A GNOME 2. 20 desktop
|Developed by||GNOME developers|
|Latest release||2. A software developer is a person or organization concerned with facets of the software development process wider than design and coding a somewhat broader scope of A software release is the distribution whether public or private of an initial or new and upgraded version of a Computer software product 22. 2 / May 28, 2008|
|Available in||Multilingual (more than 35)|
|License||GNU Lesser General Public License|
GNU General Public License
GNOME is an international effort to build a complete desktop environment—the graphical user interface which sits on top of a computer operating system—entirely from free software. Events 585 BC - A Solar eclipse occurs as predicted by Greek philosopher and scientist Thales, while Alyattes is battling 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination In computing cross-platform (also known as multi-platform) is a term used to refer to Computer software or computing methods and concepts that are implemented A language is a dynamic set of visual auditory or tactile Symbols of Communication and the elements used to manipulate them Computer software can be organized into categories based on common function type or field of use In graphical computing a desktop environment ( DE) commonly refers to a style of Graphical user interface (GUI that is based on the Desktop metaphor which A software license (or software licence in commonwealth usage is a Legal instrument governing the usage or redistribution of copyright protected software The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a Free software license published by the Free Software A website (alternatively web site or Web site, a back-construction from the Proper noun World Wide Web) is a collection of Web pages In graphical computing a desktop environment ( DE) commonly refers to a style of Graphical user interface (GUI that is based on the Desktop metaphor which An operating system (commonly abbreviated OS and O/S) is the software component of a Computer system that is responsible for the management and coordination Free software or software libre is Software that can be used studied and modified without restriction and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified This goal includes creating software development frameworks, selecting application software for the desktop, and working on the programs which manage application launching, file handling, and window and task management. Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a Software product Application software is a subclass of Computer software that employs the capabilities of a computer directly and thoroughly to a task that the user wishes to perform
GNOME is part of the GNU Project and can be used with various Unix-like operating systems, most notably Linux, and as part of Java Desktop System in Solaris. The GNU Project is a Free software, Mass collaboration project announced in 1983 by Richard Stallman. A Unix-like (sometimes shortened to *nix) Operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system while not necessarily conforming Linux (commonly pronounced ˈlɪnəks Java Desktop System ( JDS) is a Desktop environment from Sun Microsystems, available for Solaris, and formerly Linux. Solaris is a Unix -based Operating system introduced by Sun Microsystems in 1992 as the successor to SunOS.
The official pronunciation of the name is IPA: /gəˈnoʊm/, with the “G” pronounced; although /ˈnoʊm/ (as in the English word "gnome", with a silent "G") is also in common usage. A gnome is a Mythical creature characterized by its extremely small size and subterranean lifestyle The name originally stood for GNU Network Object Model Environment, though this acronym is deprecated. 
|“||The GNOME project provides two things: The GNOME desktop environment, an intuitive and attractive desktop for users, and the GNOME development platform, an extensive framework for building applications that integrate into the rest of the desktop.||”|
— GNOME website
The GNOME project puts heavy emphasis on simplicity, usability, and making things “just work”. The other aims of the project are:
In 1996, the KDE project was started. KDE ( K Desktop Environment) (ˌkeɪdiːˈiː is a Free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use Desktop environment. Although KDE was free software, it relied on the then non-free Qt widget toolkit. Qt (pronounced "cute" by its creators is a Cross-platform application development framework widely used for the development of GUI programs (in which A widget toolkit, widget library, or GUI toolkit is a set of widgets for use in designing applications with Graphical user interfaces (GUIs Members of the GNU project became concerned with the use of such a toolkit for building a free software desktop environment. In August 1997, two projects were started in response to KDE: the Harmony toolkit (a free replacement for the Qt libraries) and GNOME (a different desktop without Qt and built entirely on top of free software). The Harmony toolkit is a never-completed Free software Widget toolkit that aimed to be API compatible with the then- proprietary Qt  The initial project leaders for GNOME were Miguel de Icaza and Federico Mena. Miguel de Icaza (born c 1972 is a Mexican Free software programmer best known for starting the GNOME and Mono projects Federico Mena Quintero is a Mexican Computer programmer. He wrote the GNOME Canvas while working at Red Hat.
