The strike breaking industrialist
|Born||March 3, 1831|
Brocton, New York
|Died||October 19, 1897|
|Occupation||Inventor and Industrialist|
George Mortimer Pullman (March 3, 1831 – October 19, 1897) was an American inventor and industrialist. Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1831 ( MDCCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Brocton is a Village in Chautauqua County, New York, United States. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. Events 1284 - Statute of Rhuddlan incorporated the Principality of Wales into England 1575 - Indian Year 1831 ( MDCCCXXXI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. Year 1897 ( MDCCCXCVII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common The United States of America —commonly referred to as the He is known as the inventor of the Pullman sleeping car, and for violently suppressing striking workers in the company town he created, Pullman, Chicago. Pullman Porter redirects here For the 1919 film starring Fatty Arbuckle, see The Pullman Porter The Pullman Palace Car Company, founded The sleeping car or sleeper is a railroad passenger car that can accommodate all its passengers in beds of one kind or another primarily for the purpose of making History Historic Pullman was built in the 1880s by George Pullman for his eponymous Railroad car company the Pullman Palace Car Company.
Born in Brocton, New York, his family moved to Albion, New York. Brocton is a Village in Chautauqua County, New York, United States. Albion is a Village in Orleans County, New York, USA. The population was 7438 at the 2000 census It was here that the young George gained many of his ideas that made him successful. Pullman also manufactured coffins during this time. Pullman dropped out of school at age 14, and eventually became one of Chicago's most influential and controversial figures. Chicago (ʃɪˈkɑːgoʊ is the largest City by population in the state of Illinois and the American Midwest of the United States. He arrived in Chicago in as that city prepared to build the nation's first comprehensive system.
Built on a low-lying bog, Chicago streets were where they say the mud was deep enough to drown a horse. Unable to drain sewage by placing the sewers below grade, Chicago put its sewers on top of the street and covered them, effectively raising the street level 6-8 feet. Pullman then raised the existing buildings and built a new foundation under them, a technique his father used to move homes during the widening of the Erie Canal. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes In 1857, with a couple of partners, Pullman proved his technique would work by raising an entire block of stores and office buildings. Pullman added to his reputation when he later raised the massive Tremont House, a six-story brick hotel that stood on an acre (4,000 m²) of ground, with the guests still in it. See also Tremont House Tremont House (1850-1871 pictured right was a leading hotel in Chicago, United States, that served as the
Between 1859 and 1863, he spent time as a gold broker near Golden, Colorado where he raised money and met a future business associate, Hanniball Kimball. The historic City of Golden is a Home Rule Municipality that is the County seat of Jefferson County, Colorado, United States. Hannibal Ingalls Kimball ( May 16, 1832 &ndash April 28, 1895) was an American entrepreneur and important businessman in
He then developed a comfortable railroad sleeping car, the Pullman sleeper, or "palace car. The sleeping car or sleeper is a railroad passenger car that can accommodate all its passengers in beds of one kind or another primarily for the purpose of making " These were designed after the packet boats that traveled the Erie Canal of his youth in Albion. The Erie Canal is a popular canal in New York state from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, approximately 360 miles connecting the Great Lakes The first one was finished in 1864. By arranging to have the body of President Abraham Lincoln carried from Washington, D.C. to Springfield on a sleeper, he received national attention and the orders began to pour in. Abraham Lincoln (February 12 1809 &ndash April 15 1865 the sixteenth President of the United States, successfully led his country through its greatest internal Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D Springfield is the capital of the US state of Illinois and the county seat of Sangamon County with a population of 116482 (U The sleeping cars proved successful despite the fact that the sleeper cost more than five times the price of a regular railway car.
In 1867 Pullman introduced his first hotel on wheels, the President, a sleeper with an attached kitchen and dining car. The food rivaled the best restaurants of the day and the service was impeccable. A year later in 1868, he launched the Delmonico, the world's first sleeping car devoted to fine cuisine. The Delmonico menu was prepared by chefs from New York's famed Delmonico's Restaurant. Delmonico's Restaurant was one of the first continuously run Restaurants in the United States and is considered to be one of the first American Fine dining establishments
Both the President and the Delmonico and subsequent Pullman sleeping cars offered first-rate service which was provided by recently-freed former house slaves who served as porters, waiters, chambermaids, entertainers, and valets all rolled into one person.
Pullman believed that if his sleeper cars were to be successful, he needed to provide a wide variety of services to travelers: collecting tickets, selling berths, dispatching wires, fetching sandwiches, mending torn trousers, converting day coaches into sleepers, etc. Pullman believed that the former house slaves of the plantation south had the right combination of training and acquiescence to serve the businessmen that would patronize his "Palace Cars. " Pullman became the biggest single employer of African Americans in post-Civil War America.
In 1869 Pullman bought out the Detroit Car and Manufacturing Company. He bought the patents and business of his eastern competitor, the Central Transportation Company in 1870. In the spring of 1871, George Pullman, Andrew Carnegie, and others bailed out the financially troubled Union Pacific and were placed onto its board of directors. By 1875 the Pullman firm owned $100,000 worth of patents, had 700 cars in operation, and had several hundred thousand dollars in the bank.
In 1867 Pullman married Harriett Sanger and built a house in Chicago. They had four children: Florence born in 1868, Harriet in 1869, and twin sons George Jr. and Walter Sanger in 1875. Florence, her father's favorite, was his frequent traveling companion. The Pullman family was socially prominent. Pullman spent time with his Prairie Avenue neighbors, the Armours, the Fields and other wealthy Chicagoans at exclusive clubs and lavish social events.
In 1877 Pullman completed a half-million-dollar Chicago mansion, which was eventually expanded to the grandest estate on Prairie Avenue. In 1888 built a family retreat, Castle Rest, on Pullman Island in Alexandria Bay in the Thousand Islands between New York and Ontario. The Thousand Islands is the name of an archipelago of Islands that straddle the U Pullman's mother was fond of the summer resort. Two of her sons attended nearby St. Lawrence University and her family convened seasonally at the Thousand Islands. Pullman built the landmark "Castle Rest" for his mother. His wife preferred another summer home at the seaside resort, Long Branch, New Jersey. The entire family was at "Castle Rest" for mother loosely acquainted with President U. S. Grant, he entertained a presidential party at Pullman Island in 1872 (an election year). Ensuing media coverage resulted in a boom of the resort the following season, when grand hotels began to appear.
In 1880 Pullman bought 4000 acres (16 km²) near Lake Calumet some 14 miles south of Chicago on the Illinois Central Railroad for $800,000. Lake Calumet is the largest body of water within the city of Chicago. The Illinois Central, sometimes called the Main Line of Mid-America, was a railroad carrier in the central United States, with its primary routes He hired Solon Spencer Beman to design his new plant there, and in an effort to solve the issue of labor unrest and poverty, he also built a town adjacent to his factory with its own housing, shopping areas, churches, theaters, parks, hotel and library for his employees. Solon Spencer Beman (1853-1914 was an American architect born in Brooklyn New York, best known as the architect of the planned Pullman community The 1300 original structures were entirely designed by Beman. The centerpiece of the complex was the Administration Building and its man-made lake. The Hotel Florence, named for Pullman's favorite daughter, was built nearby. The Hotel Florence is a former Hotel located in the Pullman Historic District on the far south side of Chicago Illinois. (see Pullman, Chicago). History Historic Pullman was built in the 1880s by George Pullman for his eponymous Railroad car company the Pullman Palace Car Company.
Pullman believed that the country air and fine facilities without agitators, saloons and city vice districts would result in a happy, loyal workforce. The model planned community became a leading attraction during the World's Columbian Exposition of 1893 and caused a national sensation. The World's Columbian Exposition (also called The Chicago World's Fair) a World's Fair, was held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary Pullman was praised by the national press for his benevolence and vision. As pleasant as the community may have been, Pullman expected the town to make money. By 1892 the community, profitable in its own right, was valued at over $5 Million.
Pullman ruled the town like a feudal baron. He prohibited independent newspapers, public speeches, town meetings or open discussion. His inspectors regularly entered homes to inspect for cleanliness and could terminate leases on ten days notice. The church stood empty since no approved denomination would pay rent and no other congregation was allowed. Private charitable organizations were prohibited. Pullman employees declared "We are born in a Pullman house, fed from the Pullman shops, taught in the Pullman school, catechized in the Pullman Church, and when we die we shall go to the Pullman Hell. "
When business fell off in 1894, Pullman cut jobs, wages and working hours, but not rents or prices in his town. His failure to lower rents, utility charges and products led his workers to launch the Pullman Strike, a violent upheaval which was eventually broken up by federal troops sent in over the objections of Illinois Governor John P. The Altgeld, by President Grover Cleveland. Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18 1837 June 24 1908 was both the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States.
A national commission formed to study causes of the 1894 strike found Pullman's paternalism partly to blame and Pullman's company town to be "un-American. " In 1898, the Supreme Court of Illinois forced the Pullman Company to divest ownership in the town, which was annexed to Chicago. The Supreme Court of Illinois is the highest judicial court of the state of Illinois.
Loathing for Pullman remained, and when he died in 1897, he was buried in Graceland Cemetery at night in a lead-lined coffin within an elaborately reinforced steel-and-concrete vault. Graceland Cemetery is a large Victorian-era cemetery located in the north side community area of Lakeview, in the city of Chicago Illinois, USA Several tons of cement were poured to prevent his body from being exhumed and desecrated by labor activists.