|George Rogers Clark|
Clark as painted by Matthew Harris Jouett in 1825
|Born||November 19, 1752|
|Died||February 13, 1818 (aged 66)|
|Occupation||Soldier, explorer, government official|
|Parents||John Clark III,|
Ann Rogers Clark
George Rogers Clark (November 19, 1752 – February 13, 1818) was a soldier from Virginia and the preeminent American military officer on the northwestern frontier during the American Revolutionary War. Matthew Harris Jouett ( Mercer County Kentucky, 22 April, 1788 - Lexington Kentucky, 10 August, 1827) was an American Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1818 ( MDCCCXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 1095 - The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1818 ( MDCCCXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The Commonwealth of Virginia ( is an American state In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The leader of the Kentucky militia throughout much of the war, Clark is best-known for his celebrated capture of Kaskaskia (1778) and Vincennes (1779), which greatly weakened British influence in the Northwest Territory. The Commonwealth of Kentucky ( is a state located in the East Central United States of America. The role of Militia, also known as civilian military service and duty in the United States is complex and has transformed over time Kaskaskia is a village in Randolph County, Illinois, United States. The city of Vincennes is the County seat of Knox County, Indiana. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 For the Canadian territory see Northwest Territories. For the northwestern corner of the Lower 48 see Northwestern United States. Because the British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Clark has often been hailed as the "Conqueror of the Old Northwest. The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally "
Clark's military achievements came before his 30th birthday. Never fully reimbursed by Virginia for his wartime expenditures, he spent the final decades of his life in increasing poverty and obscurity, often struggling with alcoholism. Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions He was aided in his final years by family members, including his younger brother William, one of the leaders of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. William Clark ( August 1, 1770 &ndash September 1, 1838) was an American explorer soldier Indian agent, and territorial governor
George Rogers Clark was born in Albemarle County, Virginia not far from the home of Thomas Jefferson. Albemarle County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence He was the second of ten children of John Clark and Ann Rogers Clark, who were Anglicans of English and Scottish ancestry. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs  Five of their six sons became officers during the American Revolutionary War. Their youngest son, William Clark, was too young to fight in the Revolution, but later became famous as a leader of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. William Clark ( August 1, 1770 &ndash September 1, 1838) was an American explorer soldier Indian agent, and territorial governor In about 1756, after the outbreak of the French and Indian War, the family moved away from the frontier to Caroline County, Virginia, and lived on a small plantation. The French and Indian War (1754&ndash1763 was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. Caroline County is a county located in the US state — officially " Commonwealth " — of Virginia. Fundamentally a plantation is usually a large Farm or estate, especially in a tropical or semitropical country on which Cotton, Tobacco
Little is known of Clark's schooling, but he went to live with his grandfather so he could attend Donald Robertson's school with James Madison and John Taylor of Caroline and received a common education. Donald Robertson ISO ( 1860 - 31 May 1942) was the first Public Service Commissioner in New Zealand James Madison Jr (March 16 1751 – June 28 1836 was an American Politician, the fourth President of the United States (1809–1817 and one of the Founding John Taylor ( December 19, 1753 &ndash August 21, 1824) of Caroline County Virginia was a politician and writer  He was also tutored at home, as was usual for Virginian children of the period, eventually becoming a farmer and surveyor. A farmer is a person who raises living organisms for food or raw materials Surveying is the technique and science of accurately determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional space Position of points and the distances and angles between
In 1772, as a twenty-year-old surveyor, Clark made his first trip into Kentucky, one of thousands of settlers entering the area as a result of the Treaty of Fort Stanwix of 1768. The Treaty of Fort Stanwix was an important Treaty between North American Indians and the British Empire. American Indians living in the Ohio country had not been party to that treaty, which ceded their Kentucky hunting grounds. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains The violence that resulted eventually culminated in Lord Dunmore's War, in which Clark played a small role as a captain in the Virginia militia. Dunmore's War (or Lord Dunmore's War) was a war from 1773 to 1774 between the Colony of Virginia and the Indian nations of the Shawnee and Mingo
