A gamelan is a musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked strings, and vocalists may also be included. Taman Mini Indonesia Indah (TMII or "Beautiful Indonesia Miniature Park" (literally translated is a culture-based Recreational area located in East Jakarta Jakarta (also DKI Jakarta) is the Capital and largest city of Indonesia. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia. The Republic of Indonesia ( (Republik Indonesia is a Country in Southeast Asia.
The term refers more to the set of instruments than the players of those instruments. A gamelan as a set of instruments is a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together — instruments from different gamelan are not interchangeable.
The word "gamelan" comes from the Javanese word "gamel", meaning to strike or hammer, and the suffix "an", which makes the root a collective noun.
The gamelan has an old and mysterious origin. Apparently it predates the Hindu-Buddhist culture that dominated Indonesia in its earliest records, and instead represents a native art form. The instruments developed into their current form during the Majapahit Empire. Majapahit was an Indianized kingdom based in eastern Java from 1293 to around 1500.  In contrast to the heavy Indian influence in other art forms, the only obvious Indian influence in gamelan music is in the Javanese style of singing. 
In Javanese mythology, the gamelan was created by Sang Hyang Guru in Saka era 167 (c. The Shalivahana era, also known as the Saka era, is used with Hindu calendars the Indian national calendar, and the Cambodian Buddhist calendar AD 230), the god who ruled as king of all Java from a palace on the Maendra mountains in Medangkamulan (now Mount Lawu). Mount Lawu, or Gunung Lawu, is a massive compound Stratovolcano in Central Java, Indonesia. He needed a signal to summon the gods, and thus invented the gong. For more complex messages, he invented two other Gongs, thus forming the original gamelan set. 
In the palaces of Java are the oldest known ensembles, the Munggang and Kodokngorek gamelans, apparently from the 12th century. Gamelan Munggang are considered among the most ancient Gamelans of the courts of Central Java. These formed the basis of a "loud style. " A different, "soft style" developed out of the kemanak tradition and is related to the traditions of singing Javanese poetry, in a manner which is often believed to be similar to performance of modern bedhaya dance. Kemanak is a banana-shaped Idiophone used in Javanese Gamelan, made of Bronze. Javanese poetry ( Poetry in the Javanese or especially the Kawi language; Low Javanese tembang; High Javanese sekar) is traditionally The bedhaya (also written as bedoyo, beḍaya, and various other transliterations is a sacred ritualized dance of Java, Indonesia, associated In the 17th century, these loud and soft styles mixed, and to a large extent the variety of modern gamelan styles of Bali, Java, and Sunda resulted from different ways of mixing these elements. Thus, despite the seeming diversity of styles, many of the same theoretical concepts, instruments, and techniques are shared between the styles. 
There are a wide variety of gamelan ensembles, distinguished by their collection of instruments and use of voice, tunings, repertoire, style, and cultural context. Jegog is a form of Gamelan music indigenous to Bali, Indonesia played on instruments made of Bamboo. In general, no two gamelan ensembles are the same, and those that arose in prestigious courts are often considered to have their own style. Certain styles may also be shared by nearby ensembles, leading to a regional style.
The varieties are generally grouped geographically, with the principal division between the styles favored by the Balinese, Javanese, and Sundanese peoples. The Balinese population of 30 million (15% of Indonesia 's population live mostly on the island of Bali, making up 89% of the island's population The Javanese are an Ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java. Not to be confused with Sudanese people The Sundanese are an ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java. Sundanese gamelan often associated with Gamelan Degung, a Sundanese musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified gamelan instruments with a particular mode of pelog scale. Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese Musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified Gamelan instruments with a particular mode of Pelog scale Balinese gamelan is often associated with the virtuosity and rapid changes of tempo and dynamics of Gamelan gong kebyar, its best-known style. Gamelan gong kebyar is a modern style or genre of Balinese Gamelan music. Other popular Balinese styles include Gamelan angklung and kecak, also known as the "monkey chant. Angklung is a musical instrument made out of two Bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame Kecak (pronounced /'ketʃak/ roughly "KEH-chahk" alternate spellings Ketjak, Ketjack, and Ketiak) a form of Balinese " Javanese gamelan was largely dominated by the courts of the 19th century central Javanese rulers, each with its own style, but overall is known for a slower, more meditative style than that of Bali.
