Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (April 24, 1870 - October 16, 1948) was a German General from Nuremberg. Events 1479 BC - Thutmose III ascends to the throne of Egypt, although power effectively shifts to Hatshepsut (according to Year 1870 ( MDCCCLXX) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Events 456 - Magister militum Ricimer defeats the Emperor Avitus at Piacenza and becomes master of the western Year 1948 ( MCMXLVIII) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. He was a member of the group of German officers who assisted in the direction of the Ottoman Army during World War I. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All
Kress von Kressenstein was part of Otto Liman von Sanders military mission to Turkey. Generalleutnant Otto Liman von Sanders ( February 17, 1855 - August 22, 1929) was a German general who served as adviser This German mission arrived in Turkey shortly before World War I broke out.
He joined Djemal Pasha's army in Palestine as a military engineer and later chief of staff. Ahmed Djemal Pasha (Ahmet Cemal Paşa (May 6 1872 - July 21 1922 was a prominent Young Turk, and member of the Three Pashas. Djemal Pasha was given the job by the Turkish leader Enver Pasha of capturing or disabling the Suez Canal. İsmail Enver ( Ottoman Turkish: اسماعيل انور ( November 22, 1881 in Constantinople - August 4 The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation This effort is called the First Suez Offensive and it occurred in January 1915. Prelude Following Egypt's entry into the war in support of the British considerations had to be made regarding two threats the anti-British sentiment felt by many Arab citizens Year 1915 ( MCMXV) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Kress von Kressenstein was responsible for creating special boats for crossing the canal (pontoons) as well as organizing the crossing of the Sinai desert. The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء While the desert was crossed with little loss of life, the British were aware of their approach and their attack on the Suez came as no surprise to the defenders. The Turkish forces were repulsed easily and after two days of fighting, they retreated. Kress von Kressenstein's special pontoons were never used.
More than a year passed when the Turks tried a second attack on the Suez. With Djemal Pasha directing affairs from his base in Damascus, Kress von Kressenstein led a larger Ottoman army across the Sinai desert, again. Damascus ( دمشق,, also commonly known as الشام ash-Shām) is the capital and largest city of Syria. This attack ran into a strong British defensive fortification at Romani, some 25 miles east of the canal. The Ottoman army prepared a major set-piece assault on Romani, scheduled for August 3, 1916 (see the Battle of Romani for a detailed description). Events 8 - Roman Empire General Tiberius defeats Dalmatians on the river Bathinus. Year 1916 ( MCMXVI) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year Prelude The Ottoman army goal for the first attack was to control or destroy the Suez Canal thereby denying the use of the waterway to the Allies and in doing so aiding the The attack was beaten off and again the Turks retreated back to their bases in Palestine.
The British responded with an attack of their own. They captured some small Turkish forts in the Sinai, built a railroad and water pipe across the desert and then launched an assault on the Ottoman fort at Gaza. Kress von Kressenstein was in charge of the Ottoman defences along with an Ottoman General Tala Bey. In the First Battle of Gaza (March 1917), the British were defeated, largely due to their own errors. The First Battle of Gaza was a World War I battle on the southern border of Palestine. In the Second Battle of Gaza in April of 1917, the British were defeated again, the credit for this victory largely going to Kress von Kressenstein. The Second Battle of Gaza, fought in southern Palestine during World War I, was the second attempt mounted by British Empire forces to break the
The British removed their unsuccessful generals and replaced them with General Allenby. The Ottomans also replaced their top leadership, bringing in the former Chief of the German General Staff, General von Falkenhayn. Erich von Falkenhayn ( 11 September 1861 &ndash 8 April 1922) was a German Soldier and Chief of the General Staff Kress von Kressenstein was kept on as commander of the Turkish 8th Army defending Gaza and he was also awarded Prussia's highest order, the Pour le Mérite. The Pour le Mérite, known informally during World War I as the Blue Max (Blauer Max was the Kingdom of Prussia 's highest military order until
In November of 1917, the British under General Allenby shattered the Ottoman defensive positions at the Battle of Beersheba and the Third Battle of Gaza. The Battle of Beersheba took place on 31 October 1917, as part of the Sinai and Palestine campaign during World War I. The Third Battle of Gaza was fought in 1917 in southern Palestine during World War I. Kress von Kressenstein was able to withdraw his defeated troops in fairly good order to new defensive positions in the north.
In the middle of 1918, with the Ottoman-German alliance breaking down, Kress von Kressenstein was sent with a small German force to Georgia, that was protected by Germany after its independence. The German Caucasus Expedition was a military expedition sent by the German Empire to the formerly Russian Transcaucasia during the World War I Georgia ( საქართველო, Sakartvelo) is a Transcontinental country in the Caucasus region situated at the dividing line between He helped to frustrate the Red Army's invasion of Abkhazia. The Red Army ( Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия R aboche- K rest'yanskaya K rasnaya A rmiya Abkhazia (Аҧсны Apsny აფხაზეთი Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti Абха́зия Abhazia) is a De facto
He retired from the German army in 1929 and died in Munich in 1948.
He wrote at least one paper 'The Campaign in Palestine from the Enemy's Side' published in the Royal United Services Institute Journal. The Royal United Services Institute (in full the Royal United Services Institute for Defence and Security Studies and commonly abbreviated to RUSI) is a British