Geology (from Greek: γη, gê, "earth"; and λόγος, logos, "speech" lit. Oceanic crust is the part of Earth's Lithosphere that surfaces in the Ocean basins A geologic or geomorphic province is a spatial entity with common geologic / geomorphic attributes A shield is generally a large area of exposed Precambrian Crystalline igneous and high-grade metamorphic rocks that form tectonically In geology a platform is a continental area covered by relatively flat or gently tilted mainly Sedimentary strata, which overlie a basement of consolidated Orogeny (Greek for "mountain generating" is the process of natural Mountain building and may be studied as a tectonic structural event as a geographical event and A structural basin is a large-scale structural formation of rock strata formed by tectonic warping of previously flat lying strata. Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire are rocks formed by solidification of cooled Magma (molten rock In Geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly grc-Latn Logos (ˈloʊːgɒs ( Greek, logos) is an important term in Philosophy, Analytical psychology, Rhetoric and Religion to talk about the earth) is the science and study of the solid matter that constitutes the Earth. Science (from the Latin scientia, meaning " Knowledge " or "knowing" is the effort to discover, and increase human understanding EARTH was a short-lived Japanese vocal trio which released 6 singles and 1 album between 2000 and 2001 Encompassing such things as rocks, soil, and gemstones, geology studies the composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape Earth's components. It is one of the Earth sciences. Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences) is an all-embracing term for the Sciences related to the planet Geologists have established the age of the Earth at about 4. A geologist is a contributor to the Science of Geology, studying the physical structure and processes of the Earth and planets of the solar system Modern geologists and Geophysicists consider the age of Earth to be around 4 6 billion (4. 6x109) years, and have determined that the Earth's lithosphere, which includes the crust, is fragmented into tectonic plates that move over a rheic upper mantle (asthenosphere) via processes that are collectively referred to as plate tectonics. The lithosphere (IPA, from the Greek λίθος for "rocky" + σφαίρα for "sphere" is the solid outermost shell of a rocky Planet. In Geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere In Geology, a rheid is a Solid material that deforms by viscous flow The mantle is a part of an Astronomical object. The interior of the Earth, similar to the other Terrestrial planets, is Chemically divided The asthenosphere (from an invented Greek a + ' sthenos "without strength" and Greek word σφαίρα (sphera meaning globe is the Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere Geologists help locate and manage the Earth's natural resources, such as petroleum and coal, as well as metals such as iron, copper, and uranium. Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified ( natural) form Petroleum ( L petroleum, from Greek πετρέλαιον, lit The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 Uranium (jʊˈreɪniəm is a silvery-gray Metallic Chemical element in the Additional economic interests include gemstones and many minerals such as asbestos, perlite, mica, phosphates, zeolites, clay, pumice, quartz, and silica, as well as elements such as sulfur, chlorine, and helium. A gemstone or gem, also called a precious or semi-precious stone, is a piece of attractive Mineral, which &mdash when cut and polished &mdash Asbestos is a group of Minerals with long thin fibrous Crystals The word "asbestos" (῾ἀσβεστος is derived from a Greek adjective Perlite is an Amorphous Volcanic Glass that has a relatively high Water content typically formed by the hydration of Obsidian The word "mica" is thought to be derived from the Latin word la micare, "glitteren" in reference to the brilliant appearance of this mineral (especially A phosphate, an Inorganic chemical, is a salt of Phosphoric acid. Zeolites (Greek zein, "to boil" lithos, "a stone" are hydrated Aluminosilicate Minerals and have a micro-porous structure Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Pumice is a textural term for a volcanic rock that is a solidified frothy lava composed of highly microvesicular glass Pyroclastic with very thin translucent Quartz (from German) is the most abundant Mineral in the Earth 's Continental crust (although Feldspar is more common in The Chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica or silox (from the Latin " Silex " is an Oxide Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 Chlorine (ˈklɔriːn from the Greek word 'χλωρóς' ( khlôros, meaning 'pale green' is the Chemical element with Atomic number 17 and Helium ( He) is a colorless odorless tasteless non-toxic Inert Monatomic Chemical
Planetary geology (sometimes known as Astrogeology) refers to the application of geologic principles to other bodies of the solar system. Planetary geology, alternatively known as astrogeology or exogeology, is a Planetary science discipline concerned with the Geology of the Specialised terms such as selenology (studies of the moon), areology (of Mars), etc. , are also in use. Colloquially, geology is most often used with another noun when indicating extra-Earth bodies (e. g. "the geology of Mars").
The word "geology" was first used by Jean-André Deluc in the year 1778 and introduced as a fixed term by Horace-Bénédict de Saussure in the year 1779. Jean-André Deluc ( February 8, 1727 – November 7, 1817) was a Swiss geologist and Meteorologist. Horace-Bénédict de Saussure ( February 17, 1740 - January 22, 1799) was a Swiss aristocrat Physicist and Alpine traveller The science was not included in Encyclopædia Britannica's third edition completed in 1797, but had a lengthy entry in the fourth edition completed by 1809. The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica Inc  An older meaning of the word was first used by Richard de Bury to distinguish between earthly and theological jurisprudence. Richard Aungerville (or Aungervyle) ( January 24 1287 &ndash April 14 1345) commonly known as Richard de Bury, was Theology is the study of a god or the gods from a religious perspective
The work Peri Lithon (On Stones) by Theophrastus (372-287 BC), a student of Aristotle, remained authoritative for millennia. The history of geology is concerned with the development of the natural science of geology Mosquitoes are insects in the family Culicidae. They have a pair of scaled wings a pair of Halteres, a slender body and long legs True flies are Insects of the Order Diptera ( Greek: di = two and pteron = wing possessing a single pair of The Baltic Sea is a Brackish inland sea located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N Latitude and from 20°E to 26°E Longitude. Theophrastus ( Greek:; 371 – c 287 BC a Greek native of Eressos in Lesbos, was the successor of Aristotle in the Peripatetic Aristotle (Greek Aristotélēs) (384 BC – 322 BC was a Greek philosopher a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. Its interpretation of fossils was not overturned until after the Scientific Revolution. FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. The period which many historians of science call the Scientific Revolution can be roughly dated as having begun in 1543 the year in which Nicolaus Copernicus published Peri Lithon was translated into Latin and some other foreign languages. Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Much later in the Roman period, Pliny the Elder produced a very extensive discussion of many more minerals and metals then widely used for practical ends. Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC Gaius or Caius Plinius Secundus, ( AD 23 – August 25, AD 79 better known as Pliny the Elder, was an ancient Author The M acro E xpansion T emplate A ttribute L anguage complements TAL, providing macros which allow the reuse of code across He is among the first to correctly identify the origin of amber as a fossilized resin from pine trees by the observation of insects trapped within some pieces. Amber is Fossil tree Resin, which is appreciated for its color and beauty FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. Resin, not to be confused with Rosin, is a Hydrocarbon Secretion of many Plants particularly coniferous trees. He also laid the basis of crystallography by recognising the octahedral habit of diamond. Crystallography is the experimental science of determining the arrangement of Atoms in Solids In older usage it is the scientific study of Crystals The An octahedron (plural octahedra is a Polyhedron with eight faces In Mineralogy, diamond is the allotrope of carbon where the carbon atoms are arranged in
Some modern scholars, such as Fielding H. Garrison, are of the opinion that modern geology began in the Muslim world. Colonel Fielding Hudson Garrison, MD ( November 5, 1870 &ndash April 18, 1935) was an acclaimed medical historian, The term Muslim world (or Islamic world) has several meanings  Abu al-Rayhan al-Biruni (973-1048 AD) was one of the earliest Muslim geologists, whose works included the earliest writings on the geology of India. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The geological history of India started with the geological evolution of rest of the Earth i  Ibn Sina (Avicenna, 981 - 1037 C. E. ), in particular, made significant contribution to natural sciences (which he called Attabieyat) along with other natural philosophers such as Ikhwan AI-Safa and many others. He wrote an encyclopaedic work entitled “Kitab AI-Shifa” (the Book of Cure, Healing or Remedy from ignorance), in which Part 2, Section 5, contains his essay on Mineralogy and Meteorology, in six chapters: Formation of mountains, The advantages of mountains in the formation of clouds; Sources of water; Origin of earthquakes; Formation of minerals; The diversity of earth’s terrain. These principles were later known in the Renaissance of Europe as the law of superposition of strata, the concept of catastrophisim, and the doctrine of uniformitarianism. These concepts were also embodied in the Theory of the Earth by James Hutton in the Eighteenth century C. E. Academics such as Toulmin and Goodfield (1965), commented on Avicenna's contribution: "Around A. Stephen Edelston Toulmin (born March 25, 1922) is a British Philosopher, Author, and Educator. June Goodfield is a British Scientist and Writer of Fiction and Non-fiction. D. 1000, Avicenna was already suggesting a hypothesis about the origin of mountain ranges, which in the Christian world, would still have been considered quite radical eight hundred years later". 
In China, the polymath Shen Kua (1031-1095) formulated a hypothesis for the process of land formation: based on his observation of fossil shells in a geological stratum in a mountain hundreds of miles from the ocean, he inferred that the land was formed by erosion of the mountains and by deposition of silt. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National A polymath ( Greek polymathēs, πολυμαθής "having learned much" is a person whose knowledge is not restricted to one subject area Shen Kuo or Shen Kua ( (1031&ndash1095 style name Cunzhong and pseudonym Mengqi Weng, was a Polymathic Chinese FOSSIL is a standard protocol for allowing serial communication for Telecommunications programs under the DOS Operating system. In Geology and related fields a stratum (plural strata) is a layer of rock or Soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes Erosion is the carrying away or displacement of solids ( Sediment, Soil, rock and other particles usually by the agents of currents such as wind A mountain is a Landform that extends above the surrounding Terrain in a limited area with a peak Deposition is the geological process by which material is added to a Landform or land mass Silt is Soil or rock derived Granular material of a Grain size between sand and clay
Georg Agricola (1494-1555), a physician, wrote the first systematic treatise about mining and smelting works, De re metallica libri XII, with an appendix Buch von den Lebewesen unter Tage (Book of the Creatures Beneath the Earth). Georgius Agricola ( March 24, 1494 – November 21, 1555) was a German scholar and scientist Mining is the extraction of valuable Minerals or other geological materials from the earth usually (but not always from an Ore body Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of Extractive metallurgy. De re metallica ( Latin for On the Nature of Metals (Minerals) is a book cataloging the state of the art of Mining, refining and Smelting He covered subjects like wind energy, hydrodynamic power, melting cookers, transport of ores, extraction of soda, sulfur and alum, and administrative issues. Wind Power is the conversion of wind energy into a useful form such as electricity using Wind turbines At the end of 2007 worldwide capacity of wind-powered generators was Hydropower, hydraulic power or water power is power that is derived from the Force or Energy of moving water which may An ore is a volume of rock containing components or Minerals in a mode of occurrence that renders it valuable for mining Sodium (ˈsoʊdiəm is an element which has the symbol Na( Latin natrium, from Arabic natrun) atomic number 11 atomic mass 22 Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 For the purely-slang term alum meaning "graduate" see Alumnus. The book was published in 1556. Nicolas Steno (1638-1686) is credited with the law of superposition, the principle of original horizontality, and the principle of lateral continuity: three defining principles of stratigraphy. Nicolas Steno ( Danish: Niels Stensen; Latinized to Nicolaus Stenonis) ( January 10, 1638 - November 25, The law of superposition (or the principle of superposition) is a key axiom based on observations of Natural history that is a foundational principle of sedimentary The Principle of Original Horizontality was proposed by the Danish geological pioneer Nicholas Steno (1638-1686 The principle of lateral continuity states that layers of Sediment initially extend laterally in all directions in other words they are laterally continuous Stratigraphy, a branch of Geology, studies rock layers and layering ( stratification) Previous attempts at such statements meet accusations of heresy from the Church.
By the 1700s Jean-Étienne Guettard and Nicolas Desmarest hiked central France and recorded their observations on geological maps; Guettard recorded the first observation of the volcanic origins of this part of France. Jean-Étienne Guettard ( September 22, 1715 &ndash January 7, 1786) French naturalist and Mineralogist, was Nicolas Desmarest ( September 16, 1725 &ndash September 20, 1815) was a French Geologist. A geologic map or geological map is a special-purpose Map made to show Geological features Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the
William Smith (1769-1839) drew some of the first geological maps and began the process of ordering rock strata (layers) by examining the fossils contained in them. William Smith ( March 23 1769 &ndash August 28 1839) was an English Geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide In Geology and related fields a stratum (plural strata) is a layer of rock or Soil with internally consistent characteristics that distinguishes
James Hutton is often viewed as the first modern geologist. James Hutton MD (3 June 1726 OS (14 June 1726 NS) Edinburgh 26 March 1797 was a Scottish Geologist, In 1785 he presented a paper entitled Theory of the Earth to the Royal Society of Edinburgh. The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland 's National academy of science and letters In his paper, he explained his theory that the Earth must be much older than had previously been supposed in order to allow enough time for mountains to be eroded and for sediments to form new rocks at the bottom of the sea, which in turn were raised up to become dry land. Sediment is any particulate matter that can be transported by fluid flow and which eventually is deposited as a layer of solid particles on the bed or bottom of a body of Hutton published a two-volume version of his ideas in 1795 (Vol. 1, Vol. 2).
Followers of Hutton were known as Plutonists because they believed that some rocks were formed by vulcanism which is the deposition of lava from volcanoes, as opposed to the Neptunists, who believed that all rocks had settled out of a large ocean whose level gradually dropped over time. Plutonic theory is the Geologic Theory proposed by James Hutton around the turn of the 19th century that volcanic activity was the source of Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Plate tectonics and hotspots Divergent plate boundaries At the Neptunism is a discredited and Obsolete scientific theory of Geology proposed by Abraham Werner in the late 18th century that proposed rocks
In 1811 Georges Cuvier and Alexandre Brongniart published their explanation of the antiquity of the Earth, inspired by Cuvier's discovery of fossil elephant bones in Paris. Baron Georges Léopold Chrétien Frédéric Dagobert Cuvier ( August 23 1769 &ndash May 13, 1832) was a French naturalist Alexandre Brongniart (1770 &ndash 1847 was a French Chemist, Mineralogist, and Zoologist, who collaborated with Georges Cuvier on To prove this, they formulated the principle of stratigraphic succession of the layers of the earth. Stratigraphy, a branch of Geology, studies rock layers and layering ( stratification) They were independently anticipated by William Smith's stratigraphic studies on England and Scotland. William Smith ( March 23 1769 &ndash August 28 1839) was an English Geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland Scotland ( Gaelic: Alba) is a Country in northwest Europethat occupies the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
By 1827 Charles Lyell's Principles of Geology reiterated Hutton's uniformitarianism, which influenced the thought of Charles Darwin. Sir Charles Lyell 1st Baronet, KT, FRS (14 November 1797 &ndash 22 February 1875 was a Scottish Lawyer, Geologist, and protagonist Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life
Sir Charles Lyell first published his famous book, Principles of Geology, in 1830 and continued to publish new revisions until he died in 1875. Sir Charles Lyell 1st Baronet, KT, FRS (14 November 1797 &ndash 22 February 1875 was a Scottish Lawyer, Geologist, and protagonist He successfully promoted the doctrine of uniformitarianism. Uniformitarianism in the Philosophy of science, is the assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the This theory states that slow geological processes have occurred throughout the Earth's history and are still occurring today. The history of Earth covers approximately 46 billion years (4567000000 years from Earth ’s formation out of the Solar nebula to the present In contrast, catastrophism is the theory that Earth's features formed in single, catastrophic events and remained unchanged thereafter. Catastrophism is the idea that Earth has been affected in the distant past by sudden short-lived violent events that were sometimes worldwide in scope Though Hutton believed in uniformitarianism, the idea was not widely accepted at the time.
19th century geology revolved around the question of the Earth's exact age. Seafloor spreading occurs at Mid-ocean ridges where new Oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge Continental drift is the movement of the Earth 's Continents relative to each other The Field Museum of Natural History is located in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Modern geologists and Geophysicists consider the age of Earth to be around 4 Estimates varied from a few 100,000 to billions of years. The most significant advance in 20th century geology has been the development of the theory of plate tectonics in the 1960s. Plate tectonics (from Greek τέκτων tektōn "builder" or "mason" describes the large scale motions of Earth 's Lithosphere Plate tectonic theory arose out of two separate geological observations: seafloor spreading and continental drift. Seafloor spreading occurs at Mid-ocean ridges where new Oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge Continental drift is the movement of the Earth 's Continents relative to each other The theory revolutionized the Earth sciences. Earth science (also known as geoscience, the geosciences or the Earth Sciences) is an all-embracing term for the Sciences related to the planet
The theory of continental drift was proposed by Frank Bursley Taylor in 1908, expanded by Alfred Wegener in 1912 and by Arthur Holmes, but wasn't broadly accepted until the late 1960s when the theory of plate tectonics was developed. Frank Bursley Taylor (1860 &ndash 1938 was a wealthy amateur American Geologist, a specialist in the Glacial geology of the Great Lakes, and proposed Alfred Lothar Wegener ( November 1, 1880 – November 2 or 3 1930 was a German Scientist and Meteorologist. Arthur Holmes ( January 14 1890 &ndash September 20 1965) was a British Geologist.
There are a number of important principles in geology. Many of these involve the ability to provide the relative ages of strata or the manner in which they were formed.
The principle of intrusive relationships concerns crosscutting intrusions. In Geology, an intrusion is a body of Igneous rock that has Crystallized from molten Magma below the surface of the Earth. In geology, when an igneous intrusion cuts across a formation of sedimentary rock, it can be determined that the igneous intrusion is younger than the sedimentary rock. Igneous rocks (etymology from Latin ignis, fire are rocks formed by solidification of cooled Magma (molten rock Sedimentary rock is one of the three main rock types (the others being igneous and Metamorphic rock) There are a number of different types of intrusions, including stocks, laccoliths, batholiths, sills and dikes. A laccolith is an Igneous intrusion (or concordant Pluton) that has been injected between two layers of Sedimentary rock. A batholith (from Greek bathos, depth + lithos, rock is a large emplacement of Igneous intrusive (also called plutonic rock that forms In Geology, a sill is a tabular Pluton that has intruded between older layers of Sedimentary rock, beds of Volcanic A dike or dyke in Geology is a type of Sheet intrusion referring to any geologic body that cuts Discordantly ' across planar
The principle of cross-cutting relationships pertains to the formation of faults and the age of the sequences through which they cut. A rock or fault is younger than any rock (or Fault) through which it cuts In Geology a fault, or fault line, is a planar rock fracture which shows evidence of relative movement Faults are younger than the rocks they cut; accordingly, if a fault is found that penetrates some formations but not those on top of it, then the formations that were cut are older than the fault, and the ones that are not cut must be younger than the fault. Finding the key bed in these situations may help determine whether the fault is a normal fault or a thrust fault. In Geology a fault, or fault line, is a planar rock fracture which shows evidence of relative movement A thrust fault is a type of fault, or break in the Earth's crust with resulting movement of each side against the other in which a lower stratigraphic position is pushed up
The principle of inclusions and components states that, with sedimentary rocks, if inclusions (or clasts) are found in a formation, then the inclusions must be older than the formation that contains them. Clastic rocks are composed of fragments or clasts, of pre-existing rock. For example, in sedimentary rocks, it is common for gravel from an older formation to be ripped up and included in a newer layer. A similar situation with igneous rocks occurs when xenoliths are found. This article concerns the geologic term for other uses see Xenolith (disambiguation A xenolith ( Greek: 'foreign rock' is a rock These foreign bodies are picked up as magma or lava flows, and are incorporated, later to cool in the matrix. Magma (Plurals magmas and magmata) is molten rock that sometimes forms beneath the surface of the Earth (or any other Terrestrial planet Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures As a result, xenoliths are older than the rock which contains them.
The principle of uniformitarianism states that the geologic processes observed in operation that modify the Earth's crust at present have worked in much the same way over geologic time. Uniformitarianism in the Philosophy of science, is the assumption that the natural processes operating in the past are the same as those that can be observed operating in the A fundamental principle of geology advanced by the 18th century Scottish physician and geologist James Hutton, is that "the present is the key to the past. James Hutton MD (3 June 1726 OS (14 June 1726 NS) Edinburgh 26 March 1797 was a Scottish Geologist, " In Hutton's words: "the past history of our globe must be explained by what can be seen to be happening now. "
The principle of original horizontality states that the deposition of sediments occurs as essentially horizontal beds. The Principle of Original Horizontality was proposed by the Danish geological pioneer Nicholas Steno (1638-1686 Observation of modern marine and non-marine sediments in a wide variety of environments supports this generalization (although cross-bedding is inclined, the overall orientation of cross-bedded units is horizontal). In Geology, cross-bedding refers to inclined sedimentary structures in a horizontal unit of rock
The principle of superposition states that a sedimentary rock layer in a tectonically undisturbed sequence is younger than the one beneath it and older than the one above it. The law of superposition (or the principle of superposition) is a key axiom based on observations of Natural history that is a foundational principle of sedimentary Logically a younger layer cannot slip beneath a layer previously deposited. This principle allows sedimentary layers to be viewed as a form of vertical time line, a partial or complete record of the time elapsed from deposition of the lowest layer to deposition of the highest bed.
The principle of faunal succession is based on the appearance of fossils in sedimentary rocks. The principle of faunal succession is based on the observation that sedimentary rock strata contain Fossilised flora and fauna, and that these As organisms exist at the same time period throughout the world, their presence or (sometimes) absence may be used to provide a relative age of the formations in which they are found. Based on principles laid out by William Smith almost a hundred years before the publication of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution, the principles of succession were developed independently of evolutionary thought. William Smith ( March 23 1769 &ndash August 28 1839) was an English Geologist, credited with creating the first nationwide Charles Robert Darwin (February 12 1809 &ndash April 19 1882 was an English naturalist, who realised and demonstrated that all Species of life eVolution is the third Album by eLDee, it was due to be released in 2008 The principle becomes quite complex, however, given the uncertainties of fossilization, the localization of fossil types due to lateral changes in habitat (facies change in sedimentary strata), and that not all fossils may be found globally at the same time. The term " Facies " can also refer to distinctive Facial expressions associated with conditions such as Williams syndrome.
"The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, stringed instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc. Colonel Fielding Hudson Garrison, MD ( November 5, 1870 &ndash April 18, 1935) was an acclaimed medical historian, Saracen was a term used by Europeans in the Middle Ages for Fatimids at first then later for all who professed the religion of Islam. Algebra is a branch of Mathematics concerning the study of structure, relation, and Quantity. Chemistry (from Egyptian kēme (chem meaning "earth") is the Science concerned with the composition structure and properties A street light, lamppost, street lamp, light standard or lamp standard, is a raised source of Light on the edge of a Road GlassWindowjpg|thumb|right|190px|A stained glass panel depicting Biblical scenes at a historic church in Scotland]] A window is an opening A paned window is a Window that is divided into sections known as panes Originally the meaning pertained to sectioned glass Windows in walls A firework is classified as a low explosive pyrotechnic device used primarily for aesthetic and entertainment purposes A string instrument (or stringed instrument) is a Musical instrument that produces Sound by means of Vibrating strings In the Hornbostel-Sachs Tillage is the agricultural preparation of the Soil by Ploughing ripping or turning it The term fruit has different meanings dependent on context and the term is not synonymous in Food preparation and Biology. Perfume is a mixture of fragrant Essential oils and Aroma compounds Fixatives and Solvents used to give the human body animals objects and living A spice is a dried Seed, Fruit, Root, Bark or vegetative substance used in Nutritionally insignificant quantities as a Food additive "