|Eric Arthur Blair|
|Born||Eric Arthur Blair|
25 June 1903
Motihari, Bihar, India
|Died||21 January 1950 (aged 46)|
|Pen name||George Orwell|
|Occupation||Writer; author, journalist|
|Notable work(s)||Homage to Catalonia (1938)|
Animal Farm (1945)
Nineteen Eighty-Four (1949)
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950) was an English journalist, political essayist and novelist who wrote under the pseudonym George Orwell. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Motihari is the headquarters of Poorvi Champaran ( East Champaran) district in the Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland A pen name, nom de plume, or literary double, is a Pseudonym adopted by an Author or their publishers to conceal their identity Employment is a Contract between two parties, one being the employer and the other being the employee. A writer is anyone who creates a written work although the word usually designates those who write creatively or professionally as well as those who have written in many different forms An author is defined both as "the person who originates or gives existence to anything" and that authorship determines responsibility for what is created Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people Homage to Catalonia is political journalist and Novelist George Orwell 's personal account of his experiences and observations in the Animal Farm is a Novel by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical Allegory of Soviet Totalitarianism Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel William Somerset Maugham, CH ( January 25 1874 &ndash December 16 1965) was an English Playwright, Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political Jack London (January 12 1876 &ndash November 22 1916 was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild, White Fang, and The Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 &ndash 22 November 1963 was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Henry Fielding ( April 22, 1707 &ndash October 8, 1754) was an English Novelist and Dramatist known for his Émile François Zola ( (2 April 1840 &ndash 29 September 1902 was an influential French Writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of Gustave Flaubert (gystaːv flobɛːʁ in French ( December 12, 1821 &ndash May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among Leo Tolstoy, or Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy ( –) (Лев Никола́евич Толсто́й, was a Russian Writer widely regarded Thomas Henry (Tom Wintringham ( 15 May 1898 &mdash 16 August 1949) was a British soldier military historian journalist poet Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин) ( February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian James Augustine Aloysius Joyce (2 February 1882 &ndash 13 January 1941 was an Irish expatriate writer widely considered to be one of the most influential writers of the Upton Beall Sinclair Jr ( September 20, 1878 &ndash November 25, 1968) was a Pulitzer Avram Noam Chomsky (noʊm ˈtʃɑmski born December 7 1928 is an American linguist, Philosopher, cognitive scientist, Political Kurt Vonnegut Jr (November 11 1922 – April 11 2007 (ˈvɒnəgət was a prolific and genre-bending American Novelist known for works blending Satire, Black Christopher Eric Hitchens (born April 13, 1949) is a British Author, Journalist, Literary critic and American Margaret Eleanor Atwood, CC (born November 18, 1939) is a Canadian Writer. Albert Camus ( (7 November 1913 – 4 January 1960 was an Algerian born French Author, philosopher, and journalist who won the Nobel prize Ignazio Silone ( May 1, 1900 - August 22, 1978) was the pseudonym of Secondo Tranquilli, an Italian author Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people A pseudonym is a fictitious alternative to a person's legal name (see Alias)
His writing is marked by concise descriptions of social conditions and events and a contempt for all types of authority. He is most famous for two novels critical of totalitarianism, Nineteen Eighty-Four and Animal Farm (a satire of Stalinism). A novel (from Italian novella, Spanish novela, French nouvelle for "new" "news" or "short story Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel Animal Farm is a Novel by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical Allegory of Soviet Totalitarianism Stalinism is the political regime named after Joseph Stalin, leader of the Soviet Union from 1929–1953
Eric Arthur Blair was born on 25 June 1903 to British parents in Motihari, Bengal Presidency, British India. Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Motihari is the headquarters of Poorvi Champaran ( East Champaran) district in the The Bengal Presidency originally comprising east and west Bengal was a colonial region of British India, which comprised undivided Bengal which is present day Bangladesh For usage see British rule in India British Raj ( rāj, lit "reign" in Hindustani) primarily refers to the British His father, Richard Walmesley Blair, worked in the Opium Department of the Civil Service. Opium is a Narcotic formed from the Latex (ie sap released by lacerating (or "scoring" the immature seed pods of opium poppies ( The Indian Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym ICS, originated as the elite Civil service of the Indian Government under British colonial His mother, Ida Mabel Blair (née Limouzin), had a French father who was involved in speculative ventures in Burma where she grew up. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. She took her son Eric to England when he was one year old and apart from a three-month visit to England in 1907 Richard Blair did not enter his son's life until Eric was nine years old. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Eric had two sisters; Marjorie, five years older, and Avril, five years younger. His great-grandfather Charles Blair had been a wealthy plantation owner in Jamaica and his grandfather a clergyman. Jamaica (ˈdʒəˈmeɪkə} is an Island nation of the Greater Antilles, in length and as much as in width situated in the Caribbean Sea. Although the gentility passed down the generations, the prosperity did not. Blair described his family as "lower-upper-middle class". Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. 
At six, Eric attended the Anglican parish school in Henley-on-Thames, where he impressed the teachers. Anglicanism is a tradition of Christian faith Churches in this tradition either have historical connections to the Church of England or have similar beliefs Henley-on-Thames is a town on the north side of the River Thames in south Oxfordshire, England, about 10 miles downstream and north-east from Blair's mother wanted him to have a good public school education, but the family finances were against this unless he could obtain a scholarship. Her brother Charles Limouzin, who lived on the South Coast, recommended St Cyprian's School, Eastbourne, Sussex. St Cyprian's School was an English preparatory school for boys which operated in the early 20th century in Eastbourne, East Sussex. Eastbourne ( is a large town and borough of East Sussex, on the south coast of England with an estimated population of 94816 as of 2007 Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. The headmaster undertook to help Blair to win a scholarship, and made a private financial arrangement which allowed Blair's parents to pay only half the normal fees. At the school, Blair formed a life-long friendship with Cyril Connolly (future editor of Horizon magazine, who later published many of his essays). Cyril Vernon Connolly ( 10 September 1903 - 26 November 1974) was an English intellectual literary critic and writer Years later, Blair mordantly recalled the school in the essay "Such, Such Were the Joys". "Such Such Were the Joys" is a long autobiographical Essay by English writer George Orwell, written in the 1940's but not published However, while there he wrote two poems that were published in his local newspaper, came second to Connolly in the Harrow History Prize, had his work praised by the school's external examiner, and earned scholarships to Wellington and Eton. The Harrow History Prize or the Townsend Warner Preparatory Schools History Prize is a prestigious annual history competition for children at British preparatory schools Wellington College, the national monument to the Duke of Wellington, is an English Co-educational public school located in the Berkshire village Eton College, or just Eton, is a world-famous British Independent school for boys founded in 1440 by King Henry VI.
After a term at Wellington College, Blair transferred to Eton College, where he was a King's Scholar (1917–1921), and Aldous Huxley was his French tutor. Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 &ndash 22 November 1963 was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. Later, Blair wrote of having been relatively happy at Eton, because it allowed students much independence. His academic performance reports indicate that he ceased serious work there, and various explanations have been offered for this. His parents could not afford to send him to Oxbridge without another scholarship, and they concluded from the poor results that he would not be able to obtain one. Oxbridge was originally a fictional composite of the University of '''Ox'''ford and the University of Cam'''bridge''' in England, and the term is now Instead, it was decided that Blair should join the Indian Imperial Police. Indian police redirects here For other uses see Indian police (disambiguation. To do this it was necessary to pass an entrance examination. His father had retired to Southwold, Suffolk by this time and Blair was enrolled at a "crammer" there called "Craighurst" where he brushed up on his classics, English and History. Southwold is a Seaside town in the Waveney district of Suffolk, East Anglia, England, at the mouth of the River Blyth Suffolk (ˈsʌfək is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England. Blair passed the exam coming seventh out of twenty-seven.
Blair's grandmother lived at Moulmein, and with family connections in the area, his choice of posting was Burma. Mawlamyine or Mawlamyaing ( mɔ̀ləmjàiN mjo̰ formerly Moulmein) is the third largest city of Burma (Myanmar situated 300 km south east of Yangon Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. In October 1922, he sailed on board SS Herefordshire via the Suez Canal and Ceylon to join the Indian Imperial Police in Burma. The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation Sri Lanka, officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka ( Sinhalese:, இலங்கை known as Ceylon before 1972 is an Island A month later he arrived at Rangoon and made the journey to Mandalay the site of the police training school. Yangon (also known as Rangoon) is the largest city and a former capital of Burma. Mandalay is the second largest city and the last royal capital of Burma (Myanmar and is the economic and cultural hub of Upper Burma After a short posting at Maymyo Burma's principal hill station he was posted to the remote area of Mayaungma at the beginning of 1924. Pyin U Lwin or Pyin Oo Lwin (, formerly Maymyo (22° 2'438"N 96°27'31 Hill station is a term used for a town usually at somewhat higher elevations His imperial policeman's life gave him considerable responsibilities for a young man of his age while his contemporaries were still at university in England. He was then posted to Twante where as sub-divisional officer he was responsible for the security of some 200,000 people. At the end of 1924 he was promoted to Assistant District Superintendent and posted to Syriam, which was closer to Rangoon and in September 1925 went to Insein the home of the second-largest jail in Burma. Thanlyin, more commonly pronounced Tanyin and formerly Syriam, is a City in Yangon Division in Myanmar (Burma Insein is a township located north of Yangon, in southern Burma. He moved to Moulmein where his grandmother lived in April 1926 and at the end of that year went on to Katha. Katha (pronounced and spelled Ka-thar;) is a town in Sagaing Division, Myanmar, on the west bank of the Ayeyarwady river There he contracted Dengue fever in 1927. He was entitled to leave in England in that year and in view of his illness was allowed to go home in July. While on leave in England in 1927, he reappraised his life and resigned from the Indian Imperial Police with the intention of becoming a writer.
The Burma police experience yielded the novel Burmese Days (1934) and the essays "A Hanging" (1931) and "Shooting an Elephant" (1936). Burmese Days is a Novel by British writer George Orwell. It was published in 1934 and based loosely on Orwell's five years as The essay A Hanging (1931 by George Orwell, recounts an episode from his life as a policeman in Burma, wherein he observes a criminal being put to death "Shooting an Elephant" is an essay by George Orwell, written during the autumn of 1936 In England, he wrote to family acquaintance, Ruth Pitter and she and a friend found him rooms in Portobello Road (today, a blue plaque commemorates his residence there), where he began writing. Emma Thomas Ruth Pitter CBE (7 November 1897 - 29 February 1992) was a 20th century British Poet. Portobello Road is a road in the Notting Hill district of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in west London, England. In the United Kingdom, a blue plaque is a permanent sign installed in a public place to commemorate a link between that location and a famous person or event From there, he sallied to the Limehouse Causeway (following Jack London's footsteps) spending his first night in a common lodging house, probably George Levy's 'kip'. Limehouse is a place in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. It is on the northern bank of the River Thames opposite Rotherhithe and between Ratcliff Jack London (January 12 1876 &ndash November 22 1916 was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild, White Fang, and The A boarding house, also known as a "rooming house" (mainly in the United States) or a "lodging house" is a House (often a family home For a while he "went native" (in his own country), dressing like a tramp, making no concessions to middle class mores and expectations, and recorded his experiences of the low life in "The Spike", his first published essay, and the latter half of his first book, Down and Out in Paris and London (1933). In British English and traditional American English usage a tramp is a long term Homeless person who travels from place to place as an Itinerant Down and Out in Paris and London is George Orwell 's semi-autobiographical account of living in Poverty in both cities
He moved to Paris in spring of 1928, where his Aunt Nellie lived (and later died), hoping to earn a freelance writer's living; failure reduced him to menial jobs such as dishwasher in the fashionable Hotel X, on the rue de Rivoli in 1929, all told in Down and Out in Paris and London. Rue de Rivoli is one of the most famous streets of Paris, a commercial street whose shops include the most fashionable names in the world The record does not indicate if he had the book in mind as the terminus of those low life experiences.
In later 1929, he returned to England, to his parents' house in Southwold, ill and penniless, where he wrote Burmese Days, and also frequently foraying to tramping in researching a book on the life of society's poorest people. Meanwhile, he regularly contributed to John Middleton Murry's New Adelphi magazine. John Middleton Murry ( August 6, 1889 &ndash March 12, 1957) was an English Writer.
He completed Down and Out in Paris and London in 1932; it was published early the next year, while he taught at Frays College, near Hayes, Middlesex. Hayes is a town in the London Borough of Hillingdon. It is a suburban development situated 13 miles (20 Middlesex is one of the 39 historic counties of England and the second smallest by area. He took the job to escape dire poverty; during this period, he obtained the literary agent services of Leonard Moore. A literary agent is an agent who represents Writers and their written works to Publishers Theatrical producers and Film producers and Just before publication of Down and Out in Paris and London, Eric Arthur Blair adopted the nom de plume George Orwell. A pen name, nom de plume, or literary double, is a Pseudonym adopted by an Author or their publishers to conceal their identity In a letter to Moore (dated 15 November) he left the choice of pseudonym to him and to publisher Victor Gollancz. Events 655 - Battle of Winwaed: Penda of Mercia is defeated by Oswiu of Northumbria. Sir Victor Gollancz ( April 9 1893 &ndash February 8 1967) was a British publisher socialist, and humanitarian Four days later, he wrote to Moore, suggesting these pseudonyms: P. S. Burton (a tramping name), Kenneth Miles, George Orwell, and H. Lewis Allways. 
As a writer, George Orwell drew upon his life as a teacher and on life in Southwold for the novel A Clergyman's Daughter (1935), written in 1934 at his parents' house after sickness and parental urging forced his foregoing the teaching life. A Clergyman’s Daughter is a 1935 Novel by English author George Orwell. From late 1934 to early 1936 he was a part-time assistant in the Booklover's Corner, a second-hand bookshop in Hampstead. Hampstead is an area of London, England, located north-west of Charing Cross. Having led a lonely, solitary existence, he wanted to enjoy the company of young writers; Hampstead was an intellectual's town with many houses offering cheap bedsit rooms. A bedsit, also known as a bed-sitting room, is a form of rented accommodation common in Great Britain consisting of a single room with a shared bathroom and lavatory Those experiences germinated into the novel Keep the Aspidistra Flying (1936). Keep the Aspidistra Flying, first published 1936 is a grimly comic Novel by George Orwell.
In early 1936, Victor Gollancz, of the Left Book Club, commissioned George Orwell to write an account of working class poverty in economically depressed northern England. The Left Book Club, founded in 1936, was a key left-wing institution of the late 1930s and 1940s in the United Kingdom Working class is a term used in academic Sociology and in ordinary conversation to describe depending on context and speaker those employed in specific fields or types Northern England, The North, The North of England or (less commonly The North Country refers to the parts of England north of an ill-defined line His account, The Road to Wigan Pier was published in 1937. The Road to Wigan Pier was written by George Orwell and published in 1937. Orwell did his leg-and-homework as a social reporter: he gained entry to many houses in Wigan to see how people lived; took systematic notes of housing conditions and wages earned; and spent days in the local public library consulting public health records and reports on mine working conditions. Wigan is a large town in Greater Manchester, England. It stands on the River Douglas, south of Preston, west-northwest of Manchester
The first half of The Road to Wigan Pier documents his social investigations of Lancashire and Yorkshire. Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain. It begins with an evocative description of working life in the coal mines. Coal mining is the extraction or removal of Coal from the Earth by Mining. The second half is a long essay of his upbringing, and the development of his political conscience, including a denunciation of the Left's irresponsible elements. Publisher Gollancz feared the second half would offend Left Book Club readers; he inserted a mollifying preface to the book while Orwell was in Spain. The Left Book Club, founded in 1936, was a key left-wing institution of the late 1930s and 1940s in the United Kingdom Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
Soon after researching the The Road to Wigan Pier, George Orwell married Eileen O'Shaughnessy. Eileen Maud O'Shaughnessy ( September 25, 1905 - March 29, 1945) was the first wife of British Writer George Orwell.
In December 1936, Orwell went to Spain as a fighter for the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War that was provoked by Francisco Franco's Fascist uprising. The Second Spanish Republic was the system of government in Spain between April 14 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict in Spain that started after an attempted Coup d'état committed by parts of the army against the government of Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (born December 4, 1892 in Ferrol, died November 20, 1975 in Madrid This article is about the Spanish political party For the Lebanese Phalange see the Kataeb Party. In conversation with Philip Mairet, editor of New English Weekly, Orwell said: 'This fascism . . . somebody's got to stop it'.  To Orwell, liberty and democracy went together, guaranteeing, among other things, the freedom of the artist; the present capitalist civilization was corrupt, but fascism would be morally calamitous. Freedom of speech is the freedom to speak freely without Censorship or Limitation.
John McNair (1887–1968), quotes him: 'He then said that this [writing a book] was quite secondary, and [that] his main reason for coming was to fight against Fascism'. Orwell went alone; his wife, Eileen, joined him later. He joined the Independent Labour Party contingent, which consisted of some twenty-five Britons who had joined the militia of the Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM - Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista), a revolutionary communist party. The British Independent Labour Party sent a small contingent to fight in the Spanish Civil War. POUM Campesinosjpg|thumb|A POUM poster appeals to peasants "Peasants the land is yours"]]The Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM Spanish: Partido Obrero Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based The POUM, and the radical wing of the anarcho-syndicalist CNT (Catalonia's dominant left-wing force), believed General Franco could be defeated only if the Republic's working class overthrew capitalism — a position at fundamental odds with the Spanish Communist Party, and its allies, which (backed by Soviet arms and aid) argued for a coalition with the bourgeois parties to defeat the fascist Nationalists. Anarcho-syndicalism is a branch of Anarchism which focuses on the labour movement. Template talkInfobox Union for usage --> The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo ( CNT; English The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 After July 1936 there was profound social revolution in Catalonia, Aragón, and wherever the CNT was strong, an egalitarian spirit sympathetically described in Homage to Catalonia. The term social revolution may have different connotations depending on the speaker Catalonia (Cataluña Catalunya Aranese: Catalonha) is an Autonomous Community in the northeast part of Spain. Aragon ( Spanish: "Aragón") is an autonomous community of Spain. Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal) is a political doctrine that holds that all people should be treated as equals and have Homage to Catalonia is political journalist and Novelist George Orwell 's personal account of his experiences and observations in the
Fortuitously, Orwell joined the POUM, rather than the Communist International Brigades, but his experiences — especially his and Eileen's narrow escape during a Communist purge in Barcelona in June 1937 — much increased his sympathies for the POUM, making him a life-long anti-Stalinist and firm believer in what he termed Democratic Socialism, socialism with free debate and free elections. The International Brigades were Republican Military units in the Spanish Civil War, formed of many non-state sponsored volunteers of different countries The term anti- Stalinist left refers to elements of the political left which have been critical of the policies of Joseph Stalin and of the Political Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation
In combat, Orwell was shot through the neck and nearly killed. At first, he feared his voice would be reduced to a permanent, painful whisper; this was not to be so, though the injury affected his voice, giving it "a strange, compelling quietness".  He wrote in Homage to Catalonia that people frequently told him he was lucky to survive, but that he personally thought "it would be even luckier not to be hit at all".
George and Eileen Orwell then lived in Morocco for half a year so he could recover from his wound. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa In that time, he wrote Coming Up for Air, his last novel before World War II. Coming Up for Air is a Novel by George Orwell, published before World War II and predicting that conflict World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It is the most English of his novels; alarums of war mingle with images of idyllic Thames-side Edwardian childhood of protagonist George Bowling. The Thames ( is a major River flowing through southern England. Class and society Socially the Edwardian era was a period during which the British Class system was very rigid The novel is pessimistic; industrialism and capitalism have killed the best of Old England, and there were great, new external threats. In homely terms, Bowling posits the totalitarian hypotheses of Borkenau, Orwell, Silone and Koestler: "Old Hitler's something different. So's Joe Stalin. They aren't like these chaps in the old days who crucified people and chopped their heads off and so forth, just for the fun of it . . . They're something quite new — something that's never been heard of before".
After the Spanish ordeal, and writing about it, Orwell's formation ended; his finest writing, best essays, and great fame lay ahead. In 1940, Orwell closed his Wallington house, and he and Eileen moved to No. 18 Dorset Chambers, Chagford Street, in the genteel Marylebone neighbourhood near Regent's Park, central London, Orwell supporting himself as a freelance reviewer for the New English Weekly (mainly), Time and Tide, and the New Statesman. Marylebone (sometimes written St Marylebone or Mary-le-bone, or in archaic use Marybone) is an area of central London, England in For other meanings see Regent's Park (disambiguation Regent's Park (officially The Regent's Park) is one of the Royal Parks The term Central London refers to the districts of London England which are considered closest to the centre The New Statesman is a British Left-wing political Magazine published weekly in London. Soon after the war began, he joined the Home Guard (and was awarded the "British Campaign Medals/Defence Medal") attending Tom Wintringham's home guard school and championing Wintringham's socialist vision for the Home Guard. The British Home Guard (initially "Local Defence Volunteers" or LDV, or in slang Look-Duck-Vanish, hence the name change was a defence Thomas Henry (Tom Wintringham ( 15 May 1898 &mdash 16 August 1949) was a British soldier military historian journalist poet
In 1941, Orwell worked for BBC's Eastern Service, supervising Indian broadcasts meant to stimulate India's war participation against the approaching Japanese army. The, or JSDF, are the military forces in Japan that were established after the end of the post- World War II American occupation of Japan About being a propagandist, he wrote of feeling like "an orange that's been trodden on by a very dirty boot". Still, he devoted much effort to the opportunity of working closely with the likes of T. S. Eliot, E. M. Forster, Mulk Raj Anand, and William Empson; the war-time Ministry of Information, at Senate House, University of London, inspired the Ministry of Truth in the novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. Thomas Stearns Eliot, OM (September 26 1888 – January 4 1965 was a poet Dramatist, and Literary critic. Edward Morgan Forster OM, CH (1 January 1879–7 June 1970 was an English novelist Short story writer Essayist, and Librettist Mulk Raj Anand ( December 12, 1905 - September 28, 2004) was an Indian writer in English, notable for his depiction Sir William Empson ( 27 September 1906 – 15 April 1984) was an English Literary critic Senate House, the administrative centre of the University of London, lies in the heart of Bloomsbury between the School of Oriental and African Studies The University of London is a university based primarily in London, England, UK. The Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue, in Newspeak) is one of the four ministries that govern Oceania in George Orwell 's novel
Orwell's BBC resignation followed a report confirming his fears about the broadcasts: few Indians listened. He wanted to become a war correspondent, and was impatient to begin working on Animal Farm. A war correspondent is a Journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. Animal Farm is a Novel by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical Allegory of Soviet Totalitarianism Despite the good salary, he resigned from BBC in September 1943, and in November became literary editor of the left-wing weekly magazine Tribune, then edited by Aneurin Bevan and Jon Kimche (Kimche had been Box to Orwell's Cox when they were half-time assistants at the Booklover's Corner book shop in Hampstead, 1934–35). A literary editor is an editor in a Newspaper or similar publication who deals with aspects concerning Literature and Books especially reviews Tribune is a Democratic socialist weekly currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper published in London. Aneurin Bevan, usually known as Nye Bevan ( 15 November 1897 &ndash 6 July 1960) was a Welsh Labour Jon Kimche ( 17 June 1909 - 9 March 1994) was a journalist and author Cox and Box; or The Long-Lost Brothers, is a one-act Comic opera with a libretto by F Cox and Box; or The Long-Lost Brothers, is a one-act Comic opera with a libretto by F Orwell was on staff until early 1945, writing the regular column "As I Please". Anthony Powell and Malcolm Muggeridge had returned from overseas to finish the war in London; the three regularly lunched together at either the Bodega, off the Strand, or the Bourgogne, in Soho, sometimes joined by Julian Symons (then seemingly true disciple to Orwell) and David Astor, editor-owner of The Observer. Anthony Dymoke Powell, CH, CBE (December 21 1905&ndashMarch 28 2000 was an English novelist best known for his twelve-volume work A Dance to the Music Thomas Malcolm Muggeridge ( Croydon, England 24 March 1903 &ndash 14 November 1990) was a British Journalist The Strand is a street in the City of Westminster, London, England. This article is about an area of Manhattan, New York City. For the area in London UK see Soho. Julian Gustave Symons (1912 - 1994 was a British Crime writer and Poet. Francis David Langhorne Astor CH ( March 5, 1912, London &ndash December 7, 2001, London) was a Newspaper The Observer is a British Newspaper published on Sundays In about the same place on the political spectrum as its daily sister paper The
In 1944, Orwell finished the anti-Stalinist allegory Animal Farm published (Britain, 17 August 1945, U. An allegory (from αλλος allos "other" and el αγορευειν agoreuein "to speak in public" is a figurative mode of representation Animal Farm is a Novel by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical Allegory of Soviet Totalitarianism Events 986 - A Byzantine army was destroyed in the pass of Trajan's Gate by the Bulgarians under the Comitopuli Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar S. , 26 August 1946) to critical and popular success. Events 1071 - Battle of Manzikert: The Seljuk Turks defeat the Byzantine Army at Manzikert. Year 1946 ( MCMXLVI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Harcourt Brace Editor Frank Morley went to Britain soon after the war to learn what currently interested readers, clerking a week or so at the Cambridge book shop Bowes and Bowes. Harcourt Trade Publishers is a US Publishing firm with a long history of publishing fiction and nonfiction for children and adults The first day, customers continually requested a sold-out book — the second impression of Animal Farm; on reading the shop's remaining copy, he went to London and bought the American publishing rights; the royalties were George Orwell's first, proper, adult income.
With Animal Farm at the printer's, with war's end in view, Orwell's desire to be in the thick of the action quickened. David Astor asked him to be the Observer war correspondent reporting the liberation of France and the early occupation of Germany; Orwell quit Tribune. The military history of France during World War II covers the period from 1939 until 1940 which witnessed French military participation under the Third Republic, and the period The Allied powers who defeated Nazi Germany in World War II divided the country west of the Oder-Neisse line into four occupation zones for administrative Tribune is a Democratic socialist weekly currently a magazine though in the past more often a newspaper published in London.
