France had colonial possessions, in various forms, from the beginning of the 17th century until the 1960s. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. This article is about a type of political territory For other uses see Colony (disambiguation. In the 19th and 20th centuries, its global colonial empire was the second largest behind the British Empire. A global empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over territories all around the World. The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. At its peak, between 1919 and 1939, the second French colonial empire extended over 12,347,000 km² (4,767,000 sq. miles) of land. Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty reached 12,898,000 km² (4,980,000 sq. Metropolitan France (France métropolitaine or la Métropole, or colloquially l'Hexagone) is the part of France located in Europe, including Sovereignty is the exclusive Right to control a Government, a country, a people or oneself miles) in the 1920s and 1930s, which is 8. 6% of the world's land area.
Currently, the remnants of this large empire are various islands and archipelagos located in the North Atlantic, the Caribbean, the Indian Ocean, the South Pacific, the North Pacific, and the Antarctic Ocean, as well as one mainland territory in South America, totaling altogether 123,150 km² (47,548 sq. An empire (from the Latin " Imperium " denoting military Command within the ancient Roman government) is a State that An archipelago (ɑrkəˈpɛləgoʊ is a chain or cluster of Islands The word archipelago literally means "chief Sea " from Italian The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's Oceanic divisions covering about 20% of the water on the Earth 's surface The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions The Southern Ocean, also known as the Great Southern Ocean, the Antarctic Ocean and the South Polar Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of South America is a Continent of the Americas, situated entirely in the Western Hemisphere and mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a miles), which amounts to only 1% of the pre-1939 French colonial empire's area, with 2,564,000 people living in them in 2007. All of these enjoy full political representation at the national level, as well as varying degrees of legislative autonomy. (See Administrative divisions of France. |||} Metropolitan France As of January 1, 2008, Metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including Corsica, although )
The early voyages of Giovanni da Verrazzano and Jacques Cartier in the early 16th century, as well as the frequent voyages of French fishermen to the Grand Banks off Newfoundland throughout that century, were the precursors to the story of France's colonial expansion. Giovanni da Verrazzano (c 1485 &ndash c 1528 was an Italian Explorer of North America, in the service of the French crown. Jacques Cartier (December 31 1491&ndashSeptember 1 1557 was a French explorer who claimed what is now Canada for France Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of But Spain's jealous protection of its American monopoly, and the disruptions caused in France itself by the Wars of Religion in the later 16th century, prevented any consistent efforts by France to establish colonies. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The French Wars of Religion (1562 to 1598 between French Catholics and Protestants ( Huguenots involved both civil infighting Early French attempts to found colonies in Brazil, in 1555 at Rio de Janeiro ("France Antarctique") and in 1612 at São Luís ("France Équinoxiale"), and in Florida (including Fort Caroline in 1562) were not successful, due to a lack of official interest and to Portuguese and Spanish vigilance. |utc_offset = -2 to -4 |time_zone_DST = BRST |utc_offset_DST = -2 to -5 |cctld Rio de Janeiro ("River of January" ˈhiw dʒi ʒʌˈnejɾu in Brazilian Portuguese, /ˈriːoʊ di ʒəˈnɛroʊ/ in English is the second largest city of Brazil France Antarctique was the name of the failed French Colony south of the Equator, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, which existed Equinoctial France was the contemporary name given to the colonization efforts of France in the 17th century in South America, around the line of Equator, before " Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the Fort Caroline was the first French colony in the present-day United States. Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa is a country on the Iberian Peninsula. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula.