In place of the Qt toolkit, GTK+ was chosen as the base of the GNOME desktop. GTK+, or The GIMP Toolkit, is a Cross-platform Widget toolkit for creating Graphical user interfaces It is one of the most popular toolkits GTK+ uses the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL), a free software license that allows GPL-incompatible software (including proprietary software) to link to it. The GNU Lesser General Public License (formerly the GNU Library General Public License) or LGPL is a Free software license published by the Free Software The GNOME desktop itself is licensed under the LGPL for its libraries, and the GPL for applications that are part of the GNOME project itself. Having the toolkit and libraries under the LGPL allows applications written for GNOME to use a much wider set of licenses (including proprietary software licenses). Proprietary software is Computer software on which the producer has set restrictions on use private modification copying, or republishing.  While Qt is dual-licensed under both the QPL and the GPL, the freedom to link proprietary software with GTK+ at no charge makes it differ from Qt. The Q Public License ( QPL) is a non- Copyleft Free software license created by Trolltech for its free edition of the Qt toolkit
The name “GNOME” was proposed as an acronym of GNU Network Object Model Environment by Elliot Lee, one of the authors of ORBit and the Object Activation Framework. In Physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved path of one object around a point or another body for example the gravitational orbit of a planet around a star It refers to GNOME’s original intention of creating a distributed object framework similar to Microsoft’s OLE. Distributed objects are software modules that are designed to work together but reside either in multiple Computers connected via a network or in different Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Computer technology Corporation, which rose to dominate the Home computer Object Linking and Embedding ( OLE) is a technology that allows embedding and linking to documents and other objects developed by Microsoft.  This no longer reflects the core vision of the GNOME project, and the full expansion of the name is now considered obsolete. As such, some members of the project advocate dropping the acronym and re-naming “GNOME” to “Gnome”. 
As with most free software projects, the GNOME project is loosely managed. Discussion chiefly occurs on a number of public mailing lists. 
In August 2000 the GNOME Foundation was set up to deal with administrative tasks and press interest and to act as a contact point for companies interested in developing GNOME software. The GNOME Foundation is a non-profit organization based in Cambridge Massachusetts, United States coordinating the efforts in the GNOME project While not directly involved in technical decisions, the Foundation does coordinate releases and decide which projects will be part of GNOME. Membership is open to anyone who has made a non-trivial contribution to the project.  Members of the Foundation elect a board of directors every November, and candidates for the positions must be members themselves.
Developers and users of GNOME gather at an annual meeting known as GUADEC in order to discuss the current state of the project and its future direction. The GNOME Users And Developers European Conference, ( GUADEC, also known as The GNOME Conference) is an annual conference taking place in Europe, whose 
GNOME often incorporates standards from freedesktop.org into itself to allow GNOME applications to appear more integrated into other desktops (and vice versa), and encourages cooperation as well as competition.
GNOME is built from a large number of different projects. A few of the major ones are listed below:
A number of language bindings are available allowing applications to be written in a variety of programming languages, such as C++ (gtkmm), Java (java-gnome), Ruby (ruby-gnome2), C#, (Gtk#), Python (PyGTK), Perl (gtk2-perl) and many others. In computing a binding from a language to a library or OS service is an API providing that service in the language C++ (" C Plus Plus " ˌsiːˌplʌsˈplʌs is a general-purpose Programming language. gtkmm ( gtk-- or gtk minus minus) is the official C++ interface for the popular GUI library GTK+. java-gnome is a set of Language bindings for the Java programming language, for use in the GNOME Desktop environment. Ruby is a dynamic, reflective, general purpose Object-oriented programming language that combines syntax inspired by Perl with Smalltalk C# (pronounced C Sharp is a Multi-paradigm Gtk# is a set of.NET bindings for the GTK+ GUI toolkit and assorted GNOME libraries. Python is a general-purpose High-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes programmer productivity and code readability PyGTK is a set of Python wrappers for the GTK+ GUI library. PyGTK is Free software NOTES FOR EDITORS "Perl" is not an acronym (read the "Name" section below GTK2-Perl is a set of Perl Wrappers for the GTK+ GUI library and the other GNOME platform libraries. The only languages currently used in applications that are part of an official GNOME desktop release are C, C# and Python. 