He and Astor were close; Astor is believed to be the model for the rich publisher in Keep the Aspidistra Flying; Orwell strongly influenced Astor's editorial policies. Astor died in 2001 and is buried in the grave beside Orwell's. Orwell never revealed his pen name, keeping his identity secret and thinking his work did not need a revealed author.
Orwell and his wife adopted a baby boy, Richard Horatio Blair, born in May 1944. Orwell was taken ill again in Cologne in spring 1945. While he was sick there, his wife died in Newcastle during an operation to remove a tumour. Newcastle upon Tyne ( (often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and Metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, England She had not told him about this operation due to concerns about the cost and the fact that she thought she would make a speedy recovery.
For the next four years Orwell mixed journalistic work — mainly for the Tribune, the Observer and the Manchester Evening News, though he also contributed to many small-circulation political and literary magazines — with writing his best-known work, Nineteen Eighty-Four, which was published in 1949. The Manchester Evening News (also known as MEN Media) is an English daily Newspaper published each week day evening and on Saturdays A literary magazine is a Periodical devoted to Literature in a broad sense Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel Originally, Orwell was undecided between titling the book The Last Man in Europe and Nineteen Eighty-Four but his publisher, Fredric Warburg, helped him choose. Fredric John Warburg ( November 27, 1898 - May 25, 1981) was an English publisher best known for his association with the British author The title was not the year Orwell had initially intended. He first set his story in 1980, but, as the time taken to write the book dragged on (partly because of his illness), that was changed to 1982 and, later, to 1984. 
He wrote much of the novel while living at Barnhill, a remote farmhouse on the island of Jura which lies in the Gulf stream off the west coast of Scotland. Jura ( Scottish Gaelic Diùra) is an Island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland, situated adjacent and to the north-east of Islay The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension towards Europe the North Atlantic Drift, is a powerful warm and swift Atlantic Ocean current that Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain. It was an abandoned farmhouse with outbuildings near to the northern end of the island, situated at the end of a five-mile (8 km), heavily rutted track from Ardlussa, where the laird, or landowner, Margaret Fletcher lived, and where the paved road, the only one on the island, came to an end. A Laird (Lord is a Hereditary title for the owner of a landed estate in Scotland.
In 1948, he co-edited a collection entitled British Pamphleteers with Reginald Reynolds. Reginald Arthur Reynolds (1905-1958 was a British Left wing writer a Quaker and husband of left wing novelist Ethel Mannin, whom he married
In 1949, Orwell was approached by a friend, Celia Kirwan, who had just started working for a Foreign Office unit, the Information Research Department, which the Labour government had set up to publish anti-communist propaganda. The Foreign and Commonwealth Office, commonly called the Foreign Office or the FCO, is the British government department responsible for promoting The Information Research Department, founded in 1948 by Christopher Mayhew MP, was a department of the British Foreign Office set up to counter Russian The Labour Party is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Founded at the start of the 20th century it has been since the 1920s the principal party of the Anti-communism refers to opposition to Communism. Historically the word "communism" has been used to refer to several types of communal social organization and He gave her a list of 37 writers and artists he considered to be unsuitable as IRD authors because of their pro-communist leanings. The list, not published until 2003, consists mainly of journalists (among them the editor of the New Statesman, Kingsley Martin) but also includes the actors Michael Redgrave and Charlie Chaplin. The New Statesman is a British Left-wing political Magazine published weekly in London. Kingsley Martin (1897&ndash1969 was a British Journalist who edited the left-leaning political magazine the New Statesman for thirty years Sir Michael Scudamore Redgrave CBE ( 20 March, 1908 — 21 March, 1985) was an English actor author director and Orwell's motives for handing over the list are unclear, but the most likely explanation is the simplest: that he was helping a friend in a cause — anti-Stalinism — that they both supported. There is no indication that Orwell abandoned the democratic socialism that he consistently promoted in his later writings — or that he believed the writers he named should be suppressed. Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation Orwell's list was also accurate: the people on it had all made pro-Soviet or pro-communist public pronouncements. In fact, one of the people on the list, Peter Smollett, the head of the Soviet section in the Ministry of Information, was later (after the opening of KGB archives) proven to be a Soviet agent, recruited by Kim Philby, and "almost certainly the person on whose advice the publisher Jonathan Cape turned down Animal Farm as an unhealthily anti-Soviet text", although Orwell was unaware of this. A soviet (сове́т, "council" originally was a workers' local council in late Imperial Russia. KGB ( Transliteration of "КГБ" is the Russian abbreviation of Committee for State Security ( Komityet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosty Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby or HAR Philby ( OBE: 1946-1965 ( 1 January, 1912 – 11 May, 1988) Jonathan Cape was a British Publisher founded in 1919 as Jonathan Page and Company; the name was changed in 1921 and it took over the back list of 
Orwell died in London from tuberculosis, at the age of 46. Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or T u' b' erculosis Bacillus --> is a common  He was in and out of hospitals for the last three years of his life. Having requested burial in accordance with the Anglican rite, he was interred in All Saints' Churchyard, Sutton Courtenay, Oxfordshire with the simple epitaph: "Here lies Eric Arthur Blair, born June 25, 1903, died January 21, 1950"; no mention is made on the gravestone of his more famous pen-name. Sutton Courtenay is a Village and Civil parish, between Didcot and Abingdon, currently in the English county of Oxfordshire History See also History of Oxfordshire The county of Oxfordshire was formed in the early years of the 10th century and is broadly situated in the Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. He had wanted to be buried in the graveyard of the closest church to wherever he happened to die, but the graveyards in central London had no space. Fearing that he might have to be cremated, against his wishes, his widow appealed to his friends to see if any of them knew of a church with space in its graveyard. Orwell's friend David Astor lived in Sutton Courtenay and negotiated with the vicar for Orwell to be buried there, although he had no connection with the village. Francis David Langhorne Astor CH ( March 5, 1912, London &ndash December 7, 2001, London) was a Newspaper
Orwell's son, Richard Blair, was raised by an aunt after his father's death. He maintains a low public profile, though he has occasionally given interviews about the few memories he has of his father. Blair worked for many years as an agricultural agent for the British government.