As the American Revolutionary War began in the East, settlers in Kentucky were involved in a dispute over the region's sovereignty. Richard Henderson, a judge and land speculator from North Carolina, had purchased much of Kentucky from the Cherokees in an illegal treaty. Richard Henderson (1734&ndash1785 was an American pioneer and merchant who attempted to create a colony called Transylvania just as the American North Carolina ( is a state located on the Atlantic Seaboard in the southeastern United States The Cherokee (ᎠᏂᏴᏫᏯ a-ni-yv-wi-ya, in the Cherokee language) are a people native to North America, who at the time of European contact Henderson intended to create a proprietary colony known as Transylvania, but many Kentucky settlers did not recognize Transylvania's authority over them. A proprietary colony is a Colony in which one or more private land owners retain rights that are normally the privilege of the state and in all cases eventually became so Transylvania was a short-lived colony primarily in what is now the U In June 1776, these settlers selected Clark and John Gabriel Jones to deliver a petition to the Virginia General Assembly, asking Virginia to formally extend its boundaries to include Kentucky. John Gabriel Jones ( June 6, 1752 &ndash December 25, 1776) was a 18th century colonial American pioneer and politician The Virginia General Assembly is the legislative body of the Commonwealth of Virginia.  Clark and Jones traveled via the Wilderness Road to Williamsburg, where they convinced Governor Patrick Henry to create Kentucky County, Virginia. The Wilderness Road was the principal route used by settlers to reach Kentucky for more than fifty years Williamsburg is a city located on the Virginia Peninsula in the Hampton Roads region in southeastern Virginia Patrick Henry ( May 29, 1736 June 6, 1799) was a prominent figure in the American Revolution, known and remembered for his " Kentucky County was formed in Virginia in 1776 Four years later it was divided into the Fayette, Jefferson, and Lincoln counties of Kentucky Clark was given 500 pounds of gunpowder to help defend the settlements and was appointed a major in the Kentucky County militia. Major is a Military rank the use of which varies according to country Clark was just 24 years old, but older men like Daniel Boone, Benjamin Logan, and Leonard Helm looked to him for leadership. Daniel Boone ( &ndash September 26 1820 was an American pioneer and hunter whose frontier exploits made him one of the first folk heroes Benjamin Logan (c1742 &ndash December 11, 1802) was an American pioneer soldier and politician from Shelby County Kentucky. Leonard Helm was born around 1720 probably in Fauquier County Virginia.
In 1777, the American Revolutionary War intensified in Kentucky. The Illinois campaign was a series of events in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783 in which a small force of Virginia militiamen led by American Indians, armed and encouraged by British lieutenant governor Henry Hamilton at Fort Detroit, waged war against the Kentucky settlers in hopes of reclaiming the region as their hunting ground. Henry Hamilton ( c 1734 &ndash 29 September 1796) was an Irish-born official of the British Empire. Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit or Fort Détroit was a Fort established by the French officer Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac in 1701 Clark participated in several skirmishes against raiders. As a leader of the defense of Kentucky, Clark believed that the best way to end these raids was to seize British outposts north of the Ohio River, thereby destroying British influence with the Indians.  Clark asked Governor Henry for permission to lead a secret expedition to capture the nearest British posts, which were located in the Illinois country. The Illinois Country ( Pays des Illinois) was the name used in the 17th century and afterwards to refer to an undefined region centered around present day southwest Governor Henry commissioned Clark as a lieutenant colonel in the Virginia militia and authorized him to raise troops for the expedition. Lieutenant Colonel ( Lieutenant-Colonel in English from the French grade 's spelling is a rank of Commissioned officer in the armies 
In July 1778, Clark and about 175 men crossed the Ohio River at Fort Massac and marched to Kaskaskia, taking it on the night of 4 July. Fort Massac is a colonial-era fort on the Ohio River in Massac County, Illinois, USA. Kaskaskia is a village in Randolph County, Illinois, United States. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples  Cahokia, Vincennes, and several other villages and forts in British territory were subsequently captured without firing a shot, because most of the French-speaking and American Indian inhabitants were unwilling to take up arms on behalf of the British. The city of Vincennes is the County seat of Knox County, Indiana. To counter Clark's advance, Henry Hamilton reoccupied Vincennes with a small force.  In February 1779, Clark returned to Vincennes in a surprise winter expedition and retook the town, capturing Hamilton in the process. This daring winter expedition was Clark's most notable achievement and the source of his reputation as an early American military hero. Virginia capitalized on Clark's success by establishing the region as Illinois County, Virginia. The Illinois Country ( Pays des Illinois) was the name used in the 17th century and afterwards to refer to an undefined region centered around present day southwest
Clark's ultimate goal during the Revolutionary War was to seize British-held Detroit, but he could never recruit enough men to make the attempt. The Kentucky militiamen generally preferred to defend their homes by staying closer to Kentucky rather than making a long and potentially perilous expedition to Detroit. In June 1780, a mixed force of British and Indians from Detroit invaded Kentucky, capturing two fortified settlements and carrying away scores of prisoners. Background British western campaign of 1780 British authorities during the spring of 1780 were prepared to carry out a comprehensive plan for the recapture of the Illinois In August 1780, Clark led a retaliatory force that won a victory near the Shawnee village of Pekowee. Piqua is a city in Miami County, Ohio, United States. The population was 20738 at the 2000 census.  The next year Clark was promoted to brigadier general by Governor Thomas Jefferson and prepared once more to lead an expedition against Detroit, but a detachment of his troops was disastrously defeated in August 1781, ending the campaign. Brigadier General is the lowest ranking General Officer in some countries usually sitting between the ranks of Colonel and Major General. Background In the Ohio River valley the American Revolutionary War was fought primarily between American colonists south and west of the Ohio River (in present-day Western Pennsylvania 
An even worse defeat was to follow the next year: in August 1782, another British-Indian force defeated the Kentucky militia at the Battle of Blue Licks. Background Caldwell's expedition Although a British army under Lord Cornwallis had surrendered at Yorktown in October 1781 the war on the western frontier continued Although he had not been present at the battle, Clark, as senior military officer, was severely criticized for the disaster. In response, Clark led another expedition into the Ohio country, destroying several Indian towns along the Great Miami River in the last major expedition of the war. The Great Miami River (also called the Miami River) is a tributary of the Ohio River, approximately 
The importance of Clark's activities in the Revolutionary War has been the subject of much debate. Because the British ceded the entire Northwest Territory to the United States in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, some historians have credited Clark with nearly doubling the size of the original Thirteen Colonies by seizing control of the Illinois country during the war. For the Canadian territory see Northwest Territories. For the northwestern corner of the Lower 48 see Northwestern United States. The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the For this reason, Clark was nicknamed "Conqueror of the Northwest", and his Illinois campaign—particularly the surprise march to Vincennes—was greatly celebrated and romanticized. Other historians have downplayed the importance of the campaign, arguing that Clark's "conquest" was a temporary occupation that had no impact on the boundary negotiations in Europe.
Clark was just 30 years old when fighting in the Revolutionary War ended, but his greatest military achievements were already behind him. Historic Locust Grove is a 55- Acre 18th century farm site and National Historic Landmark situated in eastern Jefferson County Kentucky (now a part of Ever since Clark's victories in Illinois, settlers had been pouring into Kentucky, often illegally squatting on Indian land north of the Ohio River. Clark helped to negotiate the Treaty of Fort McIntosh in 1785 and the Treaty of Fort Finney in 1786 with tribes north of the river, but violence between American Indians and Kentucky settlers continued to escalate. The Treaty of Fort McIntosh was a treaty between the United States government and representatives of the Wyandotte Delaware, Chippewa and Ottawa The Treaty of Fort Finney, also known as the Treaty at the Mouth of the Great Miami, was signed in 1786 between the United States and Shawnee leaders after According to a 1790 U. S. government report, 1,500 Kentucky settlers had been killed in Indian raids since the end of the Revolutionary War.  In an attempt to end these raids, Clark led an expedition against Indians towns on the Wabash River in 1786, one of the first actions of the Northwest Indian War. The Wabash River is a long River in the eastern United States that flows southwest from northwest Ohio near St The Northwest Indian War (1785&ndash1795 also known as Little Turtle's War and by various other names was a war fought between the United States and The campaign ended ingloriously: lacking supplies, about 300 militiamen mutinied, and Clark had to withdraw. Mutiny is a conspiracy among members of a group of similarly-situated individuals (typically members of the Military; or the Crew of any ship even It was rumored that Clark had often been drunk on duty. Clark's reputation was tarnished and he never again led men in battle. 
Clark lived most of the rest of his life in financial difficulties. Clark had financed the majority of his military campaigns with borrowed funds. When creditors began to dun him for these unpaid debts, he was not able to obtain recompense from Virginia or the United States Congress because record keeping on the frontier during the war had been haphazard. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses Although Clark had claims to thousands of acres of land resulting from his military service and land speculation, he was "land-poor", i. e. he owned much land but lacked the means to make money from it.
With his career seemingly over and his prospects for prosperity doubtful, on February 2, 1793, Clark offered his services to Edmond-Charles Genêt, the controversial ambassador of revolutionary France. Events 962 - Translatio imperii: Pope John XII crowns Otto I Holy Roman Emperor, the first Holy Roman Emperor Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Edmond-Charles Genêt ( January 8, 1763 &ndash July 14, 1834) also known as Citizen Genêt, was a French ambassador Western Americans were outraged that the Spanish, who controlled Louisiana, denied Americans free access to the Mississippi River, their only easy outlet for long distance commerce. Louisiana was the name of an administrative district of New Spain from 1764 to 1803 that represented territory west of the Mississippi River The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The Washington Administration was also seemingly deaf to western concerns about opening the Mississippi to U. With inauguration on April 30 1789 the presidency of George Washington initiated a significant leadership role over the United States S. commerce. Clark proposed to Genêt that, with French financial support, he could lead an expedition to drive the Spanish out of the Mississippi Valley. Genêt appointed Clark "Major General in the Armies of France and Commander-in-chief of the French Revolutionary Legion on the Mississippi River. " Clark began to organize a campaign to seize New Madrid, St. Louis, Natchez, and New Orleans, getting assistance from old comrades such as Benjamin Logan and John Montgomery, and winning the tacit support of Kentucky governor Isaac Shelby. New Madrid (nuːˈmædrɪd is a city in New Madrid County, Missouri, 42 miles (68 km south by west of Cairo Illinois, on the Mississippi River Natchez is the county seat of and the largest and only incorporated city within Adams County, Mississippi, United States. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana Colonel John Montgomery (c 1750–1794 was an early American soldier settler and explorer Isaac Shelby ( December 11, 1750 – July 18, 1826) was an American soldier and the first and fifth Governor of Kentucky  Clark spent $4,680 of his own money for supplies.  In early 1794, however, President Washington issued a proclamation forbidding Americans from violating U. S. neutrality and threatened to dispatch General Anthony Wayne to Fort Massac to stop the expedition. Anthony Wayne (January 1 1745–December 15 1796 was a United States Army general and statesman Fort Massac is a colonial-era fort on the Ohio River in Massac County, Illinois, USA. The French government recalled Genêt and revoked the commissions of Americans recruited for the war against Spain. Clark's planned campaign gradually collapsed, and he tried but was unable to have the French reimburse him for his expenses.