The story of France's colonial empire truly began on July 27, 1605, with the foundation of Port Royal in the colony of Acadia in North America, in what is now Nova Scotia, Canada. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Port Royal is a small rural community in the western part of the Canadian province of Nova Scotia. The Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture ( ACADIA) is a Non-profit organization active in the area of Computer-aided architectural design Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page A few years later, in 1608, Samuel De Champlain founded Quebec, which was to become the capital of the enormous, but sparsely settled, fur-trading colony of New France (also called Canada). Samuel de Champlain (c 1575 - 25 December 1635) "The Father of New France " was a French navigator geographer cartographer Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page
Although, through alliances with various Native American tribes, the French were able to exert a loose control over much of the North American continent, areas of French settlement were generally limited to the St. Lawrence River Valley. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States Saint Lawrence River (in French: fleuve Saint-Laurent; Kahnawáˀkye in Tuscarora, Kaniatarowanenneh meaning big waterway Prior to the establishment of the 1663 Sovereign Council, the territories of New France were developed as mercantile colonies. The Sovereign Council of New France was a political body appointed by the King of France and consisting of a Governor General an intendant and a bishop of the It is only after the arrival of intendant Jean Talon in 1665 that France gave its American colonies the proper means to develop population colonies comparable to that of the British. Jean Talon Comte d'Orsainville (1625 baptised 8 January 1626 &ndash November 1694 was a French colonial administrator who was the first and most But there was relatively little interest in colonialism in France, which concentrated rather on dominance within Europe, and for most of the history of New France, even Canada was far behind the British North American colonies in both population and economic development. British North America consisted of the colonies and territories of the British Empire in continental North America after the end of the American Revolutionary Acadia itself was lost to the British in the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The Treaty of Utrecht that established the Peace of Utrecht, rather than a single document comprised a series of individual peace treaties signed in the Dutch
In 1699, French territorial claims in North America expanded still further, with the foundation of Louisiana in the basin of the Mississippi River. Louisiana (La celina+mario) was the name of an administrative district of New France. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The extensive trading network throughout the region connected to Canada through the Great Lakes, was maintained through a vast system of fortifications, many of them centered in the Illinois Country and in present-day Arkansas. The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The Illinois Country ( Pays des Illinois) was the name used in the 17th century and afterwards to refer to an undefined region centered around present day southwest Arkansas ( is a state located in the southern region of the United States.
As the French empire in North America grew, the French also began to build a smaller but more profitable empire in the West Indies. The Caribbean (ˌkærəˡbiən kæ'rəbiən Cariben|Caraïben or Caraïben; Caraïbe or more commonly Antilles; Caribe is a Region consisting Settlement along the South American coast in what is today French Guiana began in 1624, and a colony was founded on Saint Kitts in 1625 (the island had to be shared with the English until the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, when it was ceded outright). French Guiana (Guyane française officially fr ''Guyane'' is an Overseas department (French département d'outre-mer, or DOM) of France Saint Kitts (also known more formally as Saint Christopher Island ( Saint-Christophe in French) is an Island in the West Indies The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique founded colonies in Guadeloupe and Martinique in 1635, and a colony was later founded on Saint Lucia by (1650). The Compagnie des Îles de l'Amérique, French for Company of the American Islands, was a French Chartered company which colonized the following Caribbean islands Guadeloupe is an island group or Archipelago located in the eastern Caribbean Sea at, with a land area of 1628 square kilometres (629  sq Martinique is an Island in the eastern Caribbean Sea, having a land area of 1128 km² Saint Lucia (ˌseɪnt ˈluːʃɪə is an Island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. The food-producing plantations of these colonies were built and sustained through slavery, with the supply of slaves dependent on the African slave trade. As a social-economic system slavery is a legal institution under which a Person (called "a slave" is compelled to work for another This article discusses systems of slavery within Africa the history and effects of the slavery trade upon Africa Local resistance by the indigenous peoples resulted in the Carib Expulsion of 1660. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. The Carib Expulsion was the Ethnic cleansing of the Carib population which took place in 1660 on the Caribbean island of
The most important Caribbean colonial possession did not come until 1664, when the colony of Saint-Domingue (today's Haiti) was founded on the western half of the Spanish island of Hispaniola. Saint-Domingue was a French Colony on the Caribbean island of Hispaniola from 1659 to 1804 when it became the independent nation of Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of In the 18th century, Saint-Domingue grew to be the richest sugar colony in the Caribbean. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. The eastern half of Hispaniola (today's Dominican Republic) also came under French rule for a short period, after being given to France by Spain in 1795. The Dominican Republic ( Spanish: República Dominicana;) is a nation located in the Caribbean region and shares the island of Hispaniola with
French colonial expansion was not limited to the New World, however. The New World is one of the names used for the non-Eurasian/non-African parts of the Earth specifically the Americas and Australia. In Senegal in West Africa, the French began to establish trading posts along the coast in 1624. Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. West Africa or Western Africa is the Westernmost Region of the African Continent. In 1664, the French East India Company was established to compete for trade in the east. The French East India Company ( French: La Compagnie française des Indes orientales or Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a The Far East is a term often used by people in the Western world to refer to the countries of East Asia. Colonies were established in India in Chandernagore (1673) and Pondicherry in the Southeast (1674), and later at Yanam (1723), Mahe (1725), and Karikal (1739) (see French India). India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Chandannagar, formerly known as Chandernagore or Chandernagar (Chandernagor (চন্দননগর Chôndonnôgor) is a small city and former French Puducherry (formerly; புதுச்சேரி or பாண்டிச்சேரி పాండిచెర్రి പുതുശ്ശേരി Pondichéry is a See also Caracal WikipediaWikiProject Indian cities for details --> Karaikal (also Karikal or Karaikkal) is a city and a French India is a general name for the former French possessions in India. Colonies were also founded in the Indian Ocean, on the Île de Bourbon (Réunion, 1664), Île de France (Mauritius, 1718), and the Seychelles (1756). Réunion ( French: Réunion or formally La Réunion; previously Île Bourbon) is an island located in the Indian Ocean, east of Mauritius (pronounced məˈrɪʃəs L’île Maurice /il mɔ'ʁis/ Mauritian Creole: Maurice) officially the Republic of Mauritius, République Seychelles (seɪˈʃɛl or /seɪˈʃɛlz/ in English and seʃɛl in French) officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles Creole
In the mid-18th century, a series of colonial conflicts began between France and Britain, which would ultimately result in the demise of most of the first French colonial empire. The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 These wars were the War of the Austrian Succession (1744–1748), the Seven Years' War (1756–1763), the War of the American Revolution (1778–1783), and the French Revolution (1793–1802) and Napoleonic (1803-1815) Wars. The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748 involved nearly all the powers of Europe The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of major conflicts from 1792 until 1802 fought between the French Revolutionary government and several European states The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions It may even be seen further back in time to the first of the French and Indian Wars. The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied This recurrent conflict is known as the so-called Second Hundred Years' War. The Second Hundred Years' War is a phrase used by some Historians ref>Buffinton Arthur H
Although the War of the Austrian Succession was indecisive — despite French successes in India under the French Governor-General Joseph François Dupleix — the Seven Years' War, after early French successes in Minorca and North America, saw a French defeat, with the numerically superior British (over one million to about 50 thousand French settlers) conquering not only New France (excluding the small islands of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon), but also most of France's West Indian (Caribbean) colonies, and all of the French Indian outposts. Joseph François Dupleix ( January 1, 1697 – November 10, 1763) was governor general of the French establishment in India Minorca ( Catalan and Spanish: Menorca; from Latin Balearis Minor, later Minorica "minor island" is one of the The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the The Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is a group of small islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, the French India is a general name for the former French possessions in India. While the peace treaty saw France's Indian outposts, and the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe restored to France, the competition for influence in India had been won by the British, and North America was entirely lost — most of New France was taken by Britain (also referred to as British North America, except Louisiana, which France ceded to Spain as payment for Spain's late entrance into the war (and as compensation for Britain's annexation of Spanish Florida). The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the British North America consisted of the colonies and territories of the British Empire in continental North America after the end of the American Revolutionary Also ceded to the British were Grenada and Saint Lucia in the West Indies. Grenada (grɪˈneɪdə is an Island nation that includes the southern Grenadines in the southeastern Caribbean Sea. Saint Lucia (ˌseɪnt ˈluːʃɪə is an Island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Although the loss of Canada would cause much regret in future generations, it excited little unhappiness at the time; colonialism was widely regarded as both unimportant to France, and immoral.
