In automotive design, an FR, or Front-engine, Rear-wheel drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear. A front-mounted engine describes the placement of an Automobile engine in front of the vehicle passenger compartment The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the Combustion of Fuel and an Oxidizer (typically air occurs in a confined space called a This was the traditional automobile layout for most of the 20th century. 
The FR layout is often chosen for its simple design and good handling characteristics. Placing the drive wheels at the rear allows ample room for the transmission in the center of the vehicle and avoids the mechanical complexities associated with transmitting power to the front wheels. For performance-oriented vehicles, the FR layout is more suitable than front-wheel drive designs, especially with engines that exceed 200 horsepower. This is because weight transfers to the rear of the vehicle during acceleration, which loads the rear wheels and increases their grip.
Another advantage of the FR layout is relatively easy access to the engine compartment, as result of the longitudinal orientation of the drivetrain, as compared to the FF layout (front-engine, front-wheel drive). In Automotive design, a FF, or Front-engine, Front-wheel drive layout places both the engine and driven wheels at the front of
The FMR layout is based on the FR layout. In Automotive design, a FMR, or Front Mid-engine, Rear-wheel drive layout is one that places the engine in the front as in the
The first FR car was an 1895 Panhard model, so this layout was known as the "Système Panhard" in the early years. Panhard is now a French manufacturer of light tactical and military vehicles Most American cars used the FR layout until the mid 1980s. The Oil crisis of the 1970s and the success of small FF cars like the Mini, Volkswagen Golf, and Honda Civic led to the widespread adoption of that layout. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of The Mini is a small car that was produced by the British Motor Corporation (BMC and its successors from 1959 until 2000 The Volkswagen Golf or VW Golf ( Mk1 and Mk5 badged as Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada, Mk1 badged as Volkswagen The Honda Civic is a line of subcompact / Compact cars manufactured by Honda.
Some manufacturers, such as Alfa Romeo, Porsche (944, 924, 928) and Chevrolet (C5 and C6 Corvettes), retained this layout but moved the gearbox from behind the engine to between the rear wheels, putting more weight over the driven axle. This configuration is often referred to as a transaxle since the transmission and axle are one unit. A transaxle, in the Automotive field is a component that combines the functionality of the '''trans'''mission, the differential and the drive
After the Arab Oil Embargo of 1973 and the 1979 fuel crises, a majority of American FR vehicles (station wagons, luxury sedans) were phased out for the FF layout - this trend would spawn the SUV/van conversion market. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17 1973 when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC consisting of the Arab members of Throughout the 1980s and 1990s, most American companies set as a priority the eventual removal of rear-wheel drive from their mainstream and luxury lineup.  Chrysler went 100% FF by 1990 and GM's American production went entirely FF by 1997 except the Corvette and Camaro. The Chevrolet Corvette is a Sports car that has been manufactured by General Motors since 1953 The Chevrolet Camaro is a " Pony car " made in North America by the Chevrolet Motor Division of General Motors. Ford's full-size cars (the Ford Crown Victoria, Mercury Grand Marquis, and Lincoln Town Car) have always been FR, as was the Ford Mustang and Lincoln LS. The Ford Crown Victoria is the current model name Ford uses for the Rear-wheel drive full-size car first produced by the Ford Motor Company for The Mercury Grand Marquis is a Full-size Rear-wheel drive sedan sold by the Mercury division of the Ford Motor Company. The Lincoln Town Car is a Full-size, Rear-wheel drive luxury sedan sold by Ford's upscale Lincoln brand The Ford Mustang sports coupe, manufactured by the Ford Motor Company, was initially based on the Ford Falcon The Lincoln LS (for "Luxury Sport" was a Mid-size, Rear wheel drive entry-level Luxury car from Lincoln.
In Australia, FR cars have remained popular throughout this period, with the Holden Commodore and Ford Falcon having consistently strong sales. The Holden Commodore is an Automobile manufactured by the Holden division of General Motors (GM in Australia and formerly in New Zealand The Ford Falcon is a Full-size car which has been manufactured by Ford Australia since 1960 In Europe, front-wheel drive was popularized by small cars like the Mini, Renault 5 and Volkswagen Golf and adopted for virtually all mainstream cars. The Mini is a small car that was produced by the British Motor Corporation (BMC and its successors from 1959 until 2000 The Renault 5 (also called the R5 was a supermini produced by the French automaker Renault in two generations between 1972 and 1996 The Volkswagen Golf or VW Golf ( Mk1 and Mk5 badged as Volkswagen Rabbit in the United States and Canada, Mk1 badged as Volkswagen Upscale marques like Mercedes-Benz, BMW, and Jaguar remained mostly independent of this trend, and retained a lineup mostly or entirely made up of FR cars. Mercedes-Benz is a German manufacturer of luxury Automobiles Buses coaches and Trucks It is currently a division of the ( BMW) (Bavarian Motor Works is an independent German automobile manufacturer founded in 1916 Jaguar Cars Limited is a luxury car manufacturer based in Coventry, England, now operated as part of the Jaguar Land Rover business  Japanese mainstream marques such as Toyota and Honda became mostly or entirely FF early on, while reserving for their latterly-conceived luxury divisions (Lexus and Acura, respectively) a mostly FR lineup. (pronounced) is a Multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and is currently the world's largest Automaker. () is a Multinational corporation, engine Manufacturer and engineering corporation headquartered in Japan. is the Luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Toyota Motor Corporation. Acura (アキュラ Akyura is the luxury vehicle division of Japanese automaker Honda Motor Company.
Currently most cars are FF, including virtually all front-engined economy cars, though FR cars are making a return as an alternative to large sport-utility vehicles. In North America, GM returned to production of the FR luxury car with the 2003 Cadillac CTS, and with the removal of the DTS, Cadillac will be entirely FR (with four-wheel drive available as an option on several models) by 2010, and the 2009 Camaro returns as a FR sports car. The CTS is a mid size Luxury car made by General Motors for the Cadillac brand The Cadillac DTS (DeVille Touring Sedan is a Full-size luxury sedan from the Cadillac luxury division of General Motors. In Automotive design, an F4, or Front-engine, Four-wheel drive layout places the engine at the front of the vehicle and drives Chrysler returned its full-size cars to this layout with the Chrysler 300 and related models. Chrysler LLC is an American Automobile manufacturer that has been producing Automobiles since 1925 A full-size car is a Marketing term used in North America for an Automobile larger than a Mid-size car. The Chrysler 300 is a Full-size car designed by Haitian-Canadian Ralph Gilles.  Ford never eliminated FR cars, but is looking to replace the dated designs that it currently has.