The Göktürkler(s) or Köktürkler(s) were a Turkic people of ancient Central Asia. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes The Uyghur Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national Capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist the capital was moved or the capital Ötüken is one of the names given to Mother Earth in Tengriism. For the government of parliamentary systems see Executive (government. An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family Central Asia is a region of Asia from the Caspian Sea in the west to central China in the east and from southern Russia in the north to northern Pakistan in the south Known in medieval Chinese sources as Tujue (突厥 Tūjué), the Göktürks under the leadership of Bumin Khan (d. China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National Bumin Khan (death 552 AD was the founder of the Göktürk Empire. 552) and his sons succeeded the Xiongnu as the main Turkic power in the region and took hold of the lucrative Silk Road trade. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the
The Göktürk rulers originated from the Ashina tribe, an Altaic people who lived in the northern corner of the area presently called Xinjiang. Ashina ( Asen, Asena, etc was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turks who rose to prominence in the mid- 6th century when their leader Altaic peoples are peoples who speak the Altaic languages. Their looks differ from east to west Xinjiang ( Uyghur: شىنجاڭ Shinjang;; Postal map spelling: Sinkiang; Turkish: Sincan, Sincan Uygur Özerk Under their leadership, the Göktürks rapidly expanded to rule huge territories in north-western China, North Asia and Eastern Europe (as far west as the Crimea). China ( Wade-Giles ( Mandarin) Chung¹kuo² is a cultural region, an ancient Civilization, and depending on perspective a National North Asia or Northern Asia is sometimes defined as a Subregion of Asia consisting only of the Asian portion of Russia. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым They were the first Turkic tribe known to use the name "Turk" as a political name.
The state's most famous personalities other than its founder Bumin were princes Kül Tigin and Bilge and the General Tonyukuk, whose life stories were recorded in the famous Orkhon inscriptions. Kul Tigin ( Kül (Köl Gül Göl Tigin (Tegin Kul Khan Bengü İnançu Apa Tarkan) 闕特勒 (685 - 731 or 732 CE was a famous general of the Second Turkic Kaganate Tonyukuk 暾欲谷(died c 724 AD was the Yabgu and Commander-in-chief of four Göktürk Khagans the best known of whom is Bilge Khan The Old Turkic script (also Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script; Turkish: Orhun Yazıtları, 鄂爾渾文字
The name Tujue (like that of Ashina) appeared in Chinese sources relatively late, the first record being dated 542 meaning "strong" or "powerful". Ashina ( Asen, Asena, etc was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turks who rose to prominence in the mid- 6th century when their leader Events By Place Byzantine Empire An outbreak of the plague kills at least 230000 in Constantinople (before they stopped  Kök-Türks is said to mean "Celestial Turks", but this is contested. Alternate meanings are "Blue Turks", and "Numerous Turks"; as kök meant both "sky" and "blue" in the Köktürk language, and a similar sounding word stands for "root". This is also consistent with "the cult of heavenly ordained rule" which was a pivotal element of the Altaic political culture before being imported to China.  Similarly, the name of the ruling Ashina dynasty probably derives from the Khotanese Saka term for "deep blue", āšše(i)na. The Sakas ( English form of Old Iranian Sakā, Nominative plural masculine case; Ancient Greek Σάκαι,  The name might also derive from a Tungusic tribe related to Aisin. Aisin Gioro was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo) 
According to the ancient East Asian cosmology outlined in the theory of the Five Elements (五行 Wǔ-xíng), to which the Turks have also ascribed since ancient times, the color blue is a symbol representing the eastern direction, and it is associated with good omens. Cosmology (from Greek grc κοσμολογία - grc κόσμος kosmos, "universe" and grc -λογία -logia) is study In traditional Chinese philosophy, natural phenomena can be classified into the Wu Xing ( or the Five Phases, usually translated as five elements, The Guardian Deity of the Eastern Direction is the Azure Dragon. The Azure Dragon (青龍 青竜 青龙 is one of the Four Symbols of the Chinese constellations It is sometimes called the Azure Dragon of the East Thus, it would not be surprising if the Göktürks had chosen to call themselves "Blue Turks" in the primary sense of "East Turks", with all the associated connotations of "first," "rising," "dawning," "auspicious," and so forth. Göktürk is pronounced IPA: [ɡʲøkʲˈtʏɾk].
Four hundred years after the collapse of northern Xiongnu power in Inner Asia, leadership of the Turks was taken over by the Göktürks after rebelling against the Rouran. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes The Turkic peoples are Eurasian peoples residing in northern central and western Eurasia who speak languages belonging to the Turkic language family Rouran ( Wade-Giles: Jou-jan) Ruanruan/Ruru ( also known as Tan Tan ( was the name of a confederation of Nomadic tribes on Formerly an element of the Xiongnu nomadic confederation, the Göktürks inherited their traditions and administrative experience. From 552 to 745, Göktürk leadership bound together the nomadic Turkic tribes into an empire, which eventually collapsed due to a series of dynastic conflicts. Events By Place Europe Battle of Asfeld: Longobards under king Audoin defeat the Gepids. The New 745 Bio Sunnyland Ill - 745 — “Turning your wildest dreams into nightmares Nomadic people, (from the νομάδες nomádes, "those who let pasture herds" also known as nomads, are communities of people that The great difference between the Göktürk Khanate and its Xiongnu predecessor was that the Göktürks' temporary khans from the Ashina clan were subordinate to a sovereign authority that was left in the hands of a council of tribal chiefs. Ashina ( Asen, Asena, etc was a tribe and the ruling dynasty of the ancient Turks who rose to prominence in the mid- 6th century when their leader Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself The Khanate received missionaries from the Buddhists, Manicheans, and Nestorian Christians, but retained their original shamanistic religion, Tengriism. Khanate or Chanat is a Turkic origined word used to describe a political entity ruled by a Khan. Buddhism is a family of beliefs and practices Manichaeism (in Modern Persian fa-Arab آیین مانی Āyin e Māni; Chinese zh 摩尼教 was one of the major Gnostic Religions originating Nestorius Nestorius (c  386 &ndashc  451) was a pupil of Theodore of Mopsuestia in Antioch in Syria (modern Tengriism ( Tengerism, Tengrianism, Tengrianizm, Tengricilik) was the major belief of the Mongols and Turkic peoples before The Göktürks were the first Turkic people to write their language in a runic script. Old Turkic (also East Old Turkic, Orkhon Turkic, Old Uyghur) is the earliest attested Turkic language, found in inscriptions by the The Old Turkic script (also Göktürk script, Orkhon script, Orkhon-Yenisey script; Turkish: Orhun Yazıtları, 鄂爾渾文字
The Turks' rise to power began in 546 when Bumin Khan made a pre-emptive strike against the Uyghur and Tiele tribes who were planning a revolt against their overlords, the Rouran. Events By Place Byzantine Empire December 17 — The Ostrogoths under Totila retake Rome, bribing Bumin Khan (death 552 AD was the founder of the Göktürk Empire. The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. The Dingling (丁零 or Gaoche (高車 Chile (敕勒, Tiele (鐵勒 were an ancient Siberian people Rouran ( Wade-Giles: Jou-jan) Ruanruan/Ruru ( also known as Tan Tan ( was the name of a confederation of Nomadic tribes on For this service he expected to be rewarded with a Rouran princess, i. e. marry into the royal family. Disappointed in his hopes, Bumin allied with the Wei state against Rouran, their common enemy. The Western Wèi Dynasty (Chinese西魏 followed the disintegration of the Northern Wei, and ruled northern China from 535 to 556. In 552, Bumin defeated the last Rouran Khan, Yujiulü Anagui. Events By Place Europe Battle of Asfeld: Longobards under king Audoin defeat the Gepids. Rouran ( Wade-Giles: Jou-jan) Ruanruan/Ruru ( also known as Tan Tan ( was the name of a confederation of Nomadic tribes on Yujiulü Anagui (郁久閭阿那瓌 Pinyin: Yùjiǔlǘ Ānàgūi (?- 552) khan of the Rouran ( 520 - 552) with the title of Chiliantoubingdoufa He also subdued the Yenisei Kyrgyz and the Khitans of Western Manchuria, was formally recognized by China, and married the Wei princess Changle. Yenisei (Енисе́й is the greatest River system flowing to the Arctic Ocean, and at 5539 km (3445 mi is the fifth longest river in the world The Kyrgyz (also spelled Kirgiz, Kirghiz) are a Turkic Ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast
Having excelled both in battle and diplomacy Bumin declared himself Il-Qaghan ("great king of kings") of the new Göktürk empire at Otukan, the old Xiongnu capital, but died a year later. For other titles related to and uses of Khan, see that article Origin The title King of Kings is a lofty title that has been used by several monarchies (usually empires in the informal sense of great powers throughout history and in many cases the literal title Ötüken is one of the names given to Mother Earth in Tengriism. The Xiongnu ( Turkish: Doğu Hun were a confederation of nomadic tribes from Central Asia with a ruling class of unknown origin and other subjugated tribes It was his son Mukhan who consolidated his conquests into an empire of global reach. Muhan Khan (other spellings include Muhan Mohan Mukan Mukhan Mokhan Sijin Muchu Qaghan Bek Khan, 木杆 was the second son of Bumin Khan and the third Bumin's brother Istämi (d. Istämi was the ruler of the western part of the Göktürks, the Western Turkic Khaganate and dominated the Sogdians He succeeded his brother Bumin 576) was titled yabghu of the west and collaborated with the Persian Sassanids to defeat and destroy the White Huns, who were allies of the Rouran. For the tv standard see 576i Events The Gokturks besiege Panticapaeum in the Crimea. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iran topics. The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire The Hephthalites or White Huns were a Central Asian Nomadic confederation whose precise origins and composition remain obscure This war tightened the Ashina's grip of the Silk Road and drove the Avars into Europe. The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the The Caucasian Avars are a modern people of Caucasus, mainly of Dagestan.
Istämi's policy of western expansion brought the Turks into Eastern Europe. Eastern Europe is a general term that refers to the Geopolitical region encompassing the easternmost part of the European continent. In 576 the Göktürks crossed the Cimmerian Bosporus into the Crimea. Cimmerian Bosporus redirects here For the ancient state see Bosporan Kingdom; for its rulers see Kings of Cimmerian Bosporus. Crimea (kraɪˈmiːə or the Autonomous Republic of Crimea (Крим Автономна Республіка Крим Avtonomna Respublika Krym; Крым Five years later they laid siege to Tauric Chersonesus; their cavalry kept roaming the steppes of Crimea until 590.  As for the southern borders, they were drawn south of the Oxus River, bringing the Ashina into conflict with their former allies, the Sassanids of Persia. The Amu Darya (formerly Oxus River the Greeks (Ptolemeus called it Oxiana palus) is the longest river in Central Asia. Much of Bactria (including Balkh) remained a dependency of the Ashina until the end of the century. "Bactrian" redirects here For the camel see Bactrian camel. Balkh ( - Balḫ) also known as Bactra, was once a major world city but was destroyed entirely by the Mongols. . In 588 they were under the walls of Herat but Bahram Chobin ably countered the invasion during the First Perso-Turkic War. area3018 sq mi Herāt ( classically called the Aria, is a city in western Afghanistan, in the province also known as Herāt. Bahram Chobin (Chubin Chobina (in Persian بهرام چوبین was a famous Eran spahbod (military commander during Khosrau II 's rule in Sassanid The First Perso-Turkic War was fought in 588 CE between the Sassanid Persians and the Western Turkic Khaganate and its vassals mainly the Hephthalites.
In the eastern part of their extensive dominions, the Göktürk Empire maintained close political ties with the Goguryeo Empire of Korea which controlled southern Manchuria and the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula, southern Manchuria, and Korea is a geographic area composed of two sovereign countries a civilization and a former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. Manchuria ( Romanized Manchu: Manju,, Маньчжурия Mongolian: Манж is a historical name given to a vast geographic region in northeast Physical geography See also Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea Mountains cover 70 percent of the Korean Peninsula and arable plains are Giving gifts, providing military support, and free trade were some of the benefits of this close mutual alliance. Both rival states in north China paid large tributes to the Göktürks from 581. Events By Place Europe Tauric Chersonesus is besieged by the Gokturks.