After a few years, the lenders and their assigns closed in and deprived the veteran of almost all of his property. Clark was left with a small plot of land in Clarksville, where he built a small gristmill which he worked with two African American slaves. A gristmill or grist mill is a building where Grain is ground into Flour, or the grinding mechanism itself African Americans or Black Americans are citizens or residents of the United States who have origins in any of the black populations of Africa  Clark lived for another two decades, often struggling with alcohol abuse, a problem which had plagued him on-and-off for many years. Alcoholism is a term with multiple and sometimes conflicting definitions He never married and had no verifiable romantic relationships, although a family tradition held that he had once been in love with Teresa de Leyba, sister of Don Fernando de Leyba. Don Fernando de Leyba (died 1780 was a Spanish officer and politician who served as the third Governor of Upper Louisiana from 1778 until his death Writings from his niece and cousin in the Draper Manuscripts attest to Clark's lifelong disappointment over the failed romance.
In 1809, Clark suffered a severe stroke. Cave Hill Cemetery is a Victorian era National Cemetery and Arboretum located at 701 Baxter Avenue Louisville Kentucky. A stroke is the rapidly developing loss of brain functions due to a disturbance in the blood vessels supplying blood to the brain Falling into an operating fireplace, he suffered a burn on one leg so severe as to necessitate the amputation of the limb.  It was impossible for Clark to continue to operate his mill, so he became a dependent member of the household of his brother-in-law, Major William Croghan, a planter at Locust Grove farm eight miles (13 km) from the growing town of Louisville. Historic Locust Grove is a 55- Acre 18th century farm site and National Historic Landmark situated in eastern Jefferson County Kentucky (now a part of  After a second stroke, Clark died at Locust Grove, 13 February 1818. Events 1258 - Baghdad falls to the Mongols, and the Abbasid Caliphate is destroyed Year 1818 ( MDCCCXVIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common  Originally buried at Locust Grove two days later, Clark's body was reburied at Cave Hill Cemetery in Louisville in 1889. Cave Hill Cemetery is a Victorian era National Cemetery and Arboretum located at 701 Baxter Avenue Louisville Kentucky. 
On May 23, 1928, President Calvin Coolidge ordered a memorial to George Rogers Clark to be erected in Vincennes. Events 1430 - Siege of Compiègne: Joan of Arc is captured by the Burgundians while leading an army to relieve Compiègne Year 1928 ( MCMXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by John Calvin Coolidge Jr (July 4 1872 January 5 1933 was the thirtieth President of the United States (1923–1929 The city of Vincennes is the County seat of Knox County, Indiana. Completed in 1933, the George Rogers Clark Memorial, built in Roman Classical style, stands on what was then believed to be the site of Fort Sackville, and is now the George Rogers Clark National Historical Park. The term Classical architecture has a specific Archaeological meaning relating to the architecture of Classical Greece George Rogers Clark National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park located in downtown Vincennes, Indiana, on the It includes a statue of Clark by Hermon Atkins MacNeil. Hermon Atkins MacNeil (1866-1947 was an American sculptor born at Chelsea Massachusetts.
On February 25, 1929, to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the surrender of Fort Sackville, the U.S. Post Office Department issued a 2-cent postage stamp, which depicted the surrender. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor Year 1929 ( MCMXXIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. A postage stamp is an adhesive paper evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services
In 1975, the Indiana General Assembly designated February 25 George Rogers Clark Day in Indiana. Year 1975 ( MCMLXXV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The Indiana General Assembly is the state legislature, or legislative branch of the state of Indiana. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor
Built in 1929, the George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge (Second Street Bridge) carries U.S. Highway 31, over the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky. The George Rogers Clark Memorial Bridge is a four-lane cantilevered truss bridge crossing the Ohio River between Louisville Kentucky and Jeffersonville US Route 31 is a long north-south highway connecting northern Michigan to southern Alabama, with termini at Interstate 75 near Mackinaw City The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River.
Other statues of Clark can be found in:
Places named for Clark include:
Schools named after Clark include George Rogers Clark Elementary School in Clarksville, Indiana, George Rogers Clark Middle/High School in Hammond, Indiana, George Rogers Clark High School and Clark Middle School in Winchester, Kentucky, Clark Elementary School in Charlottesville, Virginia, George Rogers Clark Middle School in Vincennes, Indiana and George Rogers Clark Elementary School of Chicago.