Throughout his life Orwell continually supported himself as a book reviewer, writing works so long and sophisticated they have had an influence on literary criticism. In the celebrated conclusion to his 1940 essay on Charles Dickens one seems to see Orwell himself:
Orwell's political views shifted over time, but he was a man of the political left throughout his life as a writer. In his earlier days he occasionally described himself as a "Tory anarchist". His time in Burma made him a staunch opponent of imperialism, and his experience of poverty while researching Down and Out in Paris and London and The Road to Wigan Pier turned him into a socialist. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. "Every line of serious work that I have written since 1936 has been written, directly or indirectly, against totalitarianism and for democratic socialism, as I understand it," he wrote in 1946. Totalitarianism (or totalitarian rule) is a concept used to describe Political systems where a State regulates nearly every aspect of public and private Democratic socialism is a description used by various socialist movements tendencies and organizations to emphasize the democratic character of their political orientation
It was the Spanish Civil War that played the most important part in defining his socialism. Having witnessed the success of the anarcho-syndicalist communities, and the subsequent brutal suppression of the anarcho-syndicalists and other revolutionaries by the Soviet-backed Communists, Orwell returned from Catalonia a staunch anti-Stalinist and joined the Independent Labour Party.
At the time, like most other left-wingers in the United Kingdom, he was still opposed to rearmament against Nazi Germany — but after the Molotov-Ribbentrop pact and the outbreak of the Second World War, he changed his mind. He left the ILP over its pacifism and adopted a political position of "revolutionary patriotism". He supported the war effort but detected (wrongly as it turned out) a mood that would lead to a revolutionary socialist movement among the British people. "We are in a strange period of history in which a revolutionary has to be a patriot and a patriot has to be a revolutionary," he wrote in Tribune, the Labour left's weekly, in December 1940.
By 1943, his thinking had moved on. He joined the staff of Tribune as literary editor, and from then until his death was a left-wing (though hardly orthodox) Labour-supporting democratic socialist. He canvassed for the Labour Party in the 1945 general election and was broadly supportive of its actions in office, though he was sharply critical of its timidity on certain key questions and despised the pro-Soviet stance of many Labour left-wingers.
Although he was never either a Trotskyist or an anarchist, he was strongly influenced by the Trotskyist and anarchist critiques of the Soviet regime and by the anarchists' emphasis on individual freedom. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. Anarchism is a Political philosophy encompassing theories and attitudes which support the elimination of all compulsory Government, i He wrote in The Road to Wigan Pier that 'I worked out an anarchistic theory that all government is evil, that the punishment always does more harm than the crime and the people can be trusted to behave decently if you will only let them alone. The Road to Wigan Pier was written by George Orwell and published in 1937. ' In typical Orwellian style, he continues to deconstruct his own opinion as 'sentimental nonsense'. The adjective Orwellian describes the situation idea or societal condition that George Orwell identified as being destructive to the welfare of a free-society He continues 'it is always necessary to protect peaceful people from violence. In any state of society where crime can be profitable you have got to have a harsh criminal law and administer it ruthlessly'. Many of his closest friends in the mid-1940s were part of the small anarchist scene in London.
Orwell had little sympathy with Zionism and opposed the creation of the state of Israel. History of Zionism|Timeline of Zionism|World Zionist Organization|Zionist political violence Zionism is an international political movement that originally supported the For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. In 1945, Orwell wrote that "few English people realise that the Palestine issue is partly a colour issue and that an Indian nationalist, for example, would probably side with the Arabs". Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.
While Orwell was concerned that the Palestinian Arabs be treated fairly, he was equally concerned with fairness to Jews in general: writing in the spring of 1945 a long essay titled "Antisemitism in Britain," for the "Contemporary Jewish Record. PLEASE TAKE NOTE************ " Antisemitism, Orwell warned, was "on the increase," and was "quite irrational and will not yield to arguments. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility " He thought "the only useful approach" would be a psychological one, to discover "why" antisemites could "swallow such absurdities on one particular subject while remaining sane on others. " (pp 332-341, As I Please: 1943-1945. ) In his magnum opus, Nineteen Eighty-Four, he showed the Party enlisting antisemitic passions in the Two Minute Hates for Goldstein, their archetypal traitor. Magnum opus (sometimes Opus magnum, plural magna opera) from the Latin meaning great work, refers to the best the greatest Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility
Orwell was also a proponent of a federal socialist Europe, a position outlined in his 1947 essay 'Toward European Unity', which first appeared in Partisan Review. Partisan Review was an American political and literary quarterly published from 1934 to 2003, though it suspended publication between October 1936
During the majority of his career, Orwell was best known for his journalism, in essays, reviews, columns in newspapers and magazines and in his books of reportage: Down and Out in Paris and London (describing a period of poverty in these cities), The Road to Wigan Pier (describing the living conditions of the poor in northern England, and the class divide generally) and Homage to Catalonia. Journalism is the profession of writing or communicating formally employed by publications and broadcasters for the benefit of a particular Community of people Down and Out in Paris and London is George Orwell 's semi-autobiographical account of living in Poverty in both cities The Road to Wigan Pier was written by George Orwell and published in 1937. Homage to Catalonia is political journalist and Novelist George Orwell 's personal account of his experiences and observations in the According to Newsweek, Orwell "was the finest journalist of his day and the foremost architect of the English essay since Hazlitt. Newsweek is an American weekly Newsmagazine published in New York City. William Hazlitt ( 10 April 1778 &ndash 18 September 1830) was an English Writer remembered for his humanistic Essays and "
Modern readers are more often introduced to Orwell as a novelist, particularly through his enormously successful titles Animal Farm and Nineteen Eighty-Four. Animal Farm is a Novel by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical Allegory of Soviet Totalitarianism Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel The former is often thought to reflect developments in the Soviet Union after the Russian Revolution; the latter, life under totalitarian rule. See also Russian Revolution (1905 The Russian Revolution of 1916 refers to a series of popular revolutions in Russia, and the events surrounding them Elements in Nineteen Eighty-Four satirize "opium for the masses" found as central-character Winston Smith does (witness the newspapers filled with "sex, sport, and astrology" which the Ministry of Truth peddles to the proles). Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel The Ministry of Truth (or Minitrue, in Newspeak) is one of the four ministries that govern Oceania in George Orwell 's novel Proles is a term used in Orwell's novel Nineteen Eighty-Four to refer to the working class of Oceania (i Nineteen Eighty-Four is often compared to Brave New World by Aldous Huxley; both are powerful dystopian novels warning of a future world filled with state control, the former was written later and considers perpetual war preparation in a nuclear age; the latter is more optimistic. Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel Brave New World is a 1932 Novel by Aldous Huxley. Set in the London of AD 2540 (632 A Aldous Leonard Huxley (26 July 1894 &ndash 22 November 1963 was an English writer and one of the most prominent members of the famous Huxley family. A dystopia (from the Greek δυσ- and τόπος alternatively cacotopia, kakotopia, cackotopia, or anti-utopia) is the vision of a society
Some of Nineteen Eighty-Four's lexicon has entered into the English language. Nineteen Eighty-Four (also titled 1984) by George Orwell (the pen name of Eric Arthur Blair) is a 1949 English Novel
Variations of the slogan "all animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others", from Animal Farm, are sometimes used to satirise situations where equality exists in theory and rhetoric but not in practice with various idioms. Animal Farm is a Novel by George Orwell, and is the most famous satirical Allegory of Soviet Totalitarianism For example, an allegation that rich people are treated more leniently by the courts despite legal equality before the law might be summarised as "all criminals are equal, but some are more equal than others". This appears to echo the phrase Primus inter pares - the Latin for "First amongst equals", which is usually applied to the head of a democratic state. Primus inter pares ( Latin) or First among equals is a phrase which indicates that a person is the most senior of a group of people Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome.
Although the origins of the term are debatable, Orwell may have been the first to use the term cold war. Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the He used it in an essay titled "You and the Atomic Bomb" on October 19, 1945 in Tribune, he wrote:
In an autobiographical sketch Orwell sent to the editors of Twentieth Century Authors in 1940, he wrote:
Elsewhere, Orwell strongly praised the works of Jack London, especially his book The Road. Jack London (January 12 1876 &ndash November 22 1916 was an American author who wrote The Call of the Wild, White Fang, and The Orwell's investigation of poverty in The Road to Wigan Pier strongly resembles that of Jack London's The People of the Abyss, in which the American journalist disguises himself as an out-of-work sailor in order to investigate the lives of the poor in London.
In the essay "Politics vs. Literature: An Examination of Gulliver's Travels" (1946) he wrote: "If I had to make a list of six books which were to be preserved when all others were destroyed, I would certainly put Gulliver's Travels among them. Gulliver's Travels (1726 amended 1735 officially Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World in Four Parts "
Other writers admired by Orwell included Ralph Waldo Emerson, G. K. Chesterton, George Gissing, Graham Greene, Herman Melville, Henry Miller, Tobias Smollett, Mark Twain, Joseph Conrad and Yevgeny Zamyatin. Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25 1803 &ndash April 27 1882 was an American essayist philosopher poet and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early 19th century Gilbert Keith Chesterton (29 May 1874 – 14 June 1936 was an influential English writer of the early 20th century George Gissing (ˈɡɪsɪŋ November 22, 1857 &ndash December 28, 1903) was an English Novelist who wrote twenty-three Henry Graham Greene OM, CH (2 October 1904 &ndash 3 April 1991 was an English writer best known as a novelist but who also produced Short stories Herman Melville (August 1 1819 &ndash September 28 1891 was an American novelist Short story writer Essayist and poet Henry Valentine Miller (December 26 1891 &ndash June 7 1980 was an American writer and painter. Tobias George Smollett (bapt 19 March, 1721 &ndash 17 September, 1771) was a Scottish author best known for his Picaresque Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30 1835 – April 21 1910 better known by the Pen name Mark Twain, was an American Humorist, satirist Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924 was a Polish-born English novelist Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (Евге́ний Ива́нович Замя́тин) ( February 1, 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian  He was both an admirer and a critic of Rudyard Kipling, praising Kipling as a gifted writer and a "good bad poet" whose work is "spurious" and "morally insensitive and aesthetically disgusting," but undeniably seductive and able to speak to certain aspects of reality more effectively than more enlightened authors. Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936 was an English Author and poet 
Orwell also publicly defended P. G. Wodehouse against charges of being a Nazi sympathiser; a defence based on Wodehouse's lack of interest in and ignorance of politics. Sir Pelham Grenville Wodehouse, KBE (15 October 1881 – 14 February 1975 (ˈwʊdhaʊs was an English Comic novelist who enjoyed enormous popular success Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German
Predictably, the Special Branch in the UK, the police intelligence group, spied on Orwell during the greater part of his life. Special Branch is an investigative unit of the British, Irish and many Commonwealth police services . The dossier published by Britain's National Archives mentions that according to one investigator, Orwell's tendency of clothing himself "in Bohemian fashion," revealed that the author was "a Communist":
"This man has advanced Communist views, and several of his Indian friends say that they have often seen him at Communist meetings. List of archives A national archive is a central Archive maintained by a Nation. He dresses in a bohemian fashion both at his office and in his leisure hours. "
Conversely, there has been speculation about the extent of Orwell's links to Britain's secret service, MI5, and some have even claimed that he was in the service's employ.  The evidence for this claim is contested.
Orwell also had an NKVD file due to his involvement with the POUM militia during the Spanish Civil War. The NKVD ( НКВД, ru Народный Комиссариат Внутренних Дел ''Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del'') or People's Commissariat POUM Campesinosjpg|thumb|A POUM poster appeals to peasants "Peasants the land is yours"]]The Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM Spanish: Partido Obrero
Blair's mother settled at Henley on Thames in 1905 after she bought her son back to England. Henley-on-Thames is a town on the north side of the River Thames in south Oxfordshire, England, about 10 miles downstream and north-east from He was brought up without paternal influence, his father remaining in India for most of his early childhood, in the company of his mother and sisters. His mother's diary for 1905 indicates a lively round of social activity and artistic interests. They moved to Shiplake before World War I, and Eric became friendly with the Buddicom family, especially Jacintha Buddicom whose account "Eric and Us" provides an independent insight into the Blair's childhood. Shiplake (and Lower Shiplake) is a village in Oxfordshire, England on the River Thames, near Henley-on-Thames and opposite the village Jacintha Buddicom ( 10 May 1901 -1994 was a poetess and a childhood friend of George Orwell (Eric Blair On their first encounter he was standing on his head in a field, claiming "You are noticed more if you stand on your head than if you are right way up". They read and wrote poetry, and dreamt of intellectual adventures. He told her that he might write a book in similar style to that of H. G. Wells's A Modern Utopia. Herbert George Wells (21 September 1866 &ndash 13 August 1946 He was an outspoken socialist and a pacifist, his later works becoming increasingly political A Modern Utopia is a nonfiction work by H G Wells. Wells's proposal for social reform was the formation of a world state a concept that would Simultaneously, he enjoyed shooting, fishing, and birdwatching with Jacintha’s brother and sister. 
George Orwell and Cyril Connolly were contemporaries at St Cyprian's and at Eton, though they hardly spoke at Eton as they were in separate years. Cyril Vernon Connolly ( 10 September 1903 - 26 November 1974) was an English intellectual literary critic and writer Eton College, or just Eton, is a world-famous British Independent school for boys founded in 1440 by King Henry VI. Connolly also provides an account of Blair as a child in Enemies of Promise. Enemies of Promise (ISBN 0-233-97936-0 is a critical and autobiographical work written by Cyril Connolly and first published in 1938  They later became friends; Connolly helping a prep school companion by introducing him to London literary circles. At St Cyprian's Blair claimed that he "was made to study like a dog" to earn a scholarship; he alleged that was solely to enhance the school's prestige with parents, so accounting for his lackadaisical approach to studies at Eton. Jacintha Buddicom repudiated Orwell's schoolboy misery described in Such, Such Were the Joys, claiming he was a specially happy child, yet acknowledging he was a boy, aloof and undemonstrative, who did not need a wide circle of friends. "Such Such Were the Joys" is a long autobiographical Essay by English writer George Orwell, written in the 1940's but not published He and she lost touch shortly after Orwell went to Burma, becoming unsympathetic to him because of letters he wrote complaining about his life; she ceased replying. Burma, officially the Union of Myanmar ( pjìdàunzṵ mjàmmà nàinŋàndɔ̀ is the largest country by geographical area in mainland Southeast Asia. 
Whilst living in poor lodgings on Portobello Road on returning from Burma, his family friend recalls:
|“||That winter was very cold. Orwell had very little money, indeed. I think he must have suffered in that unheated room, after the climate of Burma . . . Oh yes, he was already writing. Trying to write that is – it didn't come easily . . . To us, at that time, he was a wrong-headed young man who had thrown away a good career, and was vain enough to think he could be an author. But the formidable look was not there for nothing. He had the gift, he had the courage, he had the persistence to go on in spite of failure, sickness, poverty, and opposition, until he became an acknowledged master of English prose. [Ruth Pitter, BBC Overseas Service broadcast, 3 January 1956]||”|
In The Road to Wigan Pier he writes of tramping and poverty:
|“||When I thought of poverty, I thought of it in terms of brute starvation. Events 1431 - Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon. Year 1956 ( MCMLVI) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Therefore my mind turned immediately towards the extreme cases, the social outcasts: tramps, beggars, criminals, prostitutes. These were the 'lowest of the low', and these were the people with whom I wanted to get into contact. What I profoundly wanted at that time was to find some way of getting out of the respectable world altogether.||”|
The business relationship between Orwell and Victor Gollancz, his first publisher, was stiff: for example, in letters, Orwell always addressed him by surname, as "Gollancz". Two items in their relation are of particular interest. The first, Orwell apparently never voiced objection to Gollancz's apologetic preface to A Road to Wigan Pier; the second, he released Orwell from his contract (at Orwell's request) so that Secker & Warburg could publish his fiction. Gollancz's refusal to publish Animal Farm considerably delayed the book's publication. As a Soviet sympathizer, Gollancz was more interested in his non-fiction writing, finding Animal Farm politically too hot.
Eileen O'Shaughnessy was warned off Orwell by friends who warned that she did not know what she was taking on. After her death during a hysterectomy, in a letter to a friend, Orwell refers to her as 'a faithful old stick'; the depth of his love for her remains ambiguous. Eileen's symptoms may partly account for Orwell's infidelities in the war's last years, but, in a letter to a woman to whom he proposed marriage: 'I was sometimes unfaithful to Eileen, and I also treated her badly, and I think she treated me badly, too, at times, but it was a real marriage, in the sense that we had been through awful struggles together and she understood all about my work, etc. ' Bernard Crick compares them to Thomas Hardy and Emma Gifford: 'Certainly with a great writer the writing comes first. Sir Bernard Crick (born 16 December 1929) is a British Political theorist and Democratic socialist whose views are often summarised as "politics One thinks of Thomas Hardy, subtle in his characters, but obtuse to the actual suffering of his first wife. ' Nevertheless, Orwell was very lonely after Eileen's death, and desperate for a wife, both as companion for himself and as mother for Richard; he proposed marriage to four women, eventually, Sonia Brownwell accepted.
Bob Edwards, who fought with him in Spain, said: 'He had a phobia against rats. We got used to them. They used to gnaw at our boots during the night, but George just couldn't get used to the presence of rats and one day, late in the evening, he caused us great embarrassment . . . he got out his gun and shot it . . . the whole front, and both sides, went into action. '
On Sundays, Orwell liked very rare roast beef, and Yorkshire pudding dripping with gravy, and good Yarmouth kippers at high tea. (p. 501) . . . He liked his tea, as well as his tobacco, strong, sometimes putting twelve spoonfuls into a huge brown teapot requiring both hands to lift. 
His wardrobe was famously casual: 'an awful pair of thick corduroy trousers', a pair of thick, grey flannel trousers, a 'rather nice' black corduroy jacket, a shaggy, battered, green-grey Harris tweed jacket, and a 'best suit' of dark-grey-to-black herringbone tweed of old-fashioned cut. 
Younger sister, Avril, joined him at Barnhill, Jura, as housekeeper. Like her brother, she was of tough character, and eventually drove away Richard Orwell's nanny, because the house was too small for both women. Orwell also nearly died during an unfortunate boating expedition in that time.
Of Orwell, Bernard Crick writes:
|“||. Sir Bernard Crick (born 16 December 1929) is a British Political theorist and Democratic socialist whose views are often summarised as "politics . . he was both a brave man and one who drove himself hard, for the sake, first, of 'writing' and then more and more for an integrated sense of what he had to write. Orwell was unusually reticent to his friends about his background and his life, his openness was all in print for literary or moral effect; he tried to keep his small circle of good friends well apart – people are still surprised to learn who else at the time he knew; he did not confide in people easily, not talk about his emotions – even to women with whom he was close; he was not fully integrate as a person, not quite comfortable within his own skin, until late in his life – and he was many-faceted, not a simple man at all.||”|
Shelden noted Orwell’s obsessive belief in his failure, and the deep inadequacy haunting him through his career:
|“||Playing the loser was a form of revenge against the winners, a way of repudiating the corrupt nature of conventional success – the scheming, the greed, the sacrifice of principles. Yet, it was also a form of self-rebuke, a way of keeping one’s own pride and ambition in check. ||”|
According to T. R. Fyvel:
|“||His crucial experience . . . was his struggle to turn himself into a writer, one which led through long periods of poverty, failure and humiliation, and about which he has written almost nothing directly. The sweat and agony was less in the slum-life than in the effort to turn the experience into literature. ||”|
Penguin Books George Orwell: Essays, with an Introduction by Bernard Crick
Source: George Orwell's Poems
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Blair, Eric Arthur|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||British author and journalist|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 25, 1903|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Motihari, Bihar, India|
|DATE OF DEATH||January 21, 1950|
|PLACE OF DEATH||London, England|
Events 524 - Battle of Vézeronce, the Franks defeat the Burgundians Year 1903 ( MCMIII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Motihari is the headquarters of Poorvi Champaran ( East Champaran) district in the Bihar ( Hindi:बिहार Urdu: بہار bɪhaːr) is a state in eastern India. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Events 1189 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade. Year 1950 ( MCML) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. London ( ˈlʌndən is the capital and largest urban area in the United Kingdom. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland