Satellite image showing most of the five boroughs, portions of eastern New Jersey, and the main waterways around New York harbor.
The geography of New York City is characterized by its coastal position at the meeting of the Hudson River and the Atlantic Ocean in a naturally sheltered harbor. The City of New York The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami The city's geography, with its scarce available land surrounded mostly by water, is a factor in making New York the city with the highest population density in the United States. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Environmental issues are chiefly concerned with managing this density, which is also a factor in making New York among the most energy efficient and least automobile-dependent cities in the United States. The city's climate is temperate.
New York City is located on the coast of the Northeastern United States at the mouth of the Hudson River in south eastern New York state. The Northeast is a region of the United States. As defined by the U The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami New York ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States and is the nation's third most populous The New York Harbor, with its deep waters and sheltered bays, helped the city grow in significance as a trading city. New York Harbor, a geographic term refers collectively to the rivers bays and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City Much of New York is built on the three islands of Manhattan, Staten Island, and western Long Island, making land scarce and encouraging a high population density.
The Hudson River flows from the Hudson Valley into New York Bay, becoming a tidal estuary that separates the city from New Jersey. For the Magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine New York Bay is the collective term for the marine areas surrounding the entrance of the Hudson River into the Atlantic Ocean. An estuary is a semi-enclosed Coastal body of Water with one or more Rivers or Streams flowing into it and with a free connection to the open New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The East River, actually a tidal strait, flows from Long Island Sound and separates the Bronx and Manhattan from Long Island. The East River is a tidal Strait in New York City. It connects Upper New York Bay on its south end to Long Island Sound on its north end Long Island Sound is an Estuary of the Atlantic Ocean and various Rivers in the United States that lies between the coast of Connecticut The Harlem River, another tidal strait between the East and Hudson Rivers, separates Manhattan from the Bronx. See also Geography and environment of New York City The Harlem River is a navigable tidal Strait in New York City, USA that
The boroughs of New York City straddle the border between two geologic provinces of eastern North America. A geologic or geomorphic province is a spatial entity with common geologic / geomorphic attributes Brooklyn and Queens, located on Long Island, are part of the eastern coastal plain. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. Long Island is an island located in southeastern New York, USA, its western shores directly across from Manhattan, from which the island stretches A coastal plain is an area of flat low-lying land adjacent to a seacoast and separated from the interior by other features Long Island is a massive moraine which formed at the southern fringe of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the last Ice Age. Moraine refers to any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (soil and rock which can occur in currently glaciated and formerly glaciated regions such as those The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered hundreds of thousands of square miles including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the Temperature of the Earth 's surface and atmosphere resulting in an expansion of continental Ice sheets The Bronx and Manhattan lie on the eastern edge of the Newark Basin, a block of the Earth's crust which sank downward during the disintegration of the supercontinent Pangaea during the Triassic period. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York The Newark Basin is a Sediment -filled rift basin located mainly in northern New Jersey but also stretching into south-eastern Pennsylvania and In Geology, a supercontinent is a Landmass comprising more than one Continental core or Craton. Pangaea, Pangæa or Pangea (pænˈdʒiːə from παν pan, meaning entire, and Γαῖα Gaea, meaning Earth in The Triassic is a geologic period and system that extends from about 251 to 199 Ma (million years ago The Palisades Sill on the New Jersey shore of the Hudson River exposes ancient, once-molten rock that filled the basin. The Palisades Sill is a Triassic, 200 Ma Diabase Intrusion. It extends through portions of New York and New Jersey New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. The Hudson River, called Muh-he-kun-ne-tuk, the Great Mohegan by the Iroquois, or as the Lenape Native Americans called it in Unami Tough metamorphic rocks underlie much of Manhattan, providing solid support for its many skyscrapers. Metamorphic rock is the result of the transformation of an existing rock type the protolith, in a process called Metamorphism, which means "change A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper
The city's land has been altered considerably by human intervention, with substantial land reclamation along the waterfronts since Dutch colonial times. Land reclamation is either of two distinct practices One involves creating new land from sea- or riverbeds the other refers to restoring an area to a more natural state (such as after Reclamation is most notable in Lower Manhattan with modern developments like Battery Park City. Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the Battery Park City is a 92 acre (04 km² Planned community at the southwestern tip of Lower Manhattan in New York City, United States. Much of the natural variations in topography have been evened out, particularly in Manhattan. 
The city's land area is estimated to be 321 mi² (831. 4 km²).  However, a more recent estimate calculates a total land area of 304. 8 sq mi (789. 4 km²) The highest natural point in the city is Todt Hill on Staten Island, which at 409. Todt Hill 410 ft (125 m is a small Mountain ridge on Staten Island New York. 8 ft (124. 9 m) above sea level is the highest hill on the Eastern Seaboard south of Maine. The State of Maine ( is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States of America, bordering the Atlantic Ocean The summit of the ridge is largely covered in woodlands as part of the Staten Island Greenbelt. For other uses of Greenbelt and Green belt see Green belt (disambiguation.
- See also: Geography of New York Harbor
The five boroughs: 1: Manhattan, 2: Brooklyn, 3: Queens, 4: Bronx, 5: Staten Island
New York City comprises five boroughs, an unusual form of government used to administer the five constituent counties that make up the city. See also Geography of New York City This article provides a brief introduction to both natural and manmade geographic features of New York Harbor from a maritime In New York City, a borough is a unique form of government which administers the five fundamental constituent parts that make up the consolidated city The Neighborhoods of New York City are located within "The Five Boroughs". In New York City, a borough is a unique form of government which administers the five fundamental constituent parts that make up the consolidated city Throughout the boroughs there are hundreds of distinct neighborhoods, many with a definable history and character all their own. If the boroughs were each independent cities, four of the boroughs (Brooklyn, Queens, Manhattan, and the Bronx) would be among the ten most populous cities in the United States.
- The Bronx (Bronx County, pop. 1,364,566) is New York City's northernmost borough. It is the birthplace of rap and hip hop culture, the site of Yankee Stadium and home to the largest cooperatively owned housing complex in the United States, Co-op City. Rapping (also known as emceeing, MCing, spitting, or just rhyming) is the Rhythmic spoken delivery of Rhymes wordplay and Hip hop is a Subculture, which is said to have begun with the work of DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash & the Furious Five, and Afrika Bambaattaa The original Yankee Stadium is a Stadium located in The Bronx in New York City. Co-op City is the largest cooperative housing development in the world  Except for a small piece of Manhattan known as Marble Hill, the Bronx is the only section of the city that is part of the United States mainland. marble_hill_manhattan_mappng|right|thumb]] Marble Hill is the northernmost section of the Borough of Manhattan in New York City, United States
- Brooklyn (Kings County, pop. Brooklyn (named after the Dutch town Breukelen) is one of the five boroughs of New York City. 2,511,408) is the city's most populous borough and was an independent city until 1898. Brooklyn is known for its cultural diversity, an independent art scene, distinct neighborhoods and a unique architectural heritage. These are the Neighborhoods of Brooklyn, one of five boroughs of New York City, USA The borough also features a long beachfront and Coney Island, famous as one of the earliest amusement grounds in the country. Coney Island is a Peninsula, formerly an island in southernmost Brooklyn, New York City, USA with a Beach on the Atlantic Ocean
- Manhattan (New York County, pop. Manhattan Island, in New York Harbor, is much the largest part of the Borough of Manhattan, one of the Five Boroughs which form the City of New York 1,606,275) is the most densely populated borough and home to most of the city's skyscrapers. A skyscraper is a tall continuously habitable Building. There is no official definition or a precise cutoff height above which a building may clearly be classified as a skyscraper The borough contains the major business centers of the city and many cultural attractions. Manhattan is loosely divided into downtown, midtown, and uptown regions. Lower Manhattan (or downtown Manhattan) is the southernmost part of the island of Manhattan, the main island and center of business and government of the See also Manhattan Midtown Manhattan, or simply Midtown, is an area of Manhattan, New York City home to world-famous commercial Upper Manhattan denotes the more northerly region of the New York City Borough of Manhattan.
- Queens (Queens County, pop. 2,256,576) is geographically the largest borough and the most ethnically diverse county in the United States.  Historically a collection of small towns and villages founded by the Dutch, the borough today is mainly residential and middle class. It is the only large county in the United States where the median income among African-American households, about $52,000 a year, has surpassed that of Caucassian households.  Queens is the site of Shea Stadium, the home of the New York Mets, and annually hosts the US Tennis Open. William A Shea Municipal Stadium, usually shortened to Shea Stadium or just Shea (ʃeɪ̪ is a Stadium located in the New York City borough "Mets" redirects here For the medical term see Metastasis. The US Open Tennis tournament is one of the oldest tennis championships in the world first contested in 1881
- Staten Island (Richmond County, pop. Staten Island (ˌstætənˈaɪlənd is a borough of New York City situated primarily on the island of the same name 475,014) is the most suburban in character of the five boroughs. It is connected to Brooklyn by the Verrazano-Narrows Bridge and to Manhattan by the free Staten Island Ferry. The Verrazano-Narrows Bridge is a double-decked Suspension bridge that connects the boroughs of Staten Island and Brooklyn in New The Staten Island Ferry is a passenger Ferry service operated by the New York City Department of Transportation that runs between Manhattan and Staten Until 2001 the borough was home to the Fresh Kills Landfill, formerly the largest landfill in the world, which is now being reconstructed as one of the largest urban parks in the United States. The Fresh Kills Landfill on the New York City borough of Staten Island in the United States, was formerly the largest Landfill in
Deep snow in Brooklyn during the Blizzard of 2006 Nor'easter
. The Blizzard of 2006 was a Nor'easter that began on the evening of February 11, 2006. A nor'easter (also northeaster; see below is a macro-scale Storm along the East Coast of the United States and Atlantic Canada.
in autumn. Union Square Park (also known as Union Square) is an important and historic intersection in New York City, located where Broadway and the Bowery
Although it is not in the subtropics and its winters are cold, New York has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification) because the coldest month's average temperatures are not low enough for persistent snow cover. New York City's climate is vastly affected by its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean. New York City's climate patterns are affected by the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, a 70-year-long warming and cooling cycle in the Atlantic that influences the frequency and severity of hurricanes and coastal storms. The Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO is a mode of natural variability occurring in the North Atlantic Ocean and which has its principle expression in the Sea surface 
- Winters are typically cold. Temperatures below 0 °F only occur about once per decade on average, but temperatures in the 10s and 20s (down to -10 °C) are quite common at the height of winter. New York winters sometimes feature snowstorms that can paralyze the city with over a foot of snow. However, variation in the climate also occasionally renders winter mild and almost snowless (such as in 1997-98).
- Springs are mild, averaging in the 50s °F (10 to 15 °C) in late March to the lower 80s °F (25-30 °C) in early June. The weather is unpredictable and brings relatively cool summers (such as in 1992) as an occasional surprise, and huge snowstorms arriving as late as the second week in April (significant snow after mid-March is fairly rare though). Thunderstorms are common in spring.
- Summers in New York are hot and humid, with temperatures commonly exceeding 90 °F (32 °C), although high temperatures above 100 °F (38 °C) are about as rare as subzero (F) lows in winter. Humidity levels are usually quite high in July and August. Thunderstorms are common in summer, although severe weather is more common west of the city in New Jersey because the city's proximity to the ocean usually kills severe thunderstorms before they hit the city. New Jersey ( is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. Hurricanes are considered to be a major threat to the area (and especially the Long Island suburbs). A tropical cyclone is a storm system characterized by a low pressure center and numerous Thunderstorms that produce strong winds and Flooding While relatively infrequent compared to areas south and east, a direct hit could cause large loss of life and enormous property damage due to the high population in coastal areas.
- Autumns are comfortable in New York and similar to spring in temperature. However, the weather is notably unpredictable and travelers are advised to check forecasts and bring several layers of clothing in late fall and in the early spring months (e. g. , November, March, April) as temperatures do fluctuate quickly at these times of year.
- Temperature records have been set as high as 106 °F (41 °C) on July 9, 1936 (in Central Park, LaGuardia Airport recorded a 107 °F (42 °C) temperature on July 3, 1966) and as low as -15 °F (-26 °C) on February 9, 1934. Events 455 - Roman military commander Avitus is proclaimed Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. Year 1936 ( MCMXXXVI) was a Leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually LaGuardia Airport (ləˈɡwɑɹdiə is an airport located in Queens County on Long Island in the The City of New York. Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1966 ( MCMLXVI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. Events 474 - Zeno crowned as co-emperor of the Byzantine Empire. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. These temperatures are not common and have not been matched or surpassed in more than seven decades. See also List of centuries, History This is a list of Decades in history including links to corresponding articles with more information about them Most recently, temperatures have hit 100 degrees as recently as July 2005 and 103 degrees in August 2006 (both at LaGuardia Airport; Central Park last recorded a temperature at or over 100 °F in August 2001), and dropped to 1 below zero as recently as January 2004. LaGuardia Airport (ləˈɡwɑɹdiə is an airport located in Queens County on Long Island in the The City of New York. Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually New York can have excessive days of rain or long stretches of dry weather.
New York City weather data
|Average high temperature, °F|
|Average low temperature, °F|
is nearly twice as big as the world's second-smallest country, Monaco
. See also Environmental issues in the United States Environmental issues in New York City are affected by the city's size density abundant public transportation Central Park is a large public Urban park in New York City, with about twenty-five million visitors annually For other uses see Monaco (disambiguation Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco ( French: Principauté de Monaco; Monégasque
Historically its reservoirs were important components of the city's water supply.
New York City plays an important role in the green policy agenda because of its size. The City of New York Environmental groups make large efforts to help shape legislation in New York because they see the strategy as an efficient way to influence national programs. New York City's economy is larger than Switzerland's, a size that means the city has potential to set new defacto standards. Manufacturers are also attuned to the latest trends and needs in the city because the market is simply too big to ignore.
Although cities like San Francisco or Portland, Oregon are most commonly associated with urban environmentalism in the United States, New York City's unique urban footprint and extensive transportation systems make it more sustainable than most American cities. The City and County of San Francisco is the fourth most populous city Portland is a city located in the Northwestern United States, near the Confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers
Maps and satellite images
New York City area in 1910
False-color satellite image
Thermal image (blue is warm, yellow is hot)
Vegetation is beige (sparse) and deep green (dense)
Satellite photograph of southern Manhattan taken in 2002
- ^ Lopate, Phillip (2004). New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam was a 17th-century Dutch colonial settlement that later became New York City. See also Geography of New York City This article provides a brief introduction to both natural and manmade geographic features of New York Harbor from a maritime The New York metropolitan area, often referred to as the Tri-State Area, is the most populous Metropolitan area in the United States and is also one Northeastern_United_States#The_Northeast_as_a_megalopolis BosWash (also referred to as BoWash, BosNYwash, the Northeast Corridor, the New York City Audubon is an American non-profit Environmental organization incorporated in 1979. Waterfront: A Walk Around Manhattan. Anchor Press. ISBN 0385497148.
- ^ Land Use Facts. New York City Department of City Planning. The Department of City Planning is a governmental agency of New York City responsible for setting the framework of city's physical and socioeconomic planning Retrieved on 2007-03-13. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1138 - Cardinal Gregorio Conti is elected Antipope as Victor IV, succeeding Anacletus II.
- ^ It’s Still a Big City, Just Not Quite So Big. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-05-22. 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Events 334 BC - The Greek army of Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of the Granicus.
- ^ a b c d e New York State Department of Labor - Population Estimates. Retrieved on 2006-11-02. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1570 - A Tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1000
- ^ Toop, David (1992). Rap Attack 2: African Rap to Global Hip-Hop. Serpents Tail. ISBN 1852422432.
- ^ Frazier, Ian. "Utopia, the Bronx", The New Yorker, 2006-06-26. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 363 - Roman Emperor Julian is killed during the retreat from the Sassanid Empire. Retrieved on 2007-03-26. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 1026 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II as Holy Roman Emperor.
- ^ O'Donnell, Michelle. "In Queens, It's the Glorious 4th, and 6th, and 16th, and 25th...", New York Times, 2006-07-04. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 836 - Pactum Sicardi, peace between the Principality of Benevento and the Duchy of Naples Retrieved on 2006-07-19. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 711 - Muslim forces under Tariq ibn Ziyad defeat the Visigoths led by their king Roderic.
- ^ Roberts, Sam. "Black Incomes Surpass Whites in Queens", The New York Times, 2006-01-10. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Retrieved on 2007-03-28. Year 2007 ( MMVII) was a Common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate.
- ^ Riley, Mary Elizabeth (2006), Assessing the Impact of Interannual Climate Variability on New York City's Reservoir System, Cornell University Graduate School for Atmospheric Science, <http://dspace.library.cornell.edu/bitstream/1813/2623/1/MER+Thesis-new.pdf>. Retrieved on 27 March 2007
- ^ Historical Weather for New York - Central Park. Weatherbase.
- The Vegan Guide to New York City, by Rynn Berry and Chris A. Suzuki
- The Big Green Apple: Your Guide to Eco-Friendly Living in New York City, by Benjamin Jervey
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