Outside of the main core on Java and Bali, gamelans have spread through migration and cultural interest, new styles sometimes result as well. Malay gamelans are designed in ways that are similar to the Javanese gamelan except that the tune is higher. The gamelans were traditionally played in Riau. Riau is a province of Indonesia, located in the center of Sumatra Island along the Strait of Malacca. Gamelan is also related to the Philippine kulintang ensemble. Kulintang is a modern term for an instrumental form of music composed on a row of small horizontally-laid Gongs that function melodically accompanied by larger suspended There is also a wide variety of gamelan in the West, including both traditional and experimental ensembles. See gamelan outside Indonesia for more information on these styles. There is an increasing amount of gamelan outside Indonesia. There are even forms of Gamelan that have originated outside Indonesia, such as American gamelan
In Indonesia, gamelan usually accompanies dance, wayang puppet performances, or rituals or ceremonies. Wayang is an Indonesian and Malay word for Theatre. When the term is used to refer to kinds of puppet theater sometimes the puppet itself is referred Typically players in the gamelan will be familiar with dance moves and poetry, while dancers are able to play in the ensemble. In wayang, the dalang (puppeteer) must have a thorough knowledge of gamelan, as he gives the cues for the music. The dalang ( dhalang) is the Puppeteer in an Indonesian Wayang performance Gamelan can be performed by itself - in "klenengan" style, or for radio broadcasts - but concerts in the Western style are not traditional. 
Gamelan's role in rituals is so important that there is a Javanese saying that "It's not official until the gong is hung. " Some performances are associated with royalty, such as visits by the sultan of Yogyakarta. Sri Sultan Hamengkubuwono is part of the title of the Sultan who rules Yogyakarta Sultanate in Yogyakarta Special Region of Indonesia. Certain gamelans are associated with specific rituals, such as the Gamelan Sekaten, which is used in celebration of Mawlid an-Nabi (Muhammad's birthday). The Gamelan Sekaten (or Sekati) is a ceremonial Gamelan (musical ensemble from central Java, Indonesia. Mawlid ( Eid Milad an Nabi ( Turkish:Mevlid ( Qur'anic مَوْلِدُ آلنَبِيِّ mawlidu n-nabiyyi, “Birth of the Prophet” IMPORTANT PLEASE READ ##### For all questions relating to the addition of (pbuh peace be upon him or other honorifics In Bali, almost all religious rituals include gamelan performance. Gamelan is also used in the ceremonies of the Catholic church in Indonesia. Catholicism in Indonesia refers to Roman Catholicism in Indonesia, where it is one of the six approved Religions the other being Islam Protestantism Hinduism  Certain pieces are designated for starting and ending performances or ceremonies. When a "leaving" piece (such as "Udan Mas") is begun, the audience will know that the event is nearly finished and will begin to leave. Udan Mas (sometimes written Hudan Mas, the name means "Golden Rain" is a composition for Gamelan which is popular in Central Java especially Yogyakarta Certain pieces are also believed to possess magic powers, and can be used to ward off evil spirits. 
Gamelan is frequently played on the radio. For example, the Pura Pakualaman gamelan performs live on the radio every Minggu Pon (a day in the 35-day cycle of the Javanese calendar). The Javanese calendar is a Calendar still in use by the Javanese people of Indonesia concurrently with two other important calendars the Gregorian  In major towns, the Radio Republik Indonesia employs professional musicians and actors, and broadcast programs of a wide variety of gamelan music and drama. Radio Republik Indonesia ( RRI) is the state Radio network of Indonesia. 
In the court tradition of central Java, gamelan is often played in the pendopo, an open pavilion with a cavernous, double-pitched roof, no side walls, and a hard marble or tile floor. A pendopo is a fundamental element of Javanese Architecture; a large pavilion -like structure built on Columns Either square or The instruments are placed on a platform to one side, which allows the sound to reverberate in the roof space and enhances the acoustics. 
In Bali, the Gamelan instruments are all kept together in the balai banjar, a community meeting hall which has a large open space with a roof over top of it with several open sides. The instruments are all kept here together because they believe that all of the instruments belong to the community as a whole and no one person has ownership over an instrument. Not only is this where the instruments are stored, but this is also the practice space for the sekaha (Gamelan orchestra). The open walls allow for the music to flow out into the community where the rest of the people can enjoy it.
The sekaha is led by a single instructor whose job it is in the community to lead this group and to come up with new songs. When they are working on a new song, the instructor will lead the group in practice and help the group form the new piece of music as they are practicing. When the instructor creates a new song, he leaves enough open for interpretation that the group can improvise and as a group they will be writing the music as they are practicing it.
The Balinese Gamelan groups are constantly changing their music by taking older pieces they know and mixing them together as well as trying new variations on their music. Their music is always constantly changing because they believe that music should grow and change; the only exception to this is with their most sacred songs which they will not change. A single new piece of music can take several months before it is completed.
Men and women usually perform in separate groups, with the exception of the pesindhen, the female singer who performs with male groups. This page may have been redirected from Sinden For the actor see Donald Sinden A sindhen (or more properly pesindhen; also called waranggono 
In the West, gamelan is often performed in a concert context, but may also incorporate dance or wayang. hi!!1
The tuning and construction of a gamelan orchestra is a complex process. Javanese gamelans use two tuning systems: sléndro and pélog. In Music, there are two common meanings for tuning: Tuning practice, the act of tuning an instrument or voice Slendro (called salendro by the Sundanese) is a Pentatonic scale, one of the two most common scales ( laras) used in Indonesian Pelog is one of the two essential scales of Gamelan music native to Bali and Java, in Indonesia. There are other tuning systems such as degung (exclusive to Sunda, or West Java), and madenda (also known as diatonis, similar to a European natural minor scale). Gamelan Degung is a Sundanese Musical ensemble that utilises a subset of modified Gamelan instruments with a particular mode of Pelog scale Minor Scale was a test conducted by the United States Defense Nuclear Agency (now part of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency) involving the detonation In central Javanese gamelan, sléndro is a system with five notes to the diapason (octave), fairly evenly spaced, while pélog has seven notes to the octave, with uneven intervals, usually played in five note subsets of the seven-tone collection. See also Whole-tone scale List of meantone intervals List of intervals in 5-limit just intonation In Music, an octave ( is the the use of which is "common in most musical systems This results in sound quite different from music played in a western tuning system. Many gamelan orchestras will include instruments in each tuning, but each individual instrument will only be able to play notes in one. The precise tuning used differs from ensemble to ensemble, and give each ensemble its own particular flavour. The intervals between notes in a scale are very close to identical for different instruments within each gamelan, but the intervals vary from one gamelan to the next.
Colin McPhee remarked, "Deviations in what is considered the same scale are so large that one might with reason state that there are as many scales as there are gamelans. Colin McPhee ( February 15, 1900, in Montreal or Toronto – January 7, 1964, in Los Angeles) was a " However, this view is contested by some teachers of gamelan, and there have been efforts to combine multiple ensembles and tuning structures into one gamelan to ease transportation at festival time. One such ensemble is gamelan Manikasanti, which can play the repertoire of many different ensembles.
Balinese gamelan instruments are commonly played in pairs which are tuned slightly apart to produce interference beats, ideally at a consistent speed for all pairs of notes in all registers. In physics interference is the addition ( superposition) of two or more Waves that result in a new wave pattern In Acoustics, a beat is an Interference between two Sounds of slightly different frequencies, perceived as periodic variations in volume whose It is thought that this contributes to the very "busy" and "shimmering" sound of gamelan ensembles. In the religious ceremonies that contain gamelan, these interference beats are meant to give the listener a feeling of a god's presence or a stepping stone to a meditative state.
Traditionally gamelan music is not notated, and began as an oral tradition. Oral tradition, oral culture and oral lore is a way for a society to transmit history, literature, law and other Knowledges However, in the 19th century the kratons of Yogyakarta and Surakarta developed distinct notations for transcribing the reportoire. These were not used to read the music, which was memorized, but to preserve pieces in the court records. The Yogyanese notation is a checkerboard notation, which uses six vertical lines to represent notes of higher pitch in the balungan (core melody), and horizontal lines which represent the series of beats, read downward with time. The balungan (skeleton frame is sometimes called the "core melody" of a Gamelan composition The fourth vertical line and every fourth horizontal line (completing a gatra) are darkened for legibility. is also the name of a popular Indonesian news magazine started in 1994 Symbols on the left indicate the colotomic structure of gongs and so forth, while specific drum features are notated in symbols to the right. Colotomy is a term coined by the Ethnomusicologist Jaap Kunst to describe the rhythmic patterns of the Gamelan. The Solonese notation reads horizontally, like Western notation, but does not use barlines. Instead, note values and rests are squiggled between the notes. 
Today this notation is relatively rare, and has been replaced by kepatihan notation, which is a cipher system. Kepatihan is a type of cipher Musical notation that was devised for notation of the Indonesian Gamelan. Kepatihan notation developed around 1900 at the kepatihan in Surakarta. Kepatihan is a type of cipher Musical notation that was devised for notation of the Indonesian Gamelan. The pitches are numbered (see the articles on the scales slendro and pélog for an explanation of how), and are read across with dots and lines indicating the register and time values. Slendro (called salendro by the Sundanese) is a Pentatonic scale, one of the two most common scales ( laras) used in Indonesian Pelog is one of the two essential scales of Gamelan music native to Bali and Java, in Indonesia. Like the palace notations, however, they record only the balungan part, and to a large extent what is heard relies on memorized patterns the performers call upon during performance. However, teachers have also devised certain notations, generally using kepatihan principles, for the cengkok (melodic patterns) of each elaborating instrument. Cengkok (old orthography chengkok) are patterns played by the Elaborating instruments in the Javanese Gamelan. The panerusan instruments or elaborating instruments are one of the divisions of instruments used in the Gamelan. In ethnomusicological studies, transcriptions are often made onto a Western staff, sometimes with unusual clefs. A clef (from the French for "key" is a musical symbol used to indicate the pitch of written notes. 
The gamelan has been appreciated by several western composers of classical music, most famously Claude Debussy who heard a Javanese gamelan play at the Paris Exposition of 1889 (World's Fair). Classical music is a broad term that usually refers to mainstream music produced in or rooted in the traditions of Western liturgical and Secular music Achille-Claude Debussy (aʃil klod dəbysi (August 22 1862 &ndash March 25 1918 was a French Composer. The Exposition Universelle of 1889 was a World's Fair held in Paris, France from May 6, to October 31, 1889. Expo (short for "exposition" and also known as World Fair and World's Fair) is the name given to various large public exhibitions held since the (The gamelan Debussy heard was in the slendro scale and was played by Central Javanese musicians. ) Despite his enthusiasm, direct citations of gamelan scales, melodies, rhythms, or ensemble textures have not been located in any of Debussy's own compositions. However, the equal-tempered whole tone scale appears in his music of this time and afterward, and a Javanese gamelan-like heterophonic texture is emulated on occasion, particularly in "Pagodes", from Estampes (solo piano, 1903), in which the great gong's cyclic punctuation is symbolized by a prominent perfect fifth. A major second () also called a whole step or a whole tone, is a Musical interval that occurs between the first and second degrees of a The gong ageng ( Kromo Javanese meaning large gong ngoko is gong gedhe) is the largest Gong in a Javanese and Balinese Gamelan. Colotomy is a term coined by the Ethnomusicologist Jaap Kunst to describe the rhythmic patterns of the Gamelan.
Direct homages to gamelan music are to be found in works for western instruments by Béla Bartók, Francis Poulenc, Olivier Messiaen, Colin McPhee, Benjamin Britten, Pat Metheny, and Steve Reich. Béla Viktor János Bartók (March 25 1881&ndashSeptember 26 1945 was a Hungarian Composer and Pianist, considered to be one of the greatest See also, Rhône-Poulenc Francis Jean Marcel Poulenc (fʀɑ̃sis ʒɑ̃ maʀsɛl pulɛ̃k January 7, 1899 – January 30, Olivier Messiaen ( December 10 1908 &ndash April 27 1992 was a French Composer, organist and ornithologist. Colin McPhee ( February 15, 1900, in Montreal or Toronto – January 7, 1964, in Los Angeles) was a Edward Benjamin Britten Baron Britten, OM CH (22 November 1913 – 4 December 1976 was an English Composer, conductor, Patrick Bruce Metheny (born August 12, 1954 in Lee's Summit Missouri) is an American Jazz Guitarist and Composer WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3 In more recent times, American composers such as Barbara Benary, Philip Glass, Lou Harrison, Dennis Murphy, Loren Nerell, Michael Tenzer, Evan Ziporyn, Daniel James Wolf and Jody Diamond as well as Australian composers such as Peter Sculthorpe, Andrew Schultz and Ross Edwards have written several works with parts for gamelan instruments or full gamelan ensembles. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Barbara Benary (born April 6, 1946) is an American Composer and Ethnomusicologist specializing in Indonesian and Indian music WikipediaWikiProject Composers#Lead section --> Philip Glass (born January 31 Lou Silver Harrison ( May 14, 1917 &ndash February 2, 2003) was an American Dennis Murphy (born January 19, 1934) is a Composer, Musician, instrument maker Artist, and playwright Loren Nerell (born 1960 is a composer and performer of ambient American music and Balinese Gamelan. Michael Tenzer (born 1957) is a composer performer educator and scholar Evan Ziporyn (b Chicago Illinois, 1959) is an American Composer of post-minimalist music and music Daniel James Wolf (born September 13, 1961 in Upland California) is an American composer of serious music and a music scholar. Jody Diamond (b Pasadena, California, April 23, 1953) is an American Composer, performer writer publisher editor and For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Peter Joshua Sculthorpe AO OBE (born 29 April 1929 is a noted Australian Composer. Andrew Schultz (born in Adelaide, South Australia in August 1960 is an Australian classical composer. Ross Edwards (born 23 December 1943 is an Australian Composer of a wide variety of music including orchestral and chamber music choral music children's music I Nyoman Windha is among contemporary Indonesian composers that have written compositions using western instruments along with Gamelan. Hungarian composer György Ligeti wrote a piano étude called Galamb Borong influenced by gamelan. American folk guitarist John Fahey included elements of gamelan in many of his late-60s sound collages, and again in his 1997 collaboration with Cul de Sac, The Epiphany of Glenn Jones. John Fahey (February 28 1939 – February 22 2001 was an American Fingerstyle guitarist and composer who pioneered the steel-string guitar as a solo Cul de Sac are a Rock music group formed in 1990 in Boston Massachusetts and led by Guitarist Glenn Jones The experimental art-rock band King Crimson, while not using gamelan instruments, used interlocking rhythmic paired guitars that were influenced by gamelan. King Crimson is a Progressive rock band founded by guitarist Robert Fripp and drummer Michael Giles in 1969  Experimental pop groups The Residents, 23 Skidoo (whose 1984 album was even titled Urban Gamelan), Mouse on Mars, His Name Is Alive, Xiu Xiu, Macha and the Sun City Girls have used gamelan percussion. The Residents is an American Avant-garde music and Visual arts collective who have created over sixty albums created numerous musical short films 23 Skidoo are a British band playing a fusion of industrial experimental post-punk alternative dance rock and world music Mouse on Mars is a duo from Germany ( Jan St Werner, from Düsseldorf, and Andi Toma, from Köln) who have been making Electronic His Name Is Alive is an experimental rock band/ project from Livonia Michigan. Xiu Xiu (ʃuː ʃuː shoe-shoe) is an experimental indie band originally from and currently based in Oakland California, with time often Macha was an experimental Post-rock band from Athens Georgia comprised of brothers Josh McKay (multi-instrumentalist & ex- Aleka's Attic The Sun City Girls were a United States Experimental rock band formed in Phoenix Arizona in 1982. The gamelan has also been used by British multi-instrumentalist Mike Oldfield at least three times, "Woodhenge" (1979), "The Wind Chimes (Part II)" (1987) and "Nightshade" (2005). Michael Gordon Oldfield (born 15 May 1953 in Reading, Berkshire) is an English Multi-instrumentalist Musician
Recently, many Americans were first introduced to the sounds of gamelan by the popular anime film Akira. is a 1988 Japanese animated Film co-written and directed by Katsuhiro Otomo based on his manga of the same name Gamelan elements are used in this film to punctuate several exciting fight scenes, as well as to symbolize the emerging psychic powers of the tragic hero, Tetsuo. The gamelan in the film's score was performed by the members of the Japanese musical collective Geinoh Yamashirogumi. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Geinoh Yamashirogumi ( Japanese: 芸能山城組 Geinō Yamashirogumi) is a Japanese musical collective founded on January 19 1974 by Shoji Yamashiro Gamelan and kecak are also used in the soundtrack to the video game Secret of Mana. Secret of Mana, known in Japan as, is an Action role-playing game developed and published by Square (now Square Enix) for the Super Nintendo The musical soundtrack for the Sci Fi Channel series Battlestar Galactica features extensive use of the gamelan, particularly in the 3rd season , as do the Alexandre Desplat'a scores for Girl With A Pearl Earring and The Golden Compass. The Battlestar Galactica Science fiction franchise which began as a 1978 TV series, was "reimagined" in 2003 into a TV miniseries Alexandre Michel Desplat (born August 23[[ 961]] in Paris, France) is an Academy Award -nominated Golden Globe Award -winning Girl with a Pearl Earring is a 2003 United Kingdom / Luxembourg Drama film directed by Peter Webber. The Golden Compass is a Fantasy film based upon Northern Lights (published as The Golden Compass in the U
Arguably, links between electronic music and Gamelan can be drawn. Much electronic music is based around synthesised loops. Gamelan not only has cyclical patterns, but the sounds produced by certain gamelan instruments are not dissimilar to the sounds produced during FM Synthesis.
The most recent use of gamelan was in the prodigy's song 'hot ride'. this combined the rhythms of modern dance music with a melody produced by the gamelan, another example is EXEC_PAJA/. #Orica extracting, a song sung by Haruka Shimotsuki as part of Ar tonelico: Melody of Elemia soundtracks, the song starts with gamelan melody. is a Japanese singer and Dōjin music composer known for her vocal themes in the Atelier Iris and Ar tonelico series Ar tonelico Melody of Elemia, known in Japan as is a PlayStation 2 Console role-playing game produced by Banpresto and