GNOME is designed around the traditional computing desktop metaphor. Mac OS X version 105 “Leopard” is the sixth major release of Mac OS X, Apple’s desktop and server Operating system for Macintosh The desktop metaphor is an Interface metaphor which is a set of unifying concepts used by Graphical user interfaces to help users more easily interact with the Its handling of windows, applications and files is similar to that of contemporary desktop operating systems. In its default configuration, the desktop has a launcher menu for quick access to installed programs and file locations; open windows may be accessed by a taskbar along the bottom of the screen and the top-right corner features a notification area for programs to display notices while running in the background. However these features can be moved to almost anywhere the user desires, replaced with other functions or removed altogether.
GNOME uses Metacity as its default window manager. Metacity ( rhyming with "capacity" with the stress on the second syllable is a Compositing window manager used by default in the GNOME Desktop Users can change the appearance of their desktop through the use of themes, which are sets consisting of an icon set, window manager border and GTK+ theme engine and parameters. An icon (from Greek εἰκών eikōn, "image" is a religious work of art most commonly a painting from Eastern Christianity. Popular GTK+ themes include Bluecurve and Clearlooks (the current default theme). Bluecurve is a Desktop theme for GNOME and KDE created by the Red Hat Artwork project Clearlooks is a theme engine for GTK+, the main Widget Toolkit used by the GNOME desktop environment
GNOME puts emphasis on being easy for everyone to use. The HIG helps guide developers in producing applications which look and behave similarly, in order to provide a cohesive GNOME interface.
Since GNOME v2. 0, a key focus of the project has been usability. As a part of this, the GNOME Human Interface Guidelines (HIG) were created, which is an extensive guide for creating quality, consistent and usable GUI programs, covering everything from GUI design to recommended pixel-based layout of widgets.
During the v2. 0 rewrite, many settings were deemed to be of little or no value to the majority of users and were removed. For instance, the preferences section of the Panel were reduced from a dialog of six tabs to one with two tabs. Havoc Pennington summarized the usability work in his 2002 essay "Free Software UI", emphasizing the idea that all preferences have a cost, and it's better to "unbreak the software" than to add a UI preference to do that:
|“||A traditional free software application is configurable so that it has the union of all features anyone's ever seen in any equivalent application on any other historical platform. Robert Sanford Havoc Pennington is well-known in the Free software community due to his work on GNOME, Metacity, GConf, and D-BUS Or even configurable to be the union of all applications that anyone's ever seen on any historical platform (Emacs *cough*). |
Does this hurt anything? Yes it does. It turns out that preferences have a cost. Of course, some preferences also have important benefits - and can be crucial interface features. But each one has a price, and you have to carefully consider its value. Many users and developers don't understand this, and end up with a lot of cost and little value for their preferences dollar.
Some people believe that GNOME should be more functional. One of these is Linus Torvalds, creator of the Linux kernel, who commented in a usability-related discussion on the GNOME usability mailing list:
|“||This "users are idiots, and are confused by functionality" mentality of Gnome is a disease. Linus Benedict Torvalds ( ˈtuːrvalds born December 28 1969 in Helsinki, Finland) is a Finnish software engineer Linux is an operating system kernel used by a family of Unix-like Operating systems These are popularly termed Linux operating systems and If you think your users are idiots, only idiots will use it. I don't use Gnome, because in striving to be simple, it has long since reached the point where it simply doesn't do what I need it to do. Please, just tell people to use KDE. KDE ( K Desktop Environment) (ˌkeɪdiːˈiː is a Free software project which aims to be a powerful system for an easy-to-use Desktop environment.||”|
Each of the parts making up the GNOME project has its own version number and release schedule. However, individual module maintainers coordinate their efforts to create a full GNOME stable release on a roughly six-month schedule.
The releases listed in the table below are classed as stable. A software release is the distribution whether public or private of an initial or new and upgraded version of a Computer software product
|August 1997||GNOME development announced|
|1. 0||March 1999 ||First major GNOME release|
|1. 0. 53||October 1999 ||"October"|
|1. 2||May 2000 ||"Bongo"|
|1. 4||April 2001 ||"Tranquility"|
|2. 0||June 2002 ||Major upgrade based on GTK2. Introduction of the Human Interface Guidelines. Human interface guidelines (HIG are Software development documents which offer application developers a set of recommendations|
|2. 2||February 2003 ||Multimedia and file manager improvements.|
|2. 4||September 2003 ||"Temujin": Epiphany, accessibility support. Epiphany is a Web browser for the GNOME graphical computing desktop|
|2. 6||March 2004 ||Nautilus changes to a spatial file manager, and a new GTK+ file dialog is introduced. Nautilus is the official File manager for the GNOME desktop The name is a play on words evoking the shell of a Nautilus to represent an In computing a spatial file manager is a File manager that uses a spatial Metaphor to represent Files and Folders as if they are real physical In computing a file dialog (also called File Selector/Chooser file requester or open and save dialog is a Dialog box that allows users to choose a file from the A short-lived fork of GNOME, GoneME, is created as a response to the changes in this version.|
|2. 8||September 2004 ||Improved removable device support, adds Evolution. Evolution or Novell Evolution (formerly Ximian Evolution, prior to Novell 's 2003 acquisition of Ximian) is the official Personal information|
|2. 10||March 2005 ||Lower memory requirements and performance improvements. Adds: new panel applets (modem control, drive mounter and trashcan); and the Totem and Sound Juicer applications|
|2. Totem is a Free software media player (audio and video for the GNOME Computer Desktop environment which runs on Linux, Sound Juicer is an application Front-End to the Cdparanoia CD ripping library 12||September 2005 ||Nautilus improvements; improvements in cut/paste between applications and freedesktop. org integration. Adds: Evince PDF viewer; New default theme: Clearlooks; menu editor; keyring manager and admin tools. Evince is a document viewer for PDF, PostScript, DjVu, TIFF and DVI documents for the GNOME Desktop environment Based on GTK+ 2. 8 with cairo support.|
|2. 14||March 2006 ||Performance improvements (over 100% in some cases); usability improvements in user preferences; GStreamer 0. 10 multimedia framework. Adds: Ekiga video conferencing application; Deskbar search tool; Pessulus lockdown editor; Fast user switching; Sabayon system administration tool. Ekiga (formerly called GnomeMeeting) is a free and open source VoIP and Video conferencing application for GNOME A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive Telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact Fast user switching is a feature on some modern Multi-user Operating systems such as Windows XP,|
|2. 16||September 2006 ||Performance improvements. Adds: Tomboy notetaking application; Baobab disk usage analyser; Orca screen reader; GNOME Power Manager (improving laptop battery life); improvements to Totem, Nautilus; compositing support for Metacity; new icon theme. Tomboy is a free and Open-source desktop Notetaking application for Unix -like systems written in C# using Gtk#. Baobab, or Disk Usage Analyzer, is a GNOME graphical disk-space analyzer Orca is a open source flexible extensible Assistive technology for people with visual impairments Compositing is the combining of visual elements from separate sources into single images often to create the illusion that all those elements are parts of the same scene Based on GTK+ 2. 10 with new print dialog.|
|2. 18||March 2007 ||Performance improvements. Adds: Seahorse GPG security application, allowing encryption of emails and local files; Baobab disk usage analyser improved to support ring chart view; Orca screen reader; improvements to Evince, Epiphany and GNOME Power Manager, Volume control; two new games, GNOME Sudoku and glchess. Seahorse is a GNOME Front-end application for managing PGP and SSH keys. MP3 and AAC audio encoding.|
|2. 20||September 2007 ||Tenth anniversary release. Evolution backup functionality; improvements in Epiphany, EOG, GNOME Power Manager; password keyring management in Seahorse. A keyring is a ring usually made of Metal or Plastic, that holds keys and other small items which are sometimes connected to Keychains Adds: PDF forms editing in Evince; integrated search in the file manager dialogs; automatic multimedia codec installer. A codec is a device or program capable of encoding and/or decoding a Digital Data stream or signal.|
|2. 22||March 2008 ||Addition of Cheese, a tool for taking photos from webcams and Remote Desktop Viewer; basic window compositing support in Metacity; introduction of GVFS; improved playback support for DVDs and Youtube, MythTV support in Totem; internationalised clock applet; Google Calendar support and message tagging in Evolution; improvements in Evince, Tomboy, Sound Juicer and Calculator. Cheese is a GNOME webcam application Photo Booth -like It was developed as a Google Summer of Code 2007 project by Daniel G Vinagre is a VNC client for the GNOME Desktop environment. It is slated for inclusion in GNOME 2 Metacity ( rhyming with "capacity" with the stress on the second syllable is a Compositing window manager used by default in the GNOME Desktop GVFS is a replacement for GnomeVFS, the GNOME Virtual File System Totem is a Free software media player (audio and video for the GNOME Computer Desktop environment which runs on Linux, Evolution or Novell Evolution (formerly Ximian Evolution, prior to Novell 's 2003 acquisition of Ximian) is the official Personal information Evince is a document viewer for PDF, PostScript, DjVu, TIFF and DVI documents for the GNOME Desktop environment Tomboy is a free and Open-source desktop Notetaking application for Unix -like systems written in C# using Gtk#. Sound Juicer is an application Front-End to the Cdparanoia CD ripping library|
|2. 24||September 2008||Better GNOME panel theming, integration of bookmarks and browsing history for GNOME-wide access, and new applet library for GNOME panel, new version of Ekiga featuring a revamped user interface and SIP presence support, Empathy instant messaging client utilising the Telepathy communications framework, column and list views in Nautilus, completion of the port from GnomeVFS to GIO. Ekiga (formerly called GnomeMeeting) is a free and open source VoIP and Video conferencing application for GNOME The Session Initiation Protocol ( SIP) is a signalling protocol widely used for setting up and tearing down Multimedia Communication sessions Empathy is a re-usable collection of Graphical User Interface widgets for developing instant messaging clients for the GNOME desktop. Telepathy is a Software framework which can be used to make software for interpersonal communications such as Instant messaging, Voice over IP or Nautilus is the official File manager for the GNOME desktop The name is a play on words evoking the shell of a Nautilus to represent an GnomeVFS is short for GNOME Virtual File System It provides an abstraction layer for the reading writing and execution of files GVFS is a replacement for GnomeVFS, the GNOME Virtual File System |
GNOME releases are made to the ftp. gnome. org FTP server in the form of source code with configure scripts, which are compiled by operating system vendors and integrated with the rest of their systems before distribution. In Computer science, source code (commonly just source or code) is any sequence of statements or declarations written in some Human-readable Configure scripts are an automated method of modifying Source code before compilation in order to produce code tailored to the system on which a binary Executable Most vendors use only stable and tested versions of GNOME, and provide it in the form of easily installed, pre-compiled packages. The source code of every stable and development version of GNOME is stored in the GNOME Subversion source code repository. Subversion ( SVN) is a version control system initiated in 2000 by CollabNet Inc 
A number of build-scripts (such as JHBuild or GARNOME) are available to help automate the process of compiling the source code. "Scripting" redirects here For other uses see Script. JHBuild is a program that can be used to pull a number of modules from CVS, git, Subversion, arch, Bazaar, Darcs GARNOME is a build utility for the GNOME Desktop It began as a project to allow users to build the GNOME desktop without falling victim to the depravities of CVS non-standard
There are many sub-projects under the umbrella of the GNOME project, and not all of them are currently included in GNOME releases. Some are considered purely experimental concepts, or for testing ideas that will one day migrate into stable GNOME applications; others are code that is being polished for direct inclusion. Some examples include:
GNOME is the default desktop environment for several Linux distributions, most notably Debian, Fedora and Ubuntu. Debian ( pronounced) is a computer Operating system composed entirely of Free and open source software. The Fedora Operating system is an RPM -based general purpose Linux distribution, developed by the community-supported Fedora Project and sponsored Ubuntu Kubuntu Edubuntu Xubuntu Gobuntu --> Ubuntu Foresight Linux showcases the latest releases of GNOME.
For derived and other distributions, see Comparison of Linux distributions and Comparison of Linux LiveDistros. Technical variations of Linux distributions include support for different hardware devices and systems or software package configurations