This page is about the surgical specialty. For the goregrind band, see General Surgery (band)
General surgery, despite its name, is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal organs, e. General Surgery is a Swedish Goregrind and Death metal group known as one of the earliest Carcass clones g. intestines including esophagus, stomach, colon, liver, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on the availability of head and neck surgery specialists) and hernias. In Anatomy, the intestine is the segment of the alimentary canal extending from the Stomach to the Anus and in humans and other mammals consists The esophagus or oesophagus (see American and British English spelling differences) sometimes known as the gullet, is an organ in In Human anatomy, the stomach is a J-shaped hollow muscular organ of the Gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of Digestion, following The colon is a storage tube for solid wastes The main function of the colon appears to be extraction of Water and salts from Feces. The liver is a vital organ in the human body and is present in Vertebrates and some other animals The gallbladder (or cholecyst sometimes gall bladder is a small organ whose function in the body is to store Bile and aid in the digestive process A bile duct is any of a number of long tube-like structures that carry Bile. The thyroid is one of the largest Endocrine glands in the body A hernia is a protrusion of a tissue, structure or part of an organ through the muscular tissue or the membrane by which it is normally contained
With the prevalent trend for increasing sub-specialisation in today's medical practice, General Surgery has somewhat lost some of its former glory and scope. Nonetheless, it continues to be a competitive, rewarding and highly demanding specialty in its own right. Until recently, all surgeons had to have gained fellowship in the College of General Surgeons (or such equivalent) in order to progress into further sub-specialty training. However, recently, the College of Surgeons has been divided into separate sub-branches, whereby Fellowship in General Surgery is not necessarily required, but may well be desired - depending on the country and centre of practice, as well as the individual sub-specialty.
Certain sub-specialties are still part of the General Surgical training program. That is, General Surgeons may subspecialise into one or more of the following disciplines:
In Australia, Canada, the United States, and the United Kingdom, general surgeons are responsible for breast care, including the surgical treatment of breast cancer. In Medicine, a surgeon is a person who performs Surgery. Surgery is a broad category of invasive Medical treatment that involves the cutting of a The breast is the upper Ventral region of an animal’s Torso, particularly that of Mammals including Human beings. Breast cancer is a Cancer that starts in the cells of the Breast in women and men In some other countries, breast care falls under Obstetrics and gynecology. As per the discussion in the Talk page there has been no consensus as to using the American (gynecology or British (gynaecology spelling for this article BUT
In the United States, the overall responsibility for trauma care falls under the auspices of general surgery, some general surgeons obtaining advanced training and specialty certification in this field alone. Trauma surgeons are physicians (MBBS MBChB MB MD or (DO who have completed residency training in general surgery and fellowship training in trauma or surgical critical A General Surgeon must be able to deal with any surgical emergency. Often they are the first port of call to a critically ill patient, and must perform a variety of procedure to stabilise a patient, such as craniotomy, cricothyrotomy and chest draining procedures. A craniotomy is a surgical operation in which part of the Skull, called a bone flap, is removed in order to access the brain A cricothyrotomy (also called thyrocricotomy, cricothyroidotomy, inferior laryngotomy, intercricothyrotomy, coniotomy or
Involves evaluation and treatment of complaints from the lower intestinal tract - the large bowel, rectum and anus. A large part of this care involves management of Colorectal cancer, as well as more trivial ailments such as Hemorrhoids. Colorectal cancer, also called colon cancer or large bowel cancer, includes Cancerous growths in the colon, Rectum and Hemorrhoids ( AmE) haemorrhoids ( BrE) emerods, or piles are varicosities or swelling and Inflammation
Surgical management of conditions involving the esophagus, stomach, liver, spleen, gall bladder. Cholecystectomy, the surgical removal of the gall bladder, is one of the most common surgical procedures done world-wide. Cholecystectomy (/ˌkɔləsɪsˈtɛktəmi/ plural cholecystectomies is the surgical removal of the Gallbladder. Upper gastro intestinal surgery may be done as emergencies like perforated duodenal ulcers, or acutely inflammed gall baldders or as elective operations such as cancer of stomach.
Though this type of surgery was popular by open surgery, nowadays it is replaced mostly by key hole or laparoscopic surgery . Using the key hole approach, the incisions are much smaller( 1 cm or less in the place of 15 cm long incisions), the scars are less painful , there is less stay in the hospital with early return to normal activity. Key hole surgery especially in the upper gastro intestinal tract causes less of chest complications as patients breathe better after surgery with minimal pain.
Specialising in surgical removal of endocrine glands - most commonly the thyroid, the parathyroid glands and adrenal glands. Endocrine surgery is a surgical procedure that is performed to achieve a hormonal or anti-hormonal effect in the body The thyroid is one of the largest Endocrine glands in the body The parathyroid glands are small endocrine Glands in the neck usually located behind the Thyroid gland, which produce Parathyroid hormone. In Mammals the adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are the triangle-shaped Endocrine glands that sit on top of the Kidneys their
A transplant surgeon must be ready at any time, when called to harvest organs from a suitable donor. Transplantation of organs must be done as quickly and as meticulously as possible to optimise the chances of a successful transplant.
Historically, Vascular surgery was part of the General Surgical program, although recently it has formed its own college. Vascular surgery is a specialty of surgery in which diseases of the vascular system or arteries and Veins are managed by medical therapy minimally-invasive catheter Vascular surgery is a specialty of surgery in which diseases of the vascular system or arteries and Veins are managed by medical therapy minimally-invasive catheter Nonetheless, vascular trainees must complete are certain number of General Surgical terms.
In addition to the above, a General Surgeon may deal with a plethora of less emergent procedures- depending on the training of the Surgeon. Procedures such as treatment of varicose veins, circumcision, vasectomies and skin cancer removal are often done by General Surgeons. Varicose veins are Veins that have become enlarged and twisted Male circumcision is the removal of some or all of the Foreskin (prepuce from the Penis. Vasectomy is a surgical procedure in which the vasa deferentia of a man are cut for the purpose of sterilization. Skin cancer is a Malignant growth on the Skin which can have many causes This is especially the case in rural areas, where sub-specialist level care is not always available.
In the last few years minimally invasive surgery has become more prevalent. Minimally invasive surgical procedures avoid open invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery with less trauma Considerable enthusiasm has built around robotic surgery (also known as robotic-assisted surgery), despite a lack of data suggesting it has significant benefits that justify its cost. Robotic surgery is the use of Robots in performing Surgery. Three major advances aided by surgical robots have been Remote surgery, Minimally invasive 
In Canada, Australia, New Zealand, and the United States general surgery is a five-year residency and follows completion of medical school, either (MD, MBBS, MBChB, etc) or (DO) degree. Residency is a stage of graduate medical training. A resident physician or resident is a person who has received a Medical degree ( MD Medical education A medical school or faculty of medicine is a Tertiary educational institution—or part of such an institution—that teaches Medicine Following high school, it takes approximately thirteen years to make a fully licensed general surgeon (four years undergraduate training, four years medical school and five years residency). High school is the name used in some parts of the world (in particular Scotland, North America and Australia) to describe an institution In most countries only persons with a medical license bestowed either by a specified government-approved Professional association or a Government agency are authorized In some Educational systems undergraduate education is Post-secondary education up to the level of a Bachelor's degree. In the United States, board certification by the American Board of Surgery is also required upon completion of training for a general surgeon to have operating privileges at most hospitals. The American Board of Surgery (ABS is an independent non-profit organization based in Philadelphia Pennsylvania founded for the purpose of certifying surgeons who have met
In many countries general surgery is a prerequisite for subspecialization in: