (19 May 1881 &ndash 10 November 1938 was an army officer revolutionary Statesman As a result he learned Turkish and developed an interest in the Ubykh and travelled widely in Russia, Turkey, and the Caucasus. Ubykh or Ubyx is a Language of the Northwestern Caucasian group, spoken by the Ubykh people up until the early 1990s As a result, he became one of the premier experts of Caucasian languages to work in French. He compared the Etruscan language with the Caucasian languages. The Etruscan Language was spoken and written by the Etruscan civilization in the ancient region of Etruria (modern Tuscany plus western In 1931 he took another position, this one in Uppsala, Sweden, which allowed him to hone his skills in the Germanic stocks of Indo-European. Uppsala ˈɵpˌsɑːla (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County ( Uppsala län) and the fourth largest city of "Sverige" redirects here For other uses see Sweden (disambiguation and Sverige (disambiguation.
In 1929 Dumézil published Flamen-Brahman, the first full statement of his trifunctional hypothesis; the idea was repeated in Mitra-Varuna, perhaps his most accessible work. The Trifunctional Hypothesis is a controversial conjecture proposed by French mythographer Georges Dumézil.
Dumézil's influence rose in the mid-1930s. In 1935 he left Uppsala to take up a chair of Comparative Religion of Indo-European Peoples at the prestigious École Pratique des Hautes Études. Uppsala ˈɵpˌsɑːla (older spelling Upsala) is the capital of Uppsala County ( Uppsala län) and the fourth largest city of École pratique des hautes études is a University in Paris, France. He was named a professor at the Collège de France in 1949, and was finally elected to the Académie Française in 1978 thanks to the patronage of his colleague and fellow student of myth, Claude Lévi-Strauss. The Collège de France is a higher education and research establishment ( Grand établissement) located in Paris, France, in the 5th arrondissement L'Académie française, or the French Academy, is the pre-eminent French learned body on matters pertaining to the French language. Claude Lévi-Strauss (klod levi stʁos born 28 November 1908 is a French Anthropologist. In 1984 he was awarded the Prix mondial Cino Del Duca. The Prix mondial Cino Del Duca (Cino Del Duca World Prize is a major international Literary award established in 1969 in France by Simone Del Duca (1912-2004
Dumézil is also well known for mentoring many younger French scholars. Michel Foucault, for instance, benefitted from his patronage when Dumézil arranged for him to teach temporarily in Uppsala early on in his career. Michel Foucault ( (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984 was a French philosopher, Historian, Intellectual, Critic and Sociologist.
Many themes of Dumézil's work have continued influence in ancient religious studies: for example, his impulse to comparative study, and his basic insight that polytheistic gods must be studied not simply by themselves, but in the pairs and ensembles in which their worshippers grouped them.
Aside from the traditional give and take of scholarly discussion, Bruce Lincoln especially has leveled accusations of fascism against Dumézil, in such a way as to often approach ad hominem attack (at least in the view of Dumézil's supporters). Scholars like Momigliano, Ginzburg and Lincoln have argued that Dumézil was in favor of a traditional hierarchical order in Europe, that his Indo-European dualism and tripartite ideology may be also related to Italian and French fascist ideas, and that he was in favor of French fascism (but not of German Nazism).  In the 1930s Dumézil supported the monarchist "Action française" and held Mussolini in high regard. The Action Française is a French Monarchist ( Orléanist) Counter-revolutionary movement and periodical founded by Maurice Pujo and  Dumézil's relations with de Benoist and Haudry were ambiguous, but among his "closest colleagues" were Otto Höfler (who was in the SS-Ahnenerbe), Jan de Vries (a Nazi collaborator) and Stig Wikander (who had an ambiguous relation to Nazism). Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic philosopher a founder of the Nouvelle Droite (New Right and head Jean Haudry (born 1934 is a linguist, and a founder of the Institut d'études indo-européennes at the Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 (France with Otto Höfler (born 10 May 1901, died 25 August 1987, in Vienna) was an Austrian scholar of German studies See Jan de Vries (disambiguation for other people with the same name 
Bruce Lincoln also wrote that writers like Alain de Benoist, Jean Haudry, or Roger Pearson have frequently cited Dumézil's work "in support of their positions — their fondness for hierarchy and authority, for example, their antipathy toward egalitarianism and the ideals of the Enlightenment, or their triumphal view of "Indo-Europeans" as superior to all other peoples". Bruce Lincoln is Caroline E Haskell Professor of the History of Religions in the Divinity School of the University of Chicago. Alain de Benoist (born 11 December 1943) is a French academic philosopher a founder of the Nouvelle Droite (New Right and head Jean Haudry (born 1934 is a linguist, and a founder of the Institut d'études indo-européennes at the Jean Moulin University Lyon 3 (France with For the Linguist please see Roger Pearson (linguist Roger Pearson (born 1927 is a British Anthropologist, advocate of Eugenics, and editor