Autonomous Territorial Unit of Găgăuzia (Gagauz Yeri)
|Anthem: Gagauziya Milli Marşı|
Location of Gagauzia (purple)
(and largest city)
|Official languages||Gagauz, Moldovan (Romanian), Russian|
|-||Chairman of the|
|Autonomous region of Moldova|
|-||Created||April 23, 1994|
|-||Total||1,832 km² |
707 sq mi
220. The flag of Gagauzia has served as the republic's flag until the Collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 with slightly different colors and no Stars or Article 133 of the Organic Law of Gagauzia describes the coat of arms of Gagauzia as follows- The coat of arms represents an image of heraldic shield on the lower A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history traditions and struggles of its people recognized either by a nation's Comrat ( Gagauz: Komrat; Комрат / Komrat) is a City in Moldova and the capital of the autonomous region of Gagauzia An official language is a Language that is given a special legal status in a particular Country, State, or other territory The Gagauz language ( Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, spoken by the Gagauz people, and the official language of Gagauzia, Republic History and politics Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. A governor is a governing official usually the executive (at least nominally to different degrees also politically and administratively of a non-sovereign level of government An autonomous area is an area of a Country that has a degree of Autonomy, or freedom from an external authority Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Events 215 BC - A temple is built on the Capitoline Hill dedicated to Venus Erycina to commemorate the Roman defeat at Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) Area is a Quantity expressing the two- Dimensional size of a defined part of a Surface, typically a region bounded by a closed Curve. M^2 redirects here For other uses see M². CM2 redirects here The square mile is an imperial and US unit of Area equal the area of a square of one statute mile. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology Population density (in agriculture standing stock and Standing crop) is a measurement of Population per unit area or unit volume 1/sq mi
|Currency||Moldovan leu (|
|1||(Romanian) Population of the Republic of Moldova (January 1, 1996)|
Gagauzia (Gagauz: Gagauziya or Gagauz-Yeri; Romanian: Găgăuzia; Russian: Гагаузия), formally known as the Autonomous Territorial Unit of Găgăuzia (Gagauz Yeri) (Moldovan/Romanian: Unitatea Teritorială Autonomă Găgăuzia), is an autonomous region of Moldova. A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of Goods and/or services It is one form of Money, where money is The leu ( ISO 4217 code MDL is the Currency of Moldova. Like the Romanian leu, the Moldovan leu (pl ISO 4217 is the International standard describing three-letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established The Gagauz language ( Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, spoken by the Gagauz people, and the official language of Gagauzia, Republic Romanian or Daco-Romanian ( dated: Rumanian or Roumanian; self designation limba română, ˈlimba roˈmɨnə is a Romance Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages An autonomous area is an area of a Country that has a degree of Autonomy, or freedom from an external authority Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Its name derives from the word "Gagauz", which in turn derived from the name Gok-oguz used to describe descendants of the Turkic Oghuz tribe. The Gagauz is predominantly Eastern Orthodox Turkic ethnic group in southern Moldova ( Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine ( The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family The Oghuz (variously known as Ghuzz, Guozz, Kuz, Oguz, Oğuz, Okuz, Oufoi, Ouz, Ouzoi, A tribe, viewed historically or developmentally consists of a Social group existing before the development of or outside of States Many anthropologists use Crimean Tatars and Uyghurs used gok to mean "sky" or "sky blue", so Gok-oguz literally meant "sky-blue Oghuz". Crimean Tatars (sg Qırımtatar, pl Qırımtatarlar) or Crimeans (sg The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia.
The Gagauz people descend from the Seljuk Turks that settled in Dobruja, together with the Pechenegs, Uz (Oghuz) and Cuman (Kipchak) people that followed the Anatolian Seljuk Sultan Izzeddin Keykavus II (1236–76). The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in The Turkish people (Türk Halkı also known as " Turks " ( Türkler) are defined mainly as being speakers of Turkish as a First language The Pechenegs or Patzinaks ( Turkish: Peçenekler, Hungarian: Besenyő, Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi or Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι/Πατζινακίται The Oghuz (variously known as Ghuzz, Guozz, Kuz, Oguz, Oğuz, Okuz, Oufoi, Ouz, Ouzoi, Cumans (Кумани Byzantine: Kuman or Cuman, Kunok Turkic: Kumanlar) were a nomadic Turkic people who inhabited a The Seljuq (also Seljuq Turks, Seldjuks, Seldjuqs, Seljuks; in Turkish Selçuklular; in Ṣaljūqīyān; in Sultan (سلطان is an Islamic title with several historical meanings Kaykaus II or Kayka'us II ( Arabic / 'Izz al-Dīn Kaykā'ũs bin Kaykhusraw II More specifically, one clan of Oghuz Turks migrated to the Balkans during the inter-tribal conflicts with other Turks. This Oghuz Turk clan converted from Islam to Orthodox Christianity after settling in the Eastern Balkans (nowadays in Bulgaria) and were called Gagauz Turks. For other meanings including people named 'Islam' see Islam (disambiguation. The Eastern Orthodox Church is the second largest single Christian Communion in the world The state of Bulgaria (България transliterated bg-Latn ''Balgaria'' The country preserves the traditions (in ethnic name language and alphabet of the First Bulgarian
In, 1812, Bessarabia, previously eastern half of the Principality of Moldavia became part of the Russian Empire, and Nogai tribes that inhabited several villages in south Bessarabia (or Budjak) were forced to leave. Year 1812 ( MDCCCXII) a leap year started on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya The Nogai people (also written as Nogay or Noghai, and sometimes called Caucasian Mongols) are a Turkic ethnic group in northern Budjak or Budzhak is a historical region in the Odessa Oblast (province of Ukraine. Between 1812 and 1846, Russians settled the Gagauz people from what is nowadays eastern Bulgaria (which remained under Ottoman Empire) to the orthodox Bessarabia, mainly in the settlements vacated by the Nogai tribes. The Gagauz is predominantly Eastern Orthodox Turkic ethnic group in southern Moldova ( Gagauzia) and southwestern Ukraine ( The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Bessarabia ( Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian The Nogai people (also written as Nogay or Noghai, and sometimes called Caucasian Mongols) are a Turkic ethnic group in northern They settled there in parallel with Bessarabian Bulgarians in Avdarma, Comrat, Congaz, Tomai, Cişmichioi, and other former Nogai villages. The Bessarabian Bulgarians (бесарабски българи besarabski bǎlgari) are a Bulgarian minority group of the historical region of Bessarabia Comrat ( Gagauz: Komrat; Комрат / Komrat) is a City in Moldova and the capital of the autonomous region of Gagauzia Some Gagauz were also settled in the part of the Principality of Moldavia that did not come under Russian control in 1812, but within several years village by village moved to the compact area they inhabit today in the south of Bessarabia. Moldavia (Moldova is a geographic and historical region and former Principality in Eastern Europe, corresponding to the territory between Eastern Carpathians
With the exception of a five-day de facto independence in the winter of 1906, when a peasant uprising declared an autonomous Republic of Comrat, Gagauzians have been ruled by the Russian Empire (1812-1917), Romania (1918-1940 and 1941-1944), the Soviet Union (1940-1941 and 1944-1991), and Moldova (1917-1918 and 1991 to date). The Russian Empire ( Pre-reform Russian: Pоссійская Имперія Modern Russian: Российская Империя translit: Rossiyskaya Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania
Gagauzian nationalism remained an intellectual movement during the 1980s, but strengthened by the end of the decade, as the Soviet Union began to embrace democratic ideals. In 1988, activists from the local intelligentsia aligned with other ethnic minorities to create a movement known as the "Gagauz People". Year 1988 ( MCMLXXXVIII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar) A year later, the "Gagauz People" held its first assembly in which a resolution was passed to demand the creation an autonomous territory in southern Moldova, with the city of Comrat as its capital. Moldova, officially the Republic of Moldova ( Republica Moldova) is a Landlocked country in Eastern Europe, located between Romania Comrat ( Gagauz: Komrat; Комрат / Komrat) is a City in Moldova and the capital of the autonomous region of Gagauzia The Gagauzian national movement intensified when Romanian was accepted as the official language of the Republic of Moldova in August 1989, replacing Russian, the official language of the USSR. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 A part of the multiethnic population of southern Moldova regarded this decision with concern, precipitating a lack of confidence in the central government in Chişinău. Chişinău (kiʃi'nəw (also known as Kishinev, Кишинёв Kishinyov) is the capital and largest city of Moldova. The Gagauzians were also worried about the implications for them if Moldova reunited with Romania, as seemed increasingly likely at the time. In August 1990, Comrat declared itself an autonomous republic, but the Moldovan government annulled the declaration as unconstitutional. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) At that time, Stepan Topal emerged as the leader of the Gagauz national movement. Stepan Mikhailovich Topal ( Cyrillic: Степан Михайлович Топал (born 1938) is a Gagauz politician from Moldova.
Support for the Soviet Union remained high, with a referendum in March 1991 returning an almost unanimous vote in favour of remaining part of the USSR. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita The referendum, however, was boycotted by Moldovans in Gagauzia, as well as in the rest of Moldova. Many Gagauzians supported the Moscow coup attempt in August 1991, and Gagauzia declared itself independent on 19 August 1991, followed in September by Transnistria, thus further straining relations with Chişinău. The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt ( August 19 - August 21, 1991) also known as the August Putsch or August Coup was a three-day Events 43 BC - Octavian, later known as Augustus compels the Roman Senate to elect him Consul. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Transnistria, also known as Trans-Dniester, Transdniestria, and Pridnestrovie (full name Pridnestrovian However, when the Moldovan parliament voted on whether Moldova should become independent on 27 August 1991, six of the twelve Gagauz deputies in Moldovan parliament voted in favour, while the other six did not participate. Events 479 BC - Greco-Persian Wars: Persian forces led by Mardonius are routed by Pausanias, the Spartan Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. As a consequence, the Moldovan government toned down its pro-Romanian stance and paid more attention to minority rights. The term minority rights embodies two separate concepts first normal individual Rights as applied to members of racial Ethnic, class religious linguistic or
In February 1994, President Mircea Snegur promised the Gagauzians autonomy, but he was against outright independence. Mircea Ion Snegur (b January 17, 1940 - Trifăneşti, Soroca County was the first President of Moldova 1990-1997 He was also opposed to the suggestion that Moldova become a federal state made up of three republics, Moldova, Gagauzia, and Transnistria.
In 1994, the Parliament of Moldova awarded to "the people of Gagauzia" (through the adoption of the new Constitution of Moldova) the right of "external self-determination", should the status of the country change. In other words, if the case was that Moldova decided to join another country (by all accounts, that would be Romania), then the Gagauzians would be entitled to decide, by means of a self-determination referendum, whether to remain part of the new state or not. On December 23, 1994, the Parliament of the Republic of Moldova accepted the "Law on the Special Legal Status of Gagauzia" (Gagauz: Gagauz Yeri), resolving the dispute peacefully. Events 962 - Byzantine-Arab Wars: Under the future Emperor Nicephorus Phocas, Byzantine troops stormed the city Year 1994 ( MCMXCIV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display full 1994 Gregorian calendar) This date is now a Gagauzian holiday. Gagauzia is now a "national-territorial autonomous unit" with three official languages, Moldovan, Gagauz, and Russian. History and politics The Gagauz language ( Gagauz dili) is a Turkic language, spoken by the Gagauz people, and the official language of Gagauzia, Republic Russian ( transliteration:,) is the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages
Three cities and twenty-three communes were included in the Autonomous Gagauz Territory: all localities with over 50% of Gagauzians, and those localities with between 40% and 50% of Gagauzians, which expressed their desire to be included as a result of referendums to determine Gagauzia's borders. In 1995, Georgi Tabunshik was elected to serve as the Governor (Moldovan: Guvernator, Gagauz: Bashkan) of Gagauzia for a four-year term, as were the deputies of the local parliament, "The People's Assembly", with Peter Pashali as chairman.
Dumitru Croitor won the 1999 Governor elections and began to make use of the rights granted to the Governor by the 1994 agreement. The central authorities of Moldova proved unwilling to accept the results initiating a lengthy stand-off between the autonomy and Chişinău. Finally Croitor resigned in 2002 due to the pressure from the Moldovan government which accused him of abuse of authority, relations with the separatist authorities of Transnistria and other charges. Transnistria, also known as Trans-Dniester, Transdniestria, and Pridnestrovie (full name Pridnestrovian The central electoral commission of Gagauzia did not register Croitor as a candidate for the post of the Governor in the subsequent elections and Gheorgi Tabunshik was elected in what was described as unfair elections. 
Gagauzia consists of a main central part around the cities Comrat and Ceadîr-Lunga (Gagauz: Çadır-Lunga); one larger enclave around the city of Vulcăneşti; and two smaller enclaves, the villages of Copceac and Carbalia. Comrat ( Gagauz: Komrat; Комрат / Komrat) is a City in Moldova and the capital of the autonomous region of Gagauzia Ceadîr-Lunga (also spelled Ceadâr-Lunga; Gagauz: Çadır-Lunga) is a city in Gagauzia, Moldova.
Gagauzia consists of one municipality, two cities, and twenty-three communes containing a total of thirty-two localities. 
|a if different from official name.|
The autonomy of Gagauzia is guaranteed by the Moldovan constitution and regulated by the 1994 Gagauz Autonomy Act. If Moldova decided to unite with Romania, Gagauzia would have the right of self-determination. Romania ( dated: Rumania, Roumania  The Gagauzian People's Assembly (Adunarea Populară; Gagauz: Halk Topluşu) has a mandate for lawmaking powers within its own jurisdiction. This includes laws on education, culture, local development, budgetary and taxation issues, social security, and questions of territorial administration. The People's Assembly also has two special powers: it may participate in the formulation of Moldova's internal and foreign policy; and, should central regulations interfere with the jurisdiction of Gagauz-Yeri, it has the right of appeal to Moldova's Constitutional Court. A constitutional court is a high court that deals primarily with Constitutional law.
The highest official of Gagauzia, who heads the executive power structure, is the Governor of Gagauzia (Moldovan: Guvernatorul Găgăuziei; Gagauz: Bashkan). He or she is elected by popular suffrage for a four-year term. Suffrage (from the Latin suffragium, meaning "voting tablet" and figuratively "right to vote" probably from suffrago "hough" and originally He has power over all public administrative bodies of Gagauzia, and is also a member of the Government of the Republic of Moldova. Eligibility for governorship requires fluency in the Gagauz language, Moldovan citizenship, and a minimum age of 35 years.
Permanent executive power in Gagauz-Yeri is exercised by the Executive Committee (Comitetul Executivor Bakannik Komiteti). Its members are appointed by the Governor, or by a simple majority vote in the Assembly at its first session. The Committee ensures the application of the laws of the Republic of Moldova and those of the Assembly of Gagauz-Yeri.
As part of its autonomy, Gagauzia has its own police force. Police are agents or agencies usually of the executive, empowered to enforce the law and to effect public and social order through the legitimatized use of force 
The base of the Gagauzian economy is agriculture, particularly viticulture. Agriculture refers to the production of goods through the growing of plants and fungi and the raising of domesticated Animals The study of agriculture Viticulture (from the Latin word for Vine) is the Science, production and study of Grapes which deals with the series of The main export products are wine, sunflower oil, non-alcoholic beverages, wool, leather and textiles. Wine is an Alcoholic beverage made from the fermentation of Grape juice Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil expressed from Sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) seeds Wool is the fiber derived from the specialized skin cells called follicles of animals in the Caprinae family principally sheep, but the hair of certain species Leather is a material created through the Tanning of hides and Skins of Animals primarily Cattlehide The Tanning process A textile is a flexible material comprised of a network of natural or artificial Fibres often referred to as thread or Yarn. There are twelve wineries, processing over 400,000 tonnes annually. There are also two oil factories, two carpet factories, one meat factory, and one non-alcoholic beverages factory.
There are 451 kilometers of roads in Gagauzia, of which 82% are paved. Turkey loaned Moldova 35 million dollars to improve Gagauzia's road network. Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches
According to the 2004 census, Gagauzia had a population of 155,700, of which 58,300 lived in cities and 97,500 in rural communities.
Gagauzia has fifty-five schools, the Comrat Pedagogical College (high school+two years over high school), and Comrat State University (Universitatea de Stat din Comrat ). Ukrainians (Українці Ukrayintsi,) are an East Slavic Ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine, or more broadly— Citizens Turkey financed the creation of a Turkish cultural centre (Türk İşbirliği Ve Kalkınma İdaresi Başkanlığı) and a Turkish library (Atatürk Kütüphanesi). In the village of Beşalma, there is a Gagauz historical and ethnographical museum established by Dmitrii Kara Coban.