|George Herbert Walker Bush|
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
|Vice President||James Danforth Quayle|
|Preceded by||Ronald Reagan|
|Succeeded by||Bill Clinton|
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
|Preceded by||Walter Mondale|
|Succeeded by||Dan Quayle|
January 30, 1976 – January 20, 1977
|Preceded by||William E. Colby|
|Succeeded by||Adm. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4 1947 is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4 1947 is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI was established by U Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President William Egan Colby ( January 4, 1920 – April 27, 1996) spent a career in Intelligence for the United States culminating in holding Stansfield Turner|
September 26, 1974 – December 7, 1975
|Preceded by||David K. E. Bruce|
|Succeeded by||Thomas S. Gates, Jr.|
1971 – 1973
|Preceded by||Charles W. Yost|
|Succeeded by||John A. Scali|
January 3, 1967 – January 3, 1971
|Preceded by||John V. Dowdy|
|Succeeded by||Bill Archer|
|Born||June 12, 1924 |
|Spouse||Barbara Pierce Bush|
|Alma mater||Yale University|
|Website||George Bush Presidential Library and Museum|
|Service/branch||United States Navy|
|Years of service||1942–45|
|Rank||Lieutenant, Junior Grade|
|Unit||Fast Carrier Task Force|
|Awards||Distinguished Flying Cross,|
Three Air Medals,
Presidential Unit Citation
George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the forty-first President of the United States (1989–1993). Events 1381 - Peasants' Revolt: in England, rebels arrive at Blackheath. Year 1924 ( MCMXXIV) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Before his presidency, Bush held a multitude of political positions, including Vice President of the United States in the administration of Ronald Reagan (1981–1989). The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death
Bush was born in Massachusetts to Senator Prescott Bush and Dorothy Walker Bush. The Commonwealth of Massachusetts ( is a state located in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Prescott Sheldon Bush ( May 15, 1895 – October 8, 1972) was a United States Senator from Connecticut, a Dorothy Wear Walker Bush ( July 1, 1901 &ndash November 19, 1992) was the mother of the 41st President of the United States, Following the attacks on Pearl Harbor in 1941, at the age of 18, Bush postponed going to college and became the youngest naval aviator in US history. A United States Naval Aviator is a pilot in the United States Navy, Marine Corps or Coast Guard. He served until the end of the war, then attended Yale University. Graduating in 1948, he moved his young family to West Texas and entered the oil business, becoming a millionaire by the age of 40. West Texas is a region in Texas that has more in common geographically with the Southwestern United States than it does with the rest of the state
He became involved in politics soon after founding his own oil company, serving as a member of the House of Representatives, among other positions. The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. He ran unsuccessfully for president of the United States in 1980, but was chosen by party nominee Ronald Reagan to be the vice presidential nominee; the two were subsequently elected. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan During his tenure, Bush headed administration task forces on deregulation and fighting drug abuse. Deregulation, a term which gained widespread currency in the period 1970-2000 can be seen as a process by which governments remove reduce or simplify Restrictions on Business
In 1988, Bush launched a successful campaign to succeed Reagan as president, defeating challenger Michael Dukakis. Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician former Governor of Massachusetts, and was the Democratic Foreign policy drove the Bush presidency; operations were conducted in Panama and the Persian Gulf at a time of world change; the Berlin Wall fell in 1989 and the Soviet Union dissolved two years later. The United States invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, was the Invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989 The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Domestically, Bush reneged on a 1988 campaign promise and raised taxes amidst a struggle with Congress. " Read my lips no new taxes " is a now-famous phrase spoken by former American president and candidate George H In the wake of economic concerns, he lost the 1992 presidential election to Democrat Bill Clinton. The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States
Bush is the father of George W. Bush, the 43rd and current President of the United States, and Jeb Bush, former Governor of Florida. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American Politician and was the 43rd Governor of Florida List of Governors Military governor Spanish Florida was acquired from Spain in the Adams-Onís Treaty, which took effect July 10
George Herbert Walker Bush was born at 173 Adams Street in Milton, Massachusetts on June 12, 1924. Milton is a town in Norfolk County, Massachusetts, United States and part of the Greater Boston area The Bush family moved from Milton to Greenwich, Connecticut shortly after his birth. Greenwich is a town in Fairfield County, Connecticut, United States.
Bush began his formal education at the Greenwich Country Day School in Greenwich. The Greenwich Country Day School is a co-educational independent day school in Greenwich, Connecticut, founded in 1926.  Beginning in 1936, he attended Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, where he held a large number of leadership positions including being the president of the senior class and secretary of the student council, president of the community fund-raising group, a member of the editorial board of the school newspaper, and captain of both the varsity baseball and soccer teams. Phillips Academy (also known as Phillips Andover or PA or simply Andover) is a co-educational University preparatory school for boarding Andover is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. 
Following the attack on Pearl Harbor in December 1941, Bush decided to join the US Navy, so after graduating from Phillips Academy earlier in 1942, he became a naval aviator at the age of 18. The attack on Pearl Harbor (or Hawaii Operation, as it was called by the Imperial General Headquarters) was a surprise Military strike conducted by A United States Naval Aviator is a pilot in the United States Navy, Marine Corps or Coast Guard.  After completing the 10-month course, he was commissioned as an ensign in the U.S. Naval Reserve at Corpus Christi, Texas on June 9, 1943, just three days before his 19th birthday, which made him the youngest naval aviator to that date. An ensign is a distinguishing Flag of a ship or a military unit or a distinguishing token emblem or badge such as a symbol of office The United States Navy Reserve, until 2005 known as the United States Naval Reserve, is the reserve component of the United States Navy. Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, also known as Truax Field, is a naval base located six miles (10 km) southeast of the Central business district Events 53 - Roman Emperor Nero marries Claudia Octavia 62 - Claudia Octavia commits Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. 
He was assigned to Torpedo Squadron (VT-51) as the photographic officer in September 1943.  The following year, his squadron was based on the USS San Jacinto (CVL-30) as a member of Air Group 51. See also List of aircraft carriers List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy List of World War II During this time, the task force was victorious in one of the largest air battles of World War II: the Battle of the Philippine Sea. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Battle of the Philippine Sea (aka "The Marianas Turkey Shoot" was a decisive naval battle of World War II, and the largest aircraft carrier battle in history 
After Bush's promotion to Lieutenant Junior Grade on August 1, the San Jacinto commenced operations against the Japanese in the Bonin Islands. Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Bush piloted one of four Grumman TBM Avenger aircraft from VT-51 that attacked the Japanese installations on ChiChi Jima island. The Grumman Aircraft Engineering Corporation, later Grumman Aerospace Corporation, was a leading 20th century U WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout ChichijimaportJPG|right|250px|thumb|Futami Harbor the port at Chichi-jima]] formerly known as Peel Island, is the largest Island in the Ogasawara archipelago His crew for the mission, which occurred on September 2, 1944, included Radioman Second Class John Delaney and Lieutenant Junior Grade William White. Events 44 BC - Pharaoh Cleopatra VII of Egypt declares her son co-ruler as Ptolemy XV Caesarion. Year 1944 ( MCMXLIV) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.  During their attack, the Avengers encountered intense anti-aircraft fire; Bush's aircraft was hit by flak and his engine caught on fire.  Despite his plane being on fire, Bush completed his attack and released bombs over his target, scoring several damaging hits.  With his engine afire, Bush flew several miles from the island, where he and one other crew member on the TBM Avenger bailed out of the aircraft; the other man's parachute did not open. A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag.  It has not been determined which man bailed out with Bush as both Delaney and White were killed as a result of the battle.  Bush waited for four hours in an inflated raft, while several fighters circled protectively overhead until he was rescued by the lifeguard submarine USS Finback. 1942 Finback reached Pearl Harbor from New London 29 May 1942, and 2 days later with the Japanese Fleet on the move was ordered  For the next month he remained on the Finback, and participated in the rescue of other pilots.
Bush subsequently returned to San Jacinto in November 1944 and participated in operations in the Philippines until his squadron was replaced and sent home to the United States. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout See also List of aircraft carriers List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy List of World War II The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Through 1944, he flew 58 combat missions for which he received the Distinguished Flying Cross, three Air Medals, and the Presidential Unit Citation awarded San Jacinto. The Distinguished Flying Cross is a medal awarded to any officer or enlisted member of the United States armed forces who distinguishes himself or herself in The Air Medal is a military decoration of the United States which was established by Executive Order 9158 signed by Franklin D Please see " Presidential Unit Citation " for other nations' versions of this award The Presidential Unit Citation is awarded to units 
Because of his valuable combat experience, Bush was reassigned to Norfolk Navy Base and put in a training wing for new torpedo pilots. Naval Station Norfolk, in Norfolk, Virginia, is a base of the United States Navy, supporting naval forces operating in the Atlantic Ocean, He was later assigned as a naval aviator in a new torpedo squadron, VT-153. Upon the Japanese surrender in 1945, Bush was honorably discharged in September 1945.
George Bush married Barbara Pierce on January 6, 1945, only weeks after his return from the war. Barbara Pierce Bush (born June 8 1925 is the wife of the 41st President of the United States, George H Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England. 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Their marriage produced six children: George Walker Bush (born 1946), Pauline Robinson Bush ("Robin", 1949–1953, died of leukemia), John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born 1953), Neil Mallon Bush (born 1955), Marvin Pierce Bush (born 1956), and Dorothy Bush Koch (born 1959). George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Originating in Orange New Jersey, the Bush family in the 20th century became an accomplished Political family in the United States, including across Leukemia or leukaemia (Greek leukos λευκός, "white" aima αίμα, "blood" is a Cancer of the Blood John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American Politician and was the 43rd Governor of Florida Neil Mallon Bush (born January 22, 1955 in Midland Texas) is the fourth of six children of President George Herbert Marvin Pierce Bush (born October 22, 1956) is the youngest son of George H Dorothy Walker Bush Koch, often called "Doro" (born August 18, 1959 in Texas) is the daughter of the 41st President of the United 
Bush had been accepted to Yale University prior to his enlistment in the military, but decided to fight in World War II instead of going to college.  He took up the offer after his discharge and marriage, however. While at Yale, he was enrolled in an accelerated program that allowed him to graduate in two and a half years, rather than four.  He was a member of the Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity and was elected president. Delta Kappa Epsilon ( ΔΚΕ; also pronounced D-K-E or "Deke" is a Fraternity founded at Yale College in 1844 by 15 men of the sophomore He also captained the Yale baseball team, and as a left-handed first baseman, played in the first two College World Series; as the team captain, Bush met Babe Ruth before a game during his senior year. First base, or 1B, is the first of four stations on a Baseball diamond which must be touched in succession by a baserunner in order to score a run The College World Series or CWS is a Baseball Tournament held in Omaha Nebraska that is the culmination of the NCAA Division I Baseball George Herman Ruth Jr (February 6 1895 &ndash August 16 1948 also popularly known as " Babe " " The Bambino " and " The Sultan of Late in his junior year he was, like his father Prescott Bush (1917), initiated into the Skull and Bones secret society. Prescott Sheldon Bush ( May 15, 1895 – October 8, 1972) was a United States Senator from Connecticut, a Skull and Bones is an elite Secret society based at Yale University, in New Haven Connecticut. Secret society is a term used to describe a variety of organizations He graduated as a member of the Phi Beta Kappa fraternity from Yale in 1948 with a Bachelor's degree in economics. The Phi Beta Kappa Society is an academic Honor society with the mission of "fostering and recognizing excellence" in the Undergraduate Liberal arts A bachelor's degree is usually an Undergraduate Academic degree awarded for a course or major that generally lasts for three four or in some cases and 
After graduating from Yale, Bush moved his young family to West Texas. West Texas is a region in Texas that has more in common geographically with the Southwestern United States than it does with the rest of the state His father's business connections proved useful when he ventured into the oil business, starting as a sales clerk with Dresser Industries, a subsidiary of Brown Brothers Harriman. Dresser Industries was a Multinational corporation headquartered in Dallas, Texas, which provided a wide range of technology products and services used Brown Brothers Harriman & Co (BBH is one of the oldest and largest Partnership banks in the United States. His father had served on the board of directors there for 22 years. Bush started the Bush-Overby Oil Development company in 1951 and co-founded the Zapata Petroleum Corporation, an oil company which drilled in the Permian Basin in Texas, two years later. Zapata Corporation ( is a Holding company based in Rochester New York and originating from an oil company started by a group including the former He was named president of the Zapata Offshore Company, a subsidiary which specialized in offshore drilling, in 1954. A subsidiary, in business matters is an entity that is controlled by a bigger and more powerful entity Offshore drilling typically refers to the act of extracting underground resources which lie underwater near the shoreline  The subsidiary became independent in 1958, so Bush moved the company from Midland, Texas to Houston. Midland is a city in and the County seat of Midland County located on the Southern Plains of the western area of the U  He continued serving as president of the company until 1964, and later chairman until 1966, but his ambitions turned political.  By that time, Bush had become a millionaire. 
Bush served as Chairman of the Republican Party for Harris County, Texas in 1964, but wanted to be more involved in policy making, so he set his stakes high: he aimed for a US Senate seat from Texas.  After winning the Republican primary, Bush faced his opponent, incumbent Democrat Ralph Yarborough. Ralph Webster Yarborough ( June 08, 1903 – January 27, 1996) was a Texas Democratic politician who served in the Yarborough made several personal attacks against Bush, calling him a "tool of the eastern kingmakers" and a right-wing extremist. Bush lost the general election. 
Bush did not give up on elective politics and was elected in 1966 to a House of Representatives seat from the 7th District of Texas, defeating Democrat Frank Briscoe with 57% of the vote; he became the first Republican to represent Houston. Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14 1890 – March 28 1969 was President of the United States from 1953 until 1961 and a five-star general The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate.  His voting record in the House was generally conservative: Bush opposed the public accommodations contention in the 1964 Civil Rights Act, and supported open-housing legislation, something generally unpopular in his district. Conservatism in the United States includes a variety of political ideologies including Fiscal conservatism, Supply-side economics, Social conservatism Origins The bill was introduced by President John F Kennedy in his civil rights speech of June 11 1963, in which he asked for legislation "giving  He supported the Nixon administration's Vietnam policies, but broke with Republicans on the issue of birth control. The Vietnam War, also known as the Second Indochina War, or the Vietnam Conflict, occurred in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia  Despite being a first-term congressman, Bush was appointed to the powerful House Ways and Means Committee, where he voted to abolish the military draft. Committee of Ways and Means is the chief Tax -writing committee of the United States House of Representatives. Conscription (also known as the draft, the call-up or national service) is a general term for involuntary labor demanded by some established authority  He was elected to a second term in 1968. 
In 1970, President Nixon convinced Bush to relinquish his House seat to again run for the Senate against Ralph Yarborough, a fierce Nixon critic. In the Republican primary, Bush easily defeated conservative Robert Morris, by a margin of 87. 6% to 12. 4%.  However, former Congressman Lloyd Bentsen, a more moderate Democrat and native of Mission, Texas, defeated Yarborough in the Democratic primary. Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr ( February 11 1921 – May 23 2006) was a four-term United States senator (1971 until 1993 from Texas Mission is a city in Hidalgo County, Texas, United States. The population was 45408 at the 2000 census  Yarborough then endorsed Bentsen. Because there was no presidential election in 1970, turnout in Texas was unusually low in the general election. Bentsen defeated Bush with 54% to 43%. 
Following his 1970 loss, Bush was well known as a prominent Republican businessman from the "Sun Belt", a group of states in the Southern part of the country. The Sun Belt is a region of the United States generally considered to stretch across the South and Southwest (the geographic southern United States  President Nixon noticed and appreciated the sacrifice Bush had made of his Congressional position, so he appointed him Ambassador to the United Nations. The United States Ambassador to the United Nations (full title Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status  He was confirmed unanimously by the Senate, and served for two years, beginning in 1971. 
Amidst the Watergate scandal, Nixon asked Bush to become chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1973. The Watergate scandals were a series of Political scandals during the presidency of Richard Nixon that resulted in the Indictment of several of Nixon's The Republican National Committee (RNC provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States.  Bush accepted, and held this position when the popularity of both Nixon and the Republican Party plummeted.  He defended Nixon steadfastly, but later as Nixon's complicity became clear, Bush focused more on defending the Republican Party, while still maintaining loyalty to Nixon.  As chairman, Bush formally requested that Richard Nixon eventually resign for the good of the Republican party.  President Nixon did this on August 9, 1974; Bush noted in his diary that "There was an aura of sadness, like somebody died. Events 48 BC - Caesar's civil war: Battle of Pharsalus - Julius Caesar decisively defeats Pompey at Pharsalus Year 1974 ( MCMLXXIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. . . The [resignation] speech was vintage Nixon — a kick or two at the press — enormous strains. One couldn't help but look at the family and the whole thing and think of his accomplishments and then think of the shame. . . [Ford's swearing-in offered] indeed a new spirit, a new lift. "
Gerald Ford, Nixon's successor, appointed Bush to be Chief of the US Liaison Office in the People's Republic of China. Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Since the United States at the time maintained official relations with the Republic of China on Taiwan and not the People's Republic of China, the Liaison Office did not have the official status of an embassy and Bush did not formally hold the position of "ambassador", though he unofficially acted as one. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. The time that he spent in China—14 months—were seen as largely beneficial for US-Chinese relations. 
In 1976, Ford brought Bush back to Washington to become Director of Central Intelligence. The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI was established by U He served in this role for 355 days, from January 30, 1976 to January 20, 1977. Events 1648 - Eighty Years' War: The Treaty of Münster is signed ending the conflict between the Netherlands and Spain Year 1976 ( MCMLXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Also 1977 (album by Ash. Year 1977 ( MCMLXXVII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays  The CIA had been rocked by a series of revelations, including those based on investigations by Senator Frank Church's Committee regarding alleged illegal and unauthorized activities by the CIA, and Bush was credited with helping to restore the agency's morale. For his son Frank Forrester Church IV the Unitarian Universalist minister and theologian see Forrest Church.  In his capacity as DCI, Bush gave national security briefings to Jimmy Carter both as a Presidential candidate and as President-elect, and discussed the possibility of remaining in that position in a Carter administration but it was not to be. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002
After a Democratic administration took power in 1977, Bush became chairman on the Executive Committee of the First International Bank in Houston.  He later spent a year as a part-time professor of Administrative Science at Rice University in the Jones School of Business beginning in 1978, the year it opened; Bush said of his time there, "I loved my brief time in the world of academia. William Marsh Rice University (commonly called Rice University and opened in 1912 as The William Marsh Rice Institute for the Advancement of Letters Science and Art "
Bush had decided in the late 1970s that he was going to run for president in 1980; in 1979, he attended 850 political events and traveled more than 250,000 miles to campaign for the nation's highest office. The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan  In the contest for the Republican Party nomination, Bush stressed his wide range of government experience, while competing against rivals Howard Baker, Bob Dole, John Anderson (who would later run as an independent), Phil Crane, John Connally, and the front-runner Ronald Reagan, former actor and Governor of California. Howard Henry Baker Jr (born November 15, 1925) is a former Senate Majority Leader, Republican U Robert Joseph "Bob" Dole (born July 22 1923 is an attorney and retired United States Senator from Kansas from 1969–1996 serving part of that time John Bayard Anderson (born February 15 1922 is an attorney and former United States Congressman and Presidential candidate Philip Miller "Phil" Crane (born November 3, 1930, in Chicago Illinois) is a former American politician John Bowden Connally Jr ( February 27 1917 June 15 1993) was a powerful American politician, serving as Governor The Governor of California is the highest executive authority in the state government whose responsibilities include making annual "State of the State" addresses 
In the primary election, Bush focused almost entirely on the Iowa caucuses, while Reagan ran a more traditional campaign. The Iowa caucuses are an electoral event in which residents of the U  Bush represented the centrist wing in the GOP, whereas Reagan represented conservatives. Bush famously labeled Reagan's supply side-influenced plans for massive tax cuts "voodoo economics. Supply-side economics is an arguably heterodox school of Macroeconomic thought that argues that economic growth can be most effectively created using incentives for A tax cut is a reduction in taxes. Economic stimulus via tax cuts along with interest rate intervention and deficit spending are one of the central tenets of Keynesian economics Reaganomics (a portmanteau of "Reagan" and "economics" refers to the Economic policies promoted by United States President Ronald " His strategy proved useful, to some degree, as he won in Iowa with 31. 5% to Reagan's 29. 4%.  After the win, Bush stated that his campaign was full of momentum, or "Big Mo".  As a result of the loss, Reagan replaced his campaign manager, reorganized his staff, and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary. In Representative democracies, Electoral campaigns larger than a few individuals generally include a campaign manager, either Paid or Volunteer The New Hampshire primary is the first in a series of nationwide Political party Primary elections held in the United States every four years as part of The two men agreed to a debate in the state, organized by the Nashua Telegraph, but paid for by the Reagan campaign. The Telegraph, frequently referred to as the Nashua Telegraph, is a daily Newspaper in Nashua, New Hampshire. Reagan invited the other four candidates as well, but Bush refused to debate them, and eventually they left.  The debate proved to be a pivotal moment in the campaign; when the moderator, John Breene, ordered Reagan's microphone turned off, his angry response, "I am paying for this microphone Mr. Greene" [sic], struck a chord with the public.  Bush ended up losing New Hampshire's primary with 23% to Reagan's 50%.  Bush lost most of the remaining primaries as well, and formally dropped out of the race in May of that year. 
With his political future seeming dismal, Bush sold his house in Houston and bought his grandfather's estate in Kennebunkport, Maine, known as "Walker's Point. Kennebunkport is a town in York County, Maine, United States. " At the Republican Convention, however, Reagan selected Bush as his Vice Presidential nominee, placing him on the winning Republican presidential ticket of 1980.
As Vice President, Bush generally took on a low-profile while recognizing the constitutional limits of the office; he avoided decision making or criticizing Reagan in any way. The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, was a Republican administration headed by  As had become customary, he and Barbara Bush moved into the Vice President's residence at Number One Observatory Circle, a few blocks from the White House. Number One Observatory Circle is the Official residence of the Vice President of the United States. See also Executive Office of the President of the United States The White House, formerly known as the Executive Mansion, is the Official residence The Bushes attended a large number of public and ceremonial events in their positions, including many state funerals, which became a common joke for comedians. A state funeral is a public funeral ceremony held to honour Heads of state or other important people of national significance  Mrs. Bush found the funerals largely beneficial, saying, "George met with many current or future heads of state at the funerals he attended, enabling him to forge personal relationships that were important to President Reagan. " As the President of the Senate, Bush stayed in contact with members of Congress, and kept the president informed on occurrences on Capitol Hill. The President of the Senate is a title often given to the presiding officer speaker or chairman of a Senate. 
On March 30, 1981, early into the administration, Reagan was shot and seriously wounded in Washington, D.C. Bush, second in command by the presidential line of succession, was in Dallas, Texas and flew back to Washington immediately. Events 240 BC - 1st recorded Perihelion passage of Halley's Comet. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 The Reagan assassination attempt occurred on March 30 1981 just 69 days into the presidency of Ronald Reagan. Washington DC ( formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington, the District, or simply D The presidential line of succession defines who may become or act as President of the United States upon the incapacity death resignation or removal from office (by Impeachment Reagan's cabinet convened in the White House Situation Room, where they discussed various issues, including the availability of the nuclear football. The White House Situation Room is a 5000-square-foot Conference room and intelligence management center in the basement of the West Wing of the The Nuclear Football (also called the President's Emergency Satchel, The Button, The Black Box or just The Football) is a specially outfitted When Bush's plane landed, his aides advised him to proceed directly to the White House by helicopter, as an image of the government still functioning despite the attack.  Bush rejected the idea, responding, "only the president lands on the South Lawn. " This made a positive impression on Reagan, who recovered and returned to work within two weeks. From then on, the two men would have regular Thursday lunches in the Oval Office; Reagan admired Bush's continued loyalty to him and the administration. | |-| |-| |- | |-| |-| |-| |-| |} The Oval Office is the official office of the President of the United States. 
In his position, Bush chaired a special task force on deregulation, reviewing hundreds of rules and making specific recommendations on which ones to amend or revise, in order to curb the size of the federal government. Deregulation, a term which gained widespread currency in the period 1970-2000 can be seen as a process by which governments remove reduce or simplify Restrictions on Business  The Reagan administration introduced new policies in the War on Drugs, and Bush was part of this by heading another task force, this one on international drug smuggling and federal efforts to stop the spread of drugs from entering the US. The War on Drugs is a prohibition campaign undertaken by the United States government with the assistance of participating countries intended to reduce the Illegal  Both were popular issues with conservatives, and Bush, largely a moderate, began courting them through his work. 
Reagan and Bush ran for reelection in 1984. The Democratic opponent, Walter Mondale, made history by choosing a woman as his running mate, New York Representative Geraldine Ferraro. The Democratic Party is one of two major Political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Geraldine Anne Ferraro (born August 26 1935) is an attorney and a Democratic politician and a former member of the United States House of Representatives She and Bush squared off in a single televised Vice Presidential debate.  Serving as a contrast to the Ivy-League educated Bush, Ferraro represented a "blue-collar" district in Queens, New York; this, coupled with her popularity among female journalists, left Bush at a disadvantage.  However, the Reagan-Bush ticket won again in a landslide, against the Mondale-Ferraro ticket.
Early into his second term as Vice President, Bush and his aides were planning a run for the presidency in 1988, as Reagan would be constitutionally ineligible to run for a third term. By the end of 1985, a committee had been established and over two million dollars raised for Bush.  Bush became the first Vice President to become Acting President when, on July 13, 1985, Reagan underwent surgery to remove polyps from his colon. Acting President of the United States is a reference to a person who is legitimately exercising the Presidential powers even though that person does not hold the office of the President Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) Bush served as Acting President for approximately eight hours.
The administration was shaken by a scandal in 1986, when it was revealed that administration officials had secretly arranged weapon sales to Iran, and had used the proceeds to fund the anticommunist Contras in Nicaragua, a direct violation of the law. The Contras is a label given to the various rebel groups opposing Nicaragua 's FSLN (Frente Sandinista de Liberacion Nacional Sandinista Junta of National Nicaragua (ˌnɪkəˈrɑgwə officially the Republic of Nicaragua () is a representative democratic republic and the largest nation in Central America  When the Iran-Contra Affair, as it became known, broke to the media, Bush, like President Reagan, stated that he had been "out of the loop" and unaware of the diversion of funds, although this was later questioned. The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in November 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration.  Public opinion polls taken at the time indicated that the public questioned Bush's explanation of being an "innocent bystander" while the trades were occurring; this led to the notion that he was a "wimp".  However, his fury during an interview with CBS's Dan Rather largely put the "wimp" issue to rest. CBS Broadcasting Inc ( CBS) is an American radio and Television network. Daniel Irvin "Dan" Rather Jr (born October 31, 1931) is a journalist and former news anchor for the CBS Evening News 
Bush had been planning a presidential run since as early as 1985, and entered the Republican primary for President of the United States in October 1987. -->The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6 1921 is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan and served as an influential His challengers for the Republican presidential nomination included US Senator Bob Dole of Kansas, US Representative Jack Kemp of New York, former Governor Pete DuPont of Delaware, and conservative Christian televangelist Pat Robertson. Robert Joseph "Bob" Dole (born July 22 1923 is an attorney and retired United States Senator from Kansas from 1969–1996 serving part of that time Kansas ( is a Midwestern state in the central region of the United States of America, an area often referred to as the American " Jack French Kemp Jr (born July 13 1935 is an American politician and former professional American football player New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous Pierre Samuel "Pete" du Pont IV (born January 22 1935) is an American Lawyer and Politician from Delaware Delaware ( is a state located on the Atlantic Coast in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States. Televangelism is the use of Television to communicate the Christian faith Marion Gordon "Pat" Robertson (born March 22 1930 is a controversial Televangelist from the United States.
Though considered the early frontrunner for the nomination, Bush came in third in the Iowa caucus, behind winner Dole and runner-up Robertson.  Much like Reagan did in 1980, Bush reorganized his staff and concentrated on the New Hampshire primary.  With Dole ahead in New Hampshire, Bush ran television commercials portraying the senator as a tax raiser; he rebounded to win the state's primary. Bush continued seeing victory, winning many Southern primaries as well.  Once the multiple-state primaries such as Super Tuesday began, Bush's organizational strength and fundraising lead were impossible for the other candidates to match, and the nomination was his. 
Leading up to the 1988 Republican National Convention, there was much speculation as to Bush's choice of running mate. The 1988 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana In a move anticipated by few, Bush chose little-known US Senator Dan Quayle of Indiana, favored by conservatives. James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4 1947 is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. The State of Indiana ( was the 19th US state admitted into the union  Despite Reagan's popularity, Bush trailed Democratic nominee Michael Dukakis, then Governor of Massachusetts, in most polls. Michael Stanley Dukakis (born November 3, 1933) is an American Democratic politician former Governor of Massachusetts, and was the Democratic The Governor of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the executive magistrate of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, United States. 
Bush, occasionally criticized for his lack of eloquence when compared to Reagan, surprised many by delivering a well-received speech at the 1988 Republican National Convention. The 1988 National Convention of the Republican Party of the United States was held in the Louisiana Superdome in New Orleans, Louisiana  Known as the "thousand points of light" speech, this described Bush's vision of America: he endorsed the Pledge of Allegiance, prayer in schools, capital punishment, gun rights, and his opposition to abortion. History The Pledge of Allegiance was written in 1892 by Francis Bellamy (1855-1931 a Baptist minister a Christian Socialist, and the cousin of Socialist Utopian Capital punishment, the death penalty or execution, is the Killing of a person by judicial process as Punishment. An  The speech at the convention included Bush's famous pledge: Read my lips: no new taxes. " Read my lips no new taxes " is a now-famous phrase spoken by former American president and candidate George H 
The general election campaign between the two men has been described as one of the nastiest in modern times.  Bush blamed Dukakis for polluting the Boston Harbor as the Massachusetts governor. The Port of Boston is a major Seaport located in Boston Harbor and adjacent to the City of Boston.  Bush also pointed out that Dukakis was opposed to the law that would require all students to say the Pledge of Allegiance, a topic well covered in Bush's nomination acceptance speech. 
Dukakis's unconditional opposition to capital punishment led to a pointed question during the presidential debates. Moderator Bernard Shaw asked Dukakis hypothetically if Dukakis would support the death penalty if his wife, Kitty, were raped and murdered. Bernard Shaw may refer to George Bernard Shaw, the celebrated Irish playwright Bernard Shaw (footballer, English footballer of the Katharine Dickson Dukakis (born December 26, 1936) known as Kitty Dukakis, is the wife of former Massachusetts governor and U  Dukakis's response of "no" contributed toward Bush's characterization of him as "soft on crime. "
Bush defeated Dukakis and his running mate, Lloyd Bentsen, in the Electoral College, by 426 to 111 (Bentsen received one vote from a faithless elector). Lloyd Millard Bentsen Jr ( February 11 1921 – May 23 2006) was a four-term United States senator (1971 until 1993 from Texas The Electoral College consists of 538 popularly elected representatives who formally select the President and Vice President of the United States. Faithless electors are members of the Electoral College who do not cast their electoral votes for the people they have pledged to vote for  In the nationwide popular vote, Bush took 53. 4% of the ballots cast while Dukakis received 45. 6%. Bush became the first serving Vice President to be elected President since Martin Van Buren in 1836. Martin Van Buren (December 5 1782 July 24 1862 was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841 
Bush was inaugurated on January 20, 1989, succeeding Ronald Reagan. George Herbert Walker Bush was the 43rd Vice President of the United States and the 41st President of the United States. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) He entered office at a period of change in the world; the fall of the Berlin Wall and the collapse of Soviet Union came early in his presidency. The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991  He ordered military operations in Panama and the Persian Gulf and, at one point, was recorded as having a record-high approval rating of 89%. The United States invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, was the Invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989  However, economic recession and breaking his "no new taxes" pledge caused a sharp decline in his approval rating, and Bush was defeated in the 1992 election. " Read my lips no new taxes " is a now-famous phrase spoken by former American president and candidate George H The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H 
In his Inaugural Address, Bush said:
|“||I come before you and assume the Presidency at a moment rich with promise. We live in a peaceful, prosperous time, but we can make it better. For a new breeze is blowing, and a world refreshed by freedom seems reborn; for in man's heart, if not in fact, the day of the dictator is over. The totalitarian era is passing, its old ideas blown away like leaves from an ancient, lifeless tree. A new breeze is blowing, and a nation refreshed by freedom stands ready to push on. There is new ground to be broken, and new action to be taken. ||”|
|The Bush Cabinet|
|President||George H. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by W. Bush||1989–1993|
|Vice President||Dan Quayle||1989–1993|
|State||James A. Baker III||1989–1992|
|Treasury||Nicholas F. Brady||1989–1993|
|Justice||Richard L. Thornburgh||1989–1991|
|Interior||Manuel Lujan, Jr.||1989–1993|
|Barbara Hackman Franklin||1992–1993|
|Labor||Eizabeth Hanford Dole||1989–1990|
|Lynn Morley Martin||1991–1993|
|Agriculture||Clayton K. Yeutter||1989–1991|
|HHS||Louis Wade Sullivan||1989–1993|
|Transportation||Samuel K. Skinner||1989–1992|
|Energy||James D. Watkins||1989–1993|
|Veterans Affairs||Ed Derwinski||1989–1993|
Early in his term, Bush faced the problem of what to do with Reagan's leftover national debt. The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4 1947 is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. The United States Secretary of State (commonly abbreviated as SecState) is the head of the United States Department of State, concerned with Foreign affairs See also James Addison Baker James Addison Baker III (born April 28 1930) is a American attorney politician political Lawrence Sidney Eagleburger (born August 1 1930) is an American Statesman and former career Diplomat, who served briefly as the The United States Secretary of the Treasury is the head of the United States Department of the Treasury, concerned with finance and monetary matters, and until Nicholas Frederick Brady (born April 11 1930, in New York City) was United States Secretary of the Treasury under Presidents Ronald The United States Secretary of Defense ( SECDEF) is the head of the U Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney (born January 30 1941 is the forty-sixth and current Vice President of the United States. The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement Richard Lewis "Dick" Thornburgh (born July 16, 1932) is a Lawyer and Republican politician who served as the Governor of Pennsylvania William Barr may refer to William Barr (politician (born 1950 77th Attorney General of the United States William Barr (Arctic historian The United States Secretary of the Interior is the head of the United States Department of the Interior. The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce concerned with business and industry the Department states its mission to Robert Adam Mosbacher Sr (born March 11 1927) is a US businessman Barbara Hackman Franklin (born March 19, 1940) was the 29th United States Secretary of Commerce and was the highest-ranking woman in the Administration "Secretary of Labor" redirects here See also Secretary of Labor (Mexico. Mary Elizabeth Hanford "Liddy" Dole (born July 29 1936 is an American politician who served in both the Ronald Reagan and George H Lynn Morley Martin (b December 26, 1939) is a Businesswoman and former United States Politician. The United States Secretary of Agriculture is the head of the United States Department of Agriculture. Clayton Keith Yeutter (born December 10, 1930) in Eustis Nebraska. Edward Rell Madigan ( January 13, 1936 &ndash December 7, 1994) was a businessman and a Republican party politician from Lincoln The United States Secretary of Health and Human Services is the head of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, concerned with health matters Louis Wade Sullivan (born November 3, 1933) is an American Physician and businessman The United States Secretary of Education is the head of the Department of Education. Lauro Fred Cavazos Jr (b January 4 1927, Kingsville Texas) is a U Andrew Lamar Alexander (born July 3, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Tennessee and a member of the Republican Party The United States Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is the head of the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development, concerned with urban housing Jack French Kemp Jr (born July 13 1935 is an American politician and former professional American football player The United States Secretary of Transportation is the head of the United States Department of Transportation. Samuel Knox Skinner (born June 10, 1938) is an American politician lawyer and businessman Andrew Hill "Andy" Card Jr (born May 10 1947 is an American politician and lobbyist former United States Cabinet member and head of George W The United States Secretary of Energy is the head of the United States Department of Energy, a member of the President's Cabinet, and fifteenth in the Admiral James David Watkins (born on March 7, 1927) is a retired United States Navy officer and former Chief of Naval Operations who also The United States Secretary of Veterans' Affairs is the head of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, the department concerned with veterans' benefits and Edward Joseph Derwinski (born September 15 1926) is an American politician who served as the first Cabinet -level United States Secretary The United States total public debt, commonly called the national debt, or U At $220 billion in 1990, the deficit had grown to three times its size since 1980.  Bush was dedicated to curbing the deficit, believing that America could not continue to be a leader in the world without doing so.  He began an effort to persuade the Democratic controlled Congress to act on the budget;  with Republicans believing that the best way was to cut government spending, and Democrats convinced that the only way would be to raise taxes, Bush faced problems when it came to consensus building. Government spending or government expenditure is classified by economists into three main types 
In the wake of a struggle with Congress, Bush was forced by the Democratic majority to raise tax revenues; as a result, many Republicans felt betrayed because Bush had promised "no new taxes" in his 1988 campaign.  Perceiving a means of revenge, Republican congressmen defeated Bush's proposal which would enact spending cuts and tax increases that would reduce the deficit by $500 billion over five years.  Scrambling, Bush accepted the Democrats' demands for higher taxes and more spending, which alienated him from Republicans and gave way to a sharp decrease in popularity. In the United States, presidential job approval ratings were introduced by George Gallup in the late 1930s (probably 1937 to gauge public support for the president  Bush would later say that he wished he had never signed the bill.  Near the end of the 101st Congress, the president and congressional members reached a compromise on a budget package that increased the marginal tax rate and phased out exemptions for high-income taxpayers.  Despite demands for a reduction in the capital gains tax, Bush relented on this issue as well. A capital gains tax (abbreviated CGT) is a Tax charged on Capital gains the profit realized on the sale of a non-inventory Asset that was purchased  This agreement with the Democratic leadership in Congress proved to be a turning point in the Bush presidency; his popularity among Republicans never fully recovered, however. 
Coming at around the same time as the budget deal, America entered into a mild recession, lasting for six months.  Many government programs, such as welfare, increased.  As the unemployment rate edged upward in 1991, Bush signed a bill providing additional benefits for unemployed workers. Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work.  1991 was marked by many corporate reorganizations, which laid off a substantial number of workers. Many now unemployed were Republicans and independents, who had believed that their jobs were secure.
By his second year in office, Bush was told by his economic advisors to stop dealing with the economy, as they believed that he had done everything necessary to ensure his reelection.  By 1992, interest and inflation rates were the lowest in years, but by midyear the unemployment rate reached 7. In economics inflation or price inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services over a period of time 8%, the highest since 1984.  In September 1992, the Census Bureau reported that 14. The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title) is the government agency that is responsible for the United States Census 2% of all Americans lived in poverty. The poverty threshold, or poverty line, is the minimum level of Income deemed necessary to achieve an adequate Standard of living in a given country  At a press conference in 1990, Bush told reporters that he found foreign policy more enjoyable. A news conference or press conference is a Media event in which newsmakers invite journalists to hear them speak and most often ask questions 
Bush enacted a number of government acts in his presidency, including the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990; this was one of the most pro-civil rights bills in decades. The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA is the short title of United States ( codified at et seq  He worked to increase federal spending for education, childcare, and advanced technology research.  In dealing with the environment, Bush reauthorized the Clean Air Act, requiring cleaner burning fuels. A Clean Air Act describes one of a number of pieces of legislation relating to the reduction of Smog and Air pollution in general  He quarreled with Congress over an eventually-signed bill to aid police in capturing criminals, and signed into law a measure to improve the nation's highway system. 
Bush appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:
In the 1980s, Panamanian leader Manuel Noriega, a once US-supportive leader who was later accused of spying for Fidel Castro and using Panama to traffic drugs into the US, was one of the most recognizable names in the United States, being constantly covered by the press. The Supreme Court of the United States is the highest judicial body in the United States and leads the federal judiciary. For the Australian artist see David Henry Souter. David Hackett Souter (ˈsutɚ born September 17, 1939) has been an Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American Jurist. He has been serving as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Brent Scowcroft (born March 19 1925 in Ogden Utah) was the United States National Security Advisor under Presidents Gerald Ford and John Sununu is the name of two US politicians John H Sununu, Governor of New Hampshire (1983-1989 and White House Chief of Staff for George H The United States invasion of Panama, codenamed Operation Just Cause, was the Invasion of Panama by the United States in December 1989 Manuel Antonio Noriega (born February 11, 1934) He was never officially the President of Panama, but held the post of "chief executive officer" Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born August 13 1926 is a Cuban revolutionary leader who was prime minister of Cuba from December 1959 to December 1976 and then president until The struggle to remove him from power began in the Reagan administration, when economic sanctions were imposed on the country; this included prohibiting US companies and government from making payments to Panama and freezing $56 million in Panamanian funds in US banks.  Reagan sent more than 2,000 US troops to Panama as well.  Unlike Reagan, Bush was able to remove Noriega from power, but his administration's unsuccessful post-invasion planning hindered the needs of Panama during the establishment of the young democratic government. 
In May 1989, Panama held democratic elections, in which Guillermo Endara was elected president; the results were then annuled by Noriega's government. Guillermo David Endara Galimany (born 12 May 1936 in Panama City) was the President of Panama from 1989 to 1994  In response, Bush sent 2,000 more troops to the country, where they began conducting regular military exercises in Panamanian territory (in violation of prior treaties).  Bush then removed an embassy and ambassador from the country, and dispatched additional troops to Panama to prepare the way for an upcoming invasion. A diplomatic mission is a group of people from one State or an international Inter-governmental organization (such as the United Nations) present in This article contains several lists of Ambassadors from the United States.  Noriega suppressed an October military coup attempt and massive protests in Panama against him, but after a US serviceman was shot by Panamanian forces in December 1989, Bush ordered 24,000 troops into the country with an objective of removing Noriega from power; "Operation Just Cause" was a large-scale American military operation, and the first in more than 40 years that was not Cold War related. 
The mission was controversial, but American forces achieved control of the country and Endara assumed the Presidency. Noriega surrendered to the US and was convicted and imprisoned on racketeering and drug trafficking charges in April 1992.  President Bush and First Lady Barbara Bush visited Panama in June 1992, to give support to the first post-invasion Panamanian government. Barbara Pierce Bush (born June 8 1925 is the wife of the 41st President of the United States, George H
On August 1, 1990, Iraq, led by Saddam Hussein, invaded its oil-rich neighbor to the south, Kuwait; Bush condemned the invasion and began rallying opposition to Iraq in US European, Asian, and Middle Eastern allies. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi In the United States, Thanksgiving or Thanksgiving Day is an annual one-day legal holiday to express Gratitude for the things one has Events 30 BC - Octavian (later known as Augustus enters Alexandria, Egypt, bringing it under the control of the Roman Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti ( Arabic: ar صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي --> April 28 1937 &ndash December 30 Directional drilling (or slant drilling) is the practice of drilling non-vertical wells It can be broken down into three main groups Oilfield Directional The State of Kuwait ( دولة الكويت IPA [dawlatt̪ alkuwajt̪]) is a sovereign Arab Emirate on the coast of the Persian Gulf, enclosed The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East.  Secretary of Defense Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney traveled to Saudi Arabia to meet with King Fahd; Fahd requested US military aid in the matter, fearing a possible invasion of his country as well. The United States Secretary of Defense ( SECDEF) is the head of the U Richard Bruce "Dick" Cheney (born January 30 1941 is the forty-sixth and current Vice President of the United States. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, KSA ( المملكة العربية السعودية, al-Mamlaka al-ʻArabiyya as-Suʻūdiyya) or Suudi King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud, Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, ( 1921 - August 1, 2005) was the King of the Kingdom  The request was met initially with Air Force fighter jets. Iraq made attempts to negotiate with Bush through a deal that would allow the country to take control of half of Kuwait. Bush rejected this proposal and insisted on a complete withdrawal of Iraqi forces.  The planning of a ground operation by US-led coalition forces began forming in September 1990, headed by General Norman Schwarzkopf. General H Norman Schwarzkopf (also known as '''"Stormin' Norman"''' and '''"The Bear"''') (b  Bush spoke before a joint session of the US Congress regarding the authorization of air and land attacks, saying "Out of these troubled times, our fifth objective — a New World Order — can emerge: a new era" With the United Nations Security Council opposed to Iraq's violence, Congress authorized the use of military force, with a set goal of returning control of Kuwait to the Kuwaiti government, and protecting America's interests abroad. The United States Congress is the bicameral Legislature of the federal government of the United States of America, consisting of two houses 
Early on the morning of January 17, 1991, allied forces launched the first attack, which included more than 4,000 bombing runs by coalition aircraft. Events 38 BC - Octavian marries Livia Drusilla. 1287 - King Alfonso III of Aragon invades Minorca Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar.  This pace would continue for the next four weeks, until a ground invasion was launched on February 24. Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the Allied forces penetrated Iraqi lines and pushed toward Kuwait City while on the west side of the country, forces were intercepting the retreating Iraqi army. Kuwait City ( Arabic: مدينة الكويت Transliteration: Madīnat al-Kūwait) is the Capital and largest  Bush made the decision to stop the offensive after a mere 100 hours. Critics labeled this decision premature, as hundreds of Iraqi forces were able to escape; Bush responded by saying that he wanted to minimize US casualties.  Opponents further charged that Bush should have continued the attack, pushing Hussein's army back to Baghdad, then remove him from power.  Bush explained that he did not give the order to overthrow the Iraqi government because it would have "incurred incalculable human and political costs. . . . We would have been forced to occupy Baghdad and, in effect, rule Iraq. "
Bush's approval ratings skyrocketed after the successful offensive. 
In 1989, just after the fall of the Berlin Wall, Bush met with Soviet General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev in a conference at the Mediterranean island of Malta. The Malta Summit consisted of a meeting between US President George H The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 For the conspiracy theory see New World Order (conspiracy, for other uses see New World Order. A World Transformed is a 1998 book (ISBN 0-679-43248-5 by former President George H The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer was a physical barrier separating West Berlin from the German Democratic Republic (GDR ( East Germany) including The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union ( First Secretary in 1953-1966 was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev ( Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachyov;; born 2 March 1931 in Privolnoye Stavropol Krai) is a Russian politician The Malta Summit consisted of a meeting between US President George H Malta, officially the Republic of Malta (Repubblika ta' Malta is a European Microstate, comprising an Archipelago of three islands The administration had been under intense pressure to meet with the Soviets, but not all initially found the Malta summit to be a step in the right direction; General Brent Scowcroft, among others, was apprehensive about the meeting, saying that it might be "premature" due to concerns where, according to Dr. Brent Scowcroft (born March 19 1925 in Ogden Utah) was the United States National Security Advisor under Presidents Gerald Ford and Condoleezza Rice, "expectations [would be] set that something was going to happen, where the Soviets might grandstand and force [the US] into agreements that would ultimately not be good for the United States. Condoleezza Rice (born November 14 1954 is the 66th United States " But European leaders, including François Mitterand and Margaret Thatcher, encouraged Bush to meet with Gorbachev, something that he did between December 2 and 3, 1989. François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand ( 26 October 1916 8 January 1996 served as President of France from 1981 to 1995 elected as representative of the Socialist Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 Events 1409 - The University of Leipzig opens 1755 - The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire Events 1800 - War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French  Though no agreements were signed, the meeting was viewed largely as being an important one; when asked about nuclear war, Gorbachev responded, "I assured the President of the United States that the Soviet Union would never start a hot war against the United States of America. And we would like our relations to develop in such a way that they would open greater possibilities for cooperation. . . This is just the beginning. We are just at the very beginning of our road, long road to a long-lasting, peaceful period. " The meeting was received as a very important step to the end of the Cold War. 
Another summit was held in July 1991, where the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START I) was signed by Bush and Gorbachev in Moscow. START (for St rategic A rms R eduction T reaty is a Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Moscow (Москва́ romanised: Moskvá, IPA: see also other names) is the Capital and the largest city of  The treaty took nine years in the making and was the first major arms agreement since the signing of the Intermediate Ranged Nuclear Forces Treaty by Reagan and Gorbachev in 1987. The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty ( INF) was a 1987 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union. The contentions in START would reduce the US's and USSR's strategic nuclear weapons by about 35% over seven years, and the Soviet Union's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles would be cut by 50%.  Bush described START as "a significant step forward in dispelling half a century of mistrust. " After the dissolution of the USSR in 1991, President Bush and Gorbachev declared a US-Russian strategic partnership, marking the end of the Cold War. The Soviet Union 's collapse into independent nations began early in 1985 Cold War is the state of conflict tension and competition that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union (USSR and their respective allies from the President Bush declared that US-Soviet cooperation during the Persian Gulf War in 1990–1991 had laid the groundwork for a partnership in resolving bilateral and world problems.
Bush's administration, along with the Progressive Conservative Canadian Prime Minister Brian Mulroney, spearheaded the negotiations of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), which would eliminate the majority of tariffs on products traded among the United States, Canada, and Mexico, to encourage trade amongst the countries. Carlos Salinas de Gortari ( Mexico City, April 3, 1948) is a Mexican economist and politician affiliated to the Institutional Revolutionary Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939) was the eighteenth Jaime José Serra Puche (b January 11, 1955 in Mexico City) is a Mexican economist Carla Anderson Hills (born January 3, Michael Holcombe Wilson PC OC (born November 4, 1937) is a Canadian diplomat politician and business leader The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada ( PC) ( Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) ( 1867 – 2003) was a Canadian Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Martin Brian Mulroney PC CC GOQ (predominantly known as Brian Mulroney) (born March 20, 1939) was the eighteenth For other uses of this word see Tariff (disambiguation. A tariff is a tax imposed on goods when they are moved across a political boundary The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.  The treaty also protects intellectual property rights (patents, copyrights, and trademarks), and outlines the removal of investment restrictions among the three countries. 
The agreement came under heavy scrutiny amongst mainly Democrats, who charged that NAFTA resulted in a loss of US jobs.  NAFTA also contained no provisions for labor rights; according to the Bush administration, the trade agreement would generate economic resources necessary to enable Mexico's government to overcome problems of funding and enforcement of its labor laws. The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America.  Bush needed a renewal of negotiating authority to move forward with the NAFTA trade talks. Such authority would enable the president to negotiate a trade accord that would be submitted to Congress for a vote, thereby avoiding a situation in which the president would be required to renegotiate with trading partners those parts of an agreement that Congress wished to change.  While initial signing was possible during his term, negotiations made slow, but steady, progress. President Clinton would go on to make the passage of NAFTA a priority for his administration, despite its conservative and Republican roots — with the addition of two side agreements — to achieve its passage in 1993. 
The treaty has since been defended as well as criticized further. The American economy has grown 54% since the adoption of NAFTA in 1993, with 25 million new jobs created; this was seen by some as evidence of NAFTA being beneficial to the US.  With talk in early 2008 regarding a possible American withdrawal from the treaty, Carlos M. Gutierrez, current United States Secretary of Commerce, writes, "Quitting NAFTA would send economic shock waves throughout the world, and the damage would start here at home. The United States Secretary of Commerce is the head of the United States Department of Commerce concerned with business and industry the Department states its mission to " But John J. Sweeney of The Boston Globe argues that "the US trade deficit with Canada and Mexico ballooned to 12 times its pre-NAFTA size, reaching $111 billion in 2004. The Boston Globe (and Boston Sunday Globe) is the most widely circulated daily Newspaper in Boston and in New England, "
As other presidents have done, Bush issued a series of pardons during his last days in office. On December 24, 1992, he granted executive clemency to six former government employees implicated in the Iran-Contra scandal of the late 1980s, most prominently former Secretary of Defense Caspar Weinberger. Events 563 - The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is dedicated for the second time after being destroyed by Earthquakes Year 1992 ( MCMXCII) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar) Caspar Willard "Cap" Weinberger ( August 18, 1917 &ndash March 28, 2006) was an American politician and Secretary  Weinberger, who had been scheduled to stand trial on January 5, 1993, for charges related to Iran-Contra, was described by Bush as a "true American patriot". Events 1477 - Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) 
It is speculated that Weinberger's private notes contained references to Bush's endorsement of the secret shipments to Iran, thus contradicting his assertion that he was "out of the loop".  Some believe that Bush's pardon was an effort to preserve a largely positive image of the Reagan-Bush years.  In addition to Weinberger, Bush pardoned Duane R. Clarridge, Clair E. George, Robert C. McFarlane, Elliott Abrams, and Alan G. Robert Carl "Bud" McFarlane (born July 12 1937 was National Security Advisor to President Ronald Reagan from 1983 to late 1985 and was one Elliott Abrams (born January 24, 1948) is an American lawyer who has served in foreign policy positions for two Republican U Fiers Jr. , all of whom had been indicted and/or convicted of charges by an Independent Counsel headed by Lawrence Walsh. United States Office of the Independent Counsel was an independent Prosecutor &mdash distinct from the Attorney General of the United States Department of Justice 
Bush announced his reelection bid in early 1992; with a coalition victory in the Persian Gulf War and high approval ratings, reelection initially looked likely. The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H But an economic recession, and doubts of whether Bush ended the Gulf War properly, reduced his popularity.
Conservative political columnist Pat Buchanan challenged Bush for the nomination, and shocked political pundits by gaining 37% in the New Hampshire primary (still losing to Bush, though). Patrick Joseph "Pat" Buchanan (born November 2 1938 is an American Political commentator, Author, syndicated Columnist  Bush responded by adopting more conservative positions on issues, in an attempt to undermine Buchanan's base.  Once he had secured the nomination, Bush faced his challenger, Democrat William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Clinton attacked Bush, saying that he would not do enough to assist the working middle-class and was "out of touch" with the common man, a notion further enhanced by reporter Andrew Rosenthal's claim that Bush was "astonished" to see a demonstration of a supermarket scanner. Andrew Rosenthal (born 1956 in New Delhi, India) is an American journalist and editorial page editor of The New York Times Customer divider barjpg|thumb|In supermarkets sellers periodically change prices for classes of goods in response to market conditions rather than negotiating the price of each good A barcode reader (or barcode scanner) is an electronic device for reading printed Barcodes Like a Flatbed scanner, it consists of a light source a lens 
In early 1992, the race took an unexpected twist when Texas billionaire H. Ross Perot launched a third party bid, claiming that neither Republicans nor Democrats could eliminate the deficit and make government more efficient. A billionaire is a person who has a Net worth of at least one billion units of currency such as United States dollars ( USD /US$ U Henry Ross Perot (born June 27 1930 is an American businessman from Texas, who is best known for seeking the office of President of the United States in His message appealed to voters across the political spectrum disappointed with both parties perceived fiscal irresponsibility.  Perot later bowed out of the race for a short time, then reentered. 
Clinton had originally been in the lead, until Perot reentered, tightening the race significantly.  Nearing election day, polls suggested that the race was a dead-heat, but Clinton pulled out on top, defeating Bush in a 43% to 38% popular vote margin. Perot won 19% of the popular vote, one of the highest totals for a third party candidate in US history, drawing equally from both major candidates, according to exit polls.  Bush received 168 electoral votes to Clinton's 370. 
Several factors were key in Bush's defeat, including agreeing in 1990 to raise taxes despite his famous "Read my lips: no new taxes" pledge. In doing so, Bush alienated many members of his conservative base, losing their support for his re-election. Of the voters who cited Bush's broken "No New Taxes" pledge as "very important," two thirds voted for Bill Clinton.  Bush had raised taxes in an attempt to address an increasing budget deficit, which has largely been attributed to the Reagan tax cuts and military spending of the 1980s. In addition to these factors, the ailing economy which arose from recession may have been the main factor in Bush's loss, as 7 in 10 voters said on election day that the economy was either "not so good" or "poor".  On the eve of the 1992 election against these factors, Bush's approval rating stood at just 37% after suffering low ratings throughout the year.  Despite his defeat, Bush climbed back from election day approval levels to leave office in 1993 with a 56% job approval rating. 
Since his 1992 election campaign, Bush has retired with his wife, Barbara, to their home in the exclusive neighborhood of Tanglewood in Houston, with a presidential office nearby. Events 1184 BC - Trojan War: Troy is sacked and burned according to the calculations of Eratosthenes. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " Washington National Cathedral, whose official name is the Cathedral Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul is a Cathedral of The Episcopal Church. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4 1946 is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States, George W William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States Condoleezza Rice (born November 14 1954 is the 66th United States Andrew Hill "Andy" Card Jr (born May 10 1947 is an American politician and lobbyist former United States Cabinet member and head of George W Pope The funeral of Pope John Paul II was held on April 8 2005, six days after his death on April 2. Background and family Woods was born in Cypress, California to Earl (1932-2006 and Kultida (Tida Woods Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Tanglewood is a neighborhood in Houston Texas. Tanglewood is located outside of the 610 Loop and inside Beltway 8 in the Uptown Houston They spend the summer at Walker's Point in Kennebunkport, Maine. The Bush compound, firstly Walker's Point, is the summer home of 41st President of the United States George H Kennebunkport is a town in York County, Maine, United States. The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean Bush holds his own fishing tournament in Islamorada, an island in the Florida Keys. Islamorada, "Village of Islands" is an incorporated Village in Monroe County, Florida, on the Islands of Lower The Florida Keys are an Archipelago of about 1700 islands in the southeast United States.
In 1993, Bush was awarded an honorary knighthood (GCB) by Queen Elizabeth II. Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George For the ship see RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Context States headed by Elizabeth II He was the third American president to receive the honor, the others being Dwight D. Eisenhower and Ronald Reagan.  His eldest son, George W. Bush, was inaugurated as the 43rd President of the United States on January 20, 2001; prior to that, he was generally known as 'George Bush' or 'President Bush'. George Walker Bush ( born July 6 1946 is the forty-third and current President of the United States. Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. Since that date, however, he has usually been distinguished from his son by the use of his two middle initials, or is occasionally known as 'Bush senior'.
The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum is the presidential library named for Bush. The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum is the Presidential library of George H The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum is the Presidential library of George H In the United States, the Presidential library system is a nationwide network of libraries administered by the Office of Presidential Libraries which is part of the National This tenth presidential library was built between 1995 and 1997 and contains the presidential and vice-presidential papers of Bush and the vice-presidential papers of Dan Quayle. James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4 1947 is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana.  It was dedicated on November 6, 1997 and opened to the public shortly thereafter; the complex was designed by the architectural firm of Hellmuth, Obata and Kassabaum. Events 355 - Roman Emperor Constantius II promotes his cousin Julian to the rank of Caesar, entrusting him with Year 1997 ( MCMXCVII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1997 Gregorian calendar HOK (formerly Hellmuth Obata + Kassabaum) is a global Architecture, interiors engineering planning and consulting firm
The George Bush Presidential Library and Museum is located on a ninety-acre site on the west campus of Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas. Texas A&M University, often called A&M or TAMU, is a Coeducational public Research University located in College Station College Station is a city in Brazos County, Texas, situated in Central Texas. Texas ( is a state geographically located in the South Central United States and is also known as the Lone Star State. It is situated on a plaza adjoining the Presidential Conference Center and the Texas A&M Academic Center. The Library operates under the administration of the NARA under the provisions of the Presidential Libraries Act of 1955. The United States National Archives and Records Administration ( NARA) is an independent agency of the United States federal government charged
Another institute was named in his honor: the George Bush School of Government and Public Service is a graduate public policy school at Texas A&M University in College Station, Texas. Public policy schools teach students Policy studies, Policy analysis, Public policy, Public administration, and public affairs. Texas A&M University, often called A&M or TAMU, is a Coeducational public Research University located in College Station College Station is a city in Brazos County, Texas, situated in Central Texas. The graduate school is part of the presidential library complex, and offers four programs: two master's degree programs (Public Service Administration and International Affairs) and two certificate programs (Advanced International Affairs and Homeland Security). The term homeland security refers to the broad national effort by all levels of government to protect its territory from hazards both internal and external natural and man-made The Masters program in International Affairs (MPIA) program offers a choice of concentration on either National Security Affairs or International Economics and Development. National security is the entire scope of measures undertaken by the Governments of Nation-states in providing assurance of national Sovereignty Economics is the social science that studies the production distribution, and consumption of goods and services. Economic development is the development of economic wealth of countries or regions for the well-being of their inhabitants
The former president continues to make many public appearances. He and Mrs. Bush attended the state funeral of Ronald Reagan in June 2004, and of Gerald Ford in January 2007. The 40th President of the United States, Ronald Wilson Reagan, died on June 5 2004 after suffering from Alzheimer's disease for nearly a decade Gerald Ford died on December 26, 2006 at his home in Rancho Mirage, California, at 645 p One month later, he was awarded the Ronald Reagan Freedom Award in Beverly Hills, California by former First Lady Nancy Reagan. The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award is the highest civilian honor bestowed by the private Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation. Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6 1921 is the widow of former United States President Ronald Reagan and served as an influential Bush was also present in various ceremonies during the construction of the USS George H. W. Bush (CVN-77), which is the last Nimitz class supercarrier of the United States Navy, and one of the few that are named after persons that are living at the time of the vessel's christening. Features of CVN-77 Several features differentiate CVN-77 from other ships in the Nimitz class General characteristics Builder Newport News Shipbuilding Company Newport News Virginia Power Plant Two A4W reactors This is about the warships For the television program see Supercarrier (TV series.
On February 18, 2008, Bush formally endorsed Senator John McCain for the presidency of the United States. Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common  "Few men walking among us have sacrificed so much in the cause of human freedom," the former president said, adding that McCain has "the right values and experience to guide our nation forward at this historic moment. " The endorsement offered a boost to McCain's campaign, as the Arizona Senator had been facing criticism among many conservatives; Bush called the criticism "an unfair attack", adding that McCain has "a sound conservative record, but not above reaching out to the other side. "
Bush garnered further media attention on April 21, 2008, when it was reported that he caught a 134-pound mammoth tarpon while on a fishing trip off the coast of Florida. Events 753 BC - Romulus and Remus found Rome ( traditional date) 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common The tarpons are large coastal Fish prized by anglers. They grow up to 8 feet in length and sometimes weigh 200 pounds Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the  The 83 year old former president noted that it was the largest fish that he had ever caught, but chose to release it back into the ocean. 
|United States House of Representatives|
John V. Dowdy
|Member from Texas's 7th congressional district|
1967 – 1971
Charles W. Yost
|U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations|
1971 – 1973
John A. Scali
David K. E. Bruce
|Chief of the U.S. Liaison Office in Beijing|
1974 – 1976
Thomas S. Gates, Jr.
William E. Colby
|Director of Central Intelligence|
1976 – 1977
Adm. Stansfield Turner
|Vice President of the United States|
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
Acting President: July 13, 1985
|President of the United States|
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
|Chair of the G7|
|Party political offices|
|Chairman of the Republican National Committee|
1973 – 1974
Mary Louise Smith
|Republican Party vice presidential candidate|
|Republican Party presidential candidate|
|Oldest U.S. President still living|
December 26, 2006 – Present
|Order of precedence in the United States of America|
|United States order of precedence|
Former President of the United States
|Ronald Reagan Freedom Award|
|NAME||Bush, George Herbert Walker|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Bush, George Sr. Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to Digitize, archive and distribute Cultural works The Biographical Directory of the United States Congress is a Biographical dictionary of all present and former members of the United States Congress as The United States House of Representatives is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress; the other is the Senate. John Vernard Dowdy ( February 11, 1912 – April 12, 1995) was an American Politician. Texas District 7 of the United States House of Representatives is a Congressional district that serves a small area of western Harris County. William Reynolds “Bill” Archer Jr (born on March 2, 1928 in Houston Texas) is a former American lawyer and politician Charles W Yost (born in Watertown NY on November 6 1907; died in Washington D The United States Ambassador to the United Nations (full title Representative of the United States of America to the United Nations, with the rank and status John Alfred Scali ( April 27, 1918 - October 19, 1995) was the United States Ambassador to the United Nations David Kirkpatrick Este Bruce ( February 12, 1898 - December 5, 1977) was the United States Ambassador to France from 1949 to 1952 The Ambassador to China is the chief American diplomat to China. Thomas Sovereign Gates Jr ( 10 April 1906 - 25 March 1983) was United States Secretary of Defense from 1959 to 1961 under William Egan Colby ( January 4, 1920 – April 27, 1996) spent a career in Intelligence for the United States culminating in holding The Office of United States Director of Central Intelligence (DCI was established by U Stansfield M Turner (born December 1, 1923 in Highland Park, Illinois, USA) was an Admiral and Director of Central Walter Frederick "Fritz" Mondale (born January 5, 1928) is an American politician and member of the Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party The Vice President of the United States is the first person in the presidential line of succession, becoming the new President of the United States upon the death Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Acting President of the United States is a reference to a person who is legitimately exercising the Presidential powers even though that person does not hold the office of the President Events 1174 - William I of Scotland, a key rebel in the Revolt of 1173-1174, is captured at Alnwick by forces loyal to Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4 1947 is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. The President of the United States is the Head of state and Head of government of the United States and is the highest political official in United States by Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) Events 250 - Emperor Decius begins a widespread persecution of Christians in Rome. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand ( 26 October 1916 8 January 1996 served as President of France from 1981 to 1995 elected as representative of the Socialist This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Sir John Major KG CH ACIB (born 29 March 1943 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Robert Joseph "Bob" Dole (born July 22 1923 is an attorney and retired United States Senator from Kansas from 1969–1996 serving part of that time The Republican National Committee (RNC provides national leadership for the Republican Party of the United States. This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the Republican Party of the The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent Ronald Reagan The United States presidential election of 1984 was a contest between the incumbent President Ronald Reagan, the Republican candidate and former Vice President James Danforth "Dan" Quayle (born February 4 1947 is an American politician and a former Senator from the state of Indiana. This is a list of the candidates for the offices of President of the United States and Vice President of the United States of the Republican Party of the -->The United States presidential election of 1988 featured an open primary for both major parties The United States presidential elections of 1992 featured a battle between incumbent President, Republican George H Robert Joseph "Bob" Dole (born July 22 1923 is an attorney and retired United States Senator from Kansas from 1969–1996 serving part of that time Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr (July 14 1913 December 26 2006 was the thirty-eighth President of the United States, serving from 1974 to 1977 and the fortieth Vice President List of United States Presidents by ageThis is a chronology of who was the oldest living President of the United States, former or current at any given time Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The United States Order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the government of the United States. James Earl "Jimmy" Carter Jr (born October 1 1924 was the thirty-ninth President of the United States, serving from 1977 to 1981 and the recipient of the 2002 The United States Order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the government of the United States. William Jefferson "Bill" Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III, August 19 1946 served as the forty-second President of the United States KBE Per, "Postnominal letters should be included when they are issued by a country or organization the subject has been closely associated with The Ronald Reagan Freedom Award is the highest civilian honor bestowed by the private Ronald Reagan Presidential Foundation.|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||41st president of the United States (1989-1993)|
|DATE OF BIRTH||12 June 1924|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Milton, Massachusetts|
|DATE OF DEATH|
|PLACE OF DEATH|