This first Göktürk Empire split in two after the death of the fourth Qaghan, Taspar Khan (ca. Taspar Khan ( Tabo Tuobo Tapo Khan, 佗鉢 was the third son of Bumin Khan and Wei Changle (長樂公主 and the fourth Khagan of the first Göktürk 584). Events By Place Europe Andeca deposes and kills Eboric to become king of the Suevi. He had willed the title Qaghan to Mukhan's son Talopien, but the high council appointed Ishbara in his stead. For other titles related to and uses of Khan, see that article Origin The title Shetu or Ishbara (alternative spellings Ïshbara Shapolo Shaboüle Efu-Khan Shetu-Khan, 沙鉢略可汗 was the first son of Kara Khan, grandson of Factions formed around both leaders. Before long four rival khans claimed the title of Qaghan. They were successfully played off against each other by the Sui and Tang dynasties of China. The Sui Dynasty ( 581 - 618 AD and in the undertaking of other construction projects including the reconstruction of the Great Wall. The Tang Dynasty ( Middle Chinese: dhɑng (June 18 618&ndashJune 4 907 was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui Dynasty and followed by
The most serious contender was the Western Khan, Istämi's son Tardu, a violent and ambitious man who had already declared himself independent from the Qaghan after his father's death. He now titled himself as Qaghan, and led an army to the east to claim the seat of imperial power, Otukan. Ötüken is one of the names given to Mother Earth in Tengriism.
In order to buttress his position, Ishbara of the Eastern Khanate applied to the Chinese Emperor Yangdi for protection. Tardu attacked Changan, the Sui capital, around 600, demanding from Emperor Yangdi to end his interference in the civil war. Chang'an ( is an ancient Capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history. Events By Place World The population of the Earth rises to about 208 million people In retaliation, Chinese diplomacy successfully incited a revolt of Tardu's Tiele vassal tribes, which led to the end of Tardu's reign in 603. The Dingling (丁零 or Gaoche (高車 Chile (敕勒, Tiele (鐵勒 were an ancient Siberian people A vassal (also called feodary or fedary) in the terminology that both preceded and accompanied the feudalism of Medieval Europe, Events By Place Europe Battle of Degsastan: Æthelfrith of Bernicia defeats Áedán mac Gabráin of Among the dissident tribes were the Uyghur and Syr-Tardush.
The civil war left the empire divided into the eastern and western parts. The eastern part, still ruled from Ötüken, remained in the orbit of the Sui Empire and retained the name Göktürk. The khans Shipi (609-19) and Khieli (620-30) of the East attacked China at its weakest moment during the transition between the Sui and Tang dynasties. Shibi or Tujieli (Tuochich shipi ship-qaghan 始畢可汗 Duojishi 咄吉世 611 - 619 AD succeeded Kimen khagan as the ninth Khagan of the Jiali Khan ( Bagatur-Shad Il-khan Chieli Kara-Khieli Hieli Jiele Duobi 咄苾 Illig-Qaghan Kara Kagan) later Tang posthumous title Prince Huang of Guiyi (歸義荒王 All in all, 67 incursions on Chinese territories were recorded.  Khieli was brought down by a revolt of his Tiele vassal tribes (626-630), allied with Emperor Taizong of Tang. The Dingling (丁零 or Gaoche (高車 Chile (敕勒, Tiele (鐵勒 were an ancient Siberian people Events By Place Byzantine Empire The Byzantines defeat the Avars and Slavs, who were besieging Constantinople Events By Place Byzantine Empire Serbs settle in the Balkans having been invited by the Byzantine emperor Heraclius Emperor Taizong of Tang ( January 23, 599 &ndash July 10 649) personal name Lǐ Shìmín ( was the second emperor of the This tribal alliance figures in Chinese records as the Huihe (Uyghur). The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. After the Khan was taken prisoner, the Tang dynasty had his empire divided into protectorates.
The Western khans Shekuei and Tung Yabğu constructed an alliance with the Byzantine Empire against the Persian Sassanids and succeeded in restoring the southern borders along the Tarim and Oxus rivers. The Western Turkic Khaganate was formed as a result of the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century ( 600 – 603 AD after the Göktürk Tong Yabghu (d 628 (also known as T'ung Yabghu, Ton Yabghu, Tong Yabghu Khagan, Tun Yabghu, and The Sassanid Empire or Sassanian Dynasty or Sassanian Dynasty (ساسانیان) is the name used for the third Iranian dynasty and the second Persian empire Tarim River ( Mandarin Tǎlǐmù Hé, 塔里木河 is the principal River of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the People's Republic of The Amu Darya (formerly Oxus River the Greeks (Ptolemeus called it Oxiana palus) is the longest river in Central Asia. Their capital was Suyab in the Chui River valley, about 60 km east of modern Tokmok. Suyab ( also known as Ordukent, modern-day Ak-Beshim) was an ancient Silk Road city located some 60 km north east from Bishkek, and 6 km southeast The Chu (or Chui or Chuy) (Чу Чүй Шу is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan. Tokmok (Токмок Tokmok; Токмак Tokmak) is a city of about 60654 (2008 (according to other data "over 58000" in northern Kyrgyzstan In 627 Tung Yabğu, assisted by the Khazars and Emperor Heraclius, launched a massive invasion of Transcaucasia which culminated in the taking of Derbent and Tbilisi (see the Third Perso-Turkic War for details). "Kazar" redirects here for the Marvel Comics character see Ka-Zar; for the village in Azerbaijan see Xəzər. Heraclius, or Herakleios (Flavius Heraclius Augustus;) (c 575 - February 11, 641) was a Byzantine Emperor, who ruled the East The South Caucasus is a mountainous geopolitical area of south-central Eurasia, also referred to as Transcaucasia, or The Transcaucasus. Derbent (Дербе́нт Azeri: Dərbənd; Lezgian: Дербент Avar: Дербенд; Persian: دربند Darband Tbilisi (ˌtbiˈliːsi in Georgian: თბილისი is the capital and the largest city of the Republic of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Mt'k'vari The Third Perso-Turkic War was the third and final conflict between the Sassanian Empire and the Western Turkic Khaganate. In April 630 Tung's deputy Buri-sad sent the Göktürk cavalry to invade Armenia, where his general Chorpan Tarkhan succeeded in routing a large Persian force. Buri-shad ("Wolf Prince" was a title of an appointed head of province-type principality in the most-western N Armenia (Հայաստան transliterated: Hayastan,) officially the Republic of Armenia (Հայաստանի Հանրապետություն Hayastani Chorpan Tarkhan is recorded by Moses of Kalankatuyk as a Khazar general "bloodthirsty and vile" who invaded and devastated Armenia in April Tung Yabğu's murder in 630 forced the Göktürks to evacuate Transcaucasia.
The Western Turkic Khaganate was modernized through an administrative reform of Ishbara-Qağan (reigned 634-639) and came to be known as the Onoq. The Western Turkic Khaganate was formed as a result of the internecine wars in the beginning of the 7th century ( 600 – 603 AD after the Göktürk  The name refers to "ten arrows" that were granted by the khagan to five leaders (shads) of its two constituent tribal confederations, Tulu and Nushipi, whose lands were divided by the Chui River. The Chu (or Chui or Chuy) (Чу Чүй Шу is a river in northern Kyrgyzstan and southern Kazakhstan.  The division fostered the growth of separatist tendencies, and soon the Bulgarian tribes under the Dulo chieftain Kubrat seceded from the khaganate. Old Great Bulgaria or Great Bulgaria (Стара Велика България Παλαιά Μεγάλη Βουλγαρία in Byzantine chronicles alternative Kubrat or Kurt (Кубрат Χουβρατις was a Bulgar ruler credited with establishing the confederation of Old Great Bulgaria in 632 In 657, the eastern part of the khaganate was overrun by the Tang general Su Ding Fang, while the central part had emerged as the independent khaganate of Khazaria, led by a branch of the Ashina dynasty. Events By Place Asia The Chinese Tang Dynasty under Emperor Gaozong of Tang defeats a Turkish army Su Dingfang ( 591-667 formal name Su Lie (蘇烈 but went by the Courtesy name of Dingfang formally Duke Zhuang of Xing (邢莊公 was a general "Kazar" redirects here for the Marvel Comics character see Ka-Zar; for the village in Azerbaijan see Xəzər.
In 659 the Tang Emperor of China could claim to rule the entire Silk Road as far as Po-sse (Persia). This article is about a year Events By Place Europe Ealdormen in Mercia rebel against Northumbrian rule and The Silk Road, or Silk Routes, are an extensive interconnected network of Trade routes across the Asian continent connecting East South and Western Asia with the The Persian Empire was a series of Iranian empires that ruled over the Iranian plateau, the original Persian homeland and beyond in Western Asia The Turks now carried Chinese titles and fought by their side in their wars. The era spanning from 659-681 was characterized by numerous independent rulers - weak, divided, and engaged in constant petty wars. In the east, the Uyghurs defeated their one-time allies the Syr-Tardush, while in the west the Turgesh emerged as successors to the Onoq. Xueyantuo (薛延陀 or Syr-Tardush were an ancient Tiele people and Khanate in central/northern Asia who were at one point vassals of The Turgesh Kaganate (also Türgesh, Turgish or Türgish - known as Tuchishi in Chinese were a Turkic tribal confederation who emerged
Despite all the setbacks, Ilteriş Şad (Idat) and his brother Bäkçor Qapağan Khan (Mo-ch'o) succeeded in reestablishing the Khanate. Ilteris Sad, personal name Ashina Gudulu (阿史那骨篤祿 (d Qapaghan Khaghan (or Ashina Mo-ch'o, Ashina Mochuo r 694-716 was the second Khaghan of the Second Gokturk Empire, and brother of In 681 they revolted against Chinese domination and, over the following decades, steadily gained control of the steppes beyond the Great Wall of China. In physical Geography, a steppe ( German, from степь - "a flat and arid land" степ - /stɛp/ тал - tal дала - /dɑlɑ/ pronounced The Great Wall of China ( or ( is a series of stone and earthen Fortifications in China, built rebuilt and maintained between the 6th century BC and the 16th By 705, they had expanded as far south as Samarkand and threatened the Arab control of Transoxiana. Alternate meanings Area code 705; Project 705; Life 705 Events By Place Asia February 20 Samarkand (Samarqand Самарқанд سمرقند UniPers: "Samarqand" is the second-largest city in Uzbekistan and the capital of The araB gene Promoter is a bacterial promoter activated by e L-arabinose binding Transoxiana (sometimes spelled Transoxania "河中“Chinese / Ma Wara'un-Nahr ( Arabic: ما وراء النهر / Farārood (فرارود The Göktürks clashed with the Umayyad Califate in a series of battles (712-713) but, again, the Arabs emerged as victors. A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfa) is the political leadership of the Muslim community in classical and medieval Islamic history
Following the Ashina tradition, the power of the Second Empire was centered on Ötükän (the upper reaches of the Orkhon River). Ötüken is one of the names given to Mother Earth in Tengriism. The Orkhon River (Орхон гол Orkhon gol) is a River in Mongolia. This polity was described by historians as "the joint enterprise of the Ashina clan and the Soghdians, with large numbers of Chinese bureaucrats being involved as well". History Hellenistic period The Sogdian Rock or Rock of Ariamazes a fortress in Sogdiana was captured in 327 BC by the forces of Alexander the Great  The son of Ilteriş, Bilge, was also a strong leader, the one whose deeds were recorded in the Orkhon inscriptions. After his death in 734 the empire declined. Events Births Deaths Bilge Khan, Göktürk emperor Map-bms734 Zh-yue734年 The Göktürks ultimately fell victim to a series of internal crises and renewed Chinese campaigns.
When Kutluk Khan of the Uyghurs allied himself with the Karluks and Basmyls, the power of the Göktürks was very much on the wane. The Uyghur (also spelled Uygur, Uighur, Uigur, Uyghur: ئۇيغۇر) are a Turkic people of Central Asia. The Karluks (obs Qarluqs, Qarluks, Karluqs, Arab/Persian Halluh,, customary phonetic Gelolu, Gelu, Khololo Basmyls ( Basmyl; Basmals, Basmils, Chinese Basimi Baximi) were a Türkic nomadic tribe mostly known in Dzungaria (present In 744 Kutluk seized Ötükän and beheaded the last Göktürk khagan Özmish Khan, whose head was sent to the Chinese court.  In a space of few years, the Uyghurs gained mastery of Inner Asia and established the Uyghur Khaganate. The Uyghur