Some recovery of the French colonial empire was made during the French intervention in the American Revolution, with Saint Lucia being returned to France by the Treaty of Paris in 1783, but not nearly as much as had been hoped for at the time of French intervention. France, despite its financial difficulties used the occasion of the American Revolutionary War (1776–1781 to weaken its arch-rival in European and world The Treaty of Paris, signed on September 3, 1783, and approved by the Congress of the Confederation on January 14, 1784, formally True disaster came to what remained of France's colonial empire in 1791 when Saint Domingue (comprised of the Western third of the Caribbean island of Hispaniola ), France's richest and most important colony, was riven by a massive slave revolt, caused partly by the divisions among the island's elite, which had resulted from the French Revolution of 1789. Hispaniola (from Spanish, La Española) is the second-largest and most populous Island of the Antilles, lying between the islands of The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an The slaves, led eventually by Toussaint Louverture and then, following his capture by the French in 1801, by Jean-Jacques Dessalines, held their own against French, Spanish, and British opponents, and ultimately achieved independence as Haiti in 1804 (Haiti became the first black republic in the world, much earlier than any of the future African nations). François-Dominique Toussaint Louverture Jean-Jacques Dessalines ( September 20, 1758 – 17 October 1806 was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and the first ruler of an independent Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: In the meanwhile, the newly resumed war with Britain by the French, resulted in the British capture of practically all remaining French colonies. These were restored at the Peace of Amiens in 1802, but when war resumed in 1803, the British soon recaptured them. The Treaty of Amiens temporarily ended the hostilities between France and the United Kingdom during the French Revolutionary Wars. France's repurchase of Louisiana in 1800 came to nothing, as the final success of the Haitian revolt convinced Bonaparte that holding Louisiana would not be worth the cost, leading to its sale to the United States in 1803 (the Louisiana Purchase). Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For the film see Louisiana Purchase (film. The Louisiana Purchase (French Vente de la Louisiane "Louisiana Sale" Nor was the French attempt to establish a colony in Egypt in 1798–1801 successful. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics.
At the close of the Napoleonic Wars, most of France's colonies were restored to it by Britain, notably Guadeloupe and Martinique in the West Indies, French Guiana on the coast of South America, various trading posts in Senegal, the Île Bourbon (Réunion) in the Indian Ocean, and France's tiny Indian possessions. The Napoleonic Wars (1803-1815 involved Napoleon's French Empire and a shifting set of European allies and opposing coalitions The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was the formal name of the United Kingdom from 1 January 1801 until 12 April 1927 Guadeloupe is an island group or Archipelago located in the eastern Caribbean Sea at, with a land area of 1628 square kilometres (629  sq Martinique is an Island in the eastern Caribbean Sea, having a land area of 1128 km² French Guiana (Guyane française officially fr ''Guyane'' is an Overseas department (French département d'outre-mer, or DOM) of France Senegal (le Sénégal officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country south of the Sénégal River in western Africa. Réunion ( French: Réunion or formally La Réunion; previously Île Bourbon) is an island located in the Indian Ocean, east of Britain finally annexed Saint Lucia, Tobago, the Seychelles, and the Île de France (Mauritius), however. Saint Lucia (ˌseɪnt ˈluːʃɪə is an Island nation in the eastern Caribbean Sea on the boundary with the Atlantic Ocean. Tobago is the smaller of the two main islands that make up the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. Seychelles (seɪˈʃɛl or /seɪˈʃɛlz/ in English and seʃɛl in French) officially the Republic of Seychelles (République des Seychelles Creole Mauritius (pronounced məˈrɪʃəs L’île Maurice /il mɔ'ʁis/ Mauritian Creole: Maurice) officially the Republic of Mauritius, République
The true beginnings of the second French colonial empire, however, were laid in 1830 with the French invasion of Algeria, which was conquered over the next 17 years. French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems During the Second Empire, headed by Napoleon III, an attempt was made to establish a colonial-type protectorate in Mexico, but this came to little, and the French were forced to abandon the experiment after the end of the American Civil War, when the American president, Andrew Johnson, invoked the Monroe Doctrine. The Second French Empire or Second Empire was the Imperial Bonapartist regime of Napoleon III from 1852 to 1870 between the Second Napoléon III, also known as Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte (full name Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte) (20 April 1808 9 January 1873 was the first President In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect The United Mexican States ( or commonly Mexico (ˈmɛksɪkoʊ () is a federal constitutional Republic in North America. Causes of the war See also Origins of the American Civil War, Timeline of events leading to the American Civil War The coexistence of a slave-owning South Andrew Johnson (December 29 1808 – July 31 1875 was the seventeenth President of the United States (1865-69 succeeding to the Presidency upon the assassination The Monroe Doctrine is a US doctrine which on December 2 1823 stated that European powers were no longer to colonize or interfere with This French intervention in Mexico lasted from 1861 to 1867. The French intervention in Mexico, also known as the Maximilian Affair and The Franco-Mexican War, was an invasion of Mexico by the army of the Napoleon III also established French control over Cochinchina (the southernmost part of modern Vietnam including Saigon) in 1867 and 1874, as well as a protectorate over Cambodia in 1863. Cochin China is also a type of domestic fowl. Cochinchina, from Cochin-China (see note below (known locally as Nam Northern Vietnam and Southern Vietnam are two general regions within Vietnam. Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East
It was only after the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–1871 and the founding of the Third Republic (1871-1940) that most of France's later colonial possessions were acquired. The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War, often referred to in France as the 1870 War ( 19 July, 1870 — 10 May, 1871 The French Third Republic (in French, La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe From their base in Cochinchina, the French took over Tonkin (in modern northern Vietnam) and Annam (in modern central Vietnam) in 1884-1885. Tonkin (Đông Kinh in Vietnamese) also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is the northernmost part of Vietnam, south of Northern Vietnam and Southern Vietnam are two general regions within Vietnam. Annam (An Nam was a French protectorate in what is now the central area of Vietnam. Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes also called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam. These, together with Cambodia and Cochinchina, formed French Indochina in 1887 (to which Laos was added in 1893, and Kwang-Chou-Wan in 1900). First French interventions See also France-Vietnam relations France-Vietnam relations started as early as the 17th century with the mission of the Jesuit Laos (ˈlɑːoʊs or /ˈlaʊs/ officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic, is a Landlocked country in Southeast Asia, bordered by Burma Kwang-Chou-Wan (also spelt Guangzhouwan or Kwangchowan) was a small Enclave on the south coast of China ceded by Qing China to In 1849, the French concession in Shanghai was established, lasting until 1946. Shanghai ( 上[[wikt 海|海]] is the largest city in China in terms of population and one of the largest urban areas in the world with over 20 million
Influence was also expanded in North Africa, establishing a protectorate on Tunisia in 1881 (Bardo Treaty). North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Gradually, French control was established over much of Northern, Western, and Central Africa by the turn of the century (including the modern nations of Mauritania, Senegal, Guinea, Mali, Côte d'Ivoire, Benin, Niger, Chad, Central African Republic, Republic of Congo), as well as the east African coastal enclave of Djibouti (French Somaliland). Central Africa is a core Region of the African Continent often considered to include Burundi, the Central African Republic, Chad Mauritania (موريتانيا Mūrītāniyā officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country Guinea, officially Republic of Guinea (pronounced /ˈgɪni/ République de Guinée is a country in West Africa, formerly known as French Guinea Mali, officially the Republic of Mali (République du Mali is a Landlocked nation in Western Africa. Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Benin (bə'nɪn officially the Republic of Benin, and also known as Benin Republic, is a country in Western Africa. Niger ( or /ˈnaɪdʒɚ/) officially the Republic of Niger, is a Landlocked country in Western Africa, named after the Niger River. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. Central Africa|Central African FederationThe Central African Republic ( CAR) République Centrafricaine ʀepyblik sɑ̃tʀafʀikɛn or Centrafrique) is a Landlocked The Republic of the Congo (République du Congo Kongo: Repubilika ya Kongo; Lingala: Republiki ya Kongó) also known as Congo-Brazzaville Djibouti ( جيبوتي Jībūtī, Somali: Jabuuti) officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country in the Djibouti ( جيبوتي Jībūtī, Somali: Jabuuti) officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country in the The Voulet-Chanoine Mission, a military expedition, was sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer the Chad Basin and unify all French territories in West Africa. The Voulet-Chanoine Mission or Central African Mission (mission Afrique Centrale was a French military expedition sent out from Senegal in 1898 to conquer This expedition operated jointly with two other expeditions, the Foureau-Lamy and Gentil missions, which advanced from Algeria and Middle Congo respectively. With the death of the Muslim warlord Rabih az-Zubayr, the greatest ruler in the region, and the creation of the Military Territory of Chad in 1900, the Voulet-Chanoine Mission had accomplished all its goals. Rabih az-Zubayr ibn Fadl Allah or Rabih Fadlallah (c 1842&ndash April 22, 1900) was a Sudanese warlord who established a powerful empire The ruthlessness of the mission provoked a scandal in Paris. As a part of the Scramble for Africa, France had the establishment of a continuous west-east axis of the continent as an objective, in contrast with the British north-south axis. The Scramble for Africa, also known as the Race for Africa, was the proliferation of conflicting European claims to African territory during the New This resulted in the Fashoda incident, were an expedition led by Jean-Baptiste Marchand was opposed by forces under Lord Kitchener's command. The Fashoda Incident (1898 was the climax of imperial territorial disputes between the United Kingdom and France in Eastern Africa. Major Jean-Baptiste Marchand ( November 2 1863 &ndash January 13 1934) was a French emissary in Africa Lord Kitchener may refer to Horatio Kitchener 1st Earl Kitchener (1850–1916 prominent British soldier in the Sudan, the Second Boer War The resolution of the crisis had a part in the bringing forth of the Entente Cordiale. Flag of the United Kingdomsvg|right|70px]] The Entente cordiale is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom During the Agadir Crisis in 1911, Britain supported France and Morocco became a French protectorate. The Agadir Crisis, also called the Second Moroccan Crisis, was the international tension sparked by the deployment of the German gunboat ''Panther'' Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa
At this time, the French also established colonies in the South Pacific, including New Caledonia, the various island groups which make up French Polynesia (including the Society Islands, the Marquesas, the Tuamotus), and established joint control of the New Hebrides with Britain. The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth 's Oceanic divisions For the former North American fur-trading district see New Caledonia (Canada, and for the Scottish colony in Panama see Darien scheme. French Polynesia ( French: Polynésie française, Tahitian: Pōrīnetia Farāni) is a French Overseas collectivity in the The Society Islands ( French: Îles de la Société or officially Archipel de la Société) are a group of Islands in the south Pacific The Tuamotus or the Tuamotu Archipelago ( French: Îles Tuamotu officially Archipel des Tuamotu) are a chain of atolls in French Polynesia Hebrides (disambiguation New Hebrides was the colonial name for an Island group in the South Pacific that now forms the nation of Vanuatu.
The French made their last major colonial gains after the First World War, when they gained mandates over the former Turkish territories of the Ottoman Empire that make up what is now Syria and Lebanon, as well as most of the former German colonies of Togo and Cameroon. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All Turkey (Türkiye known officially as the Republic of Turkey ( is a Eurasian Country that stretches The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية TOGO was a Japanese roller coaster design company famous for inventing the Stand-up roller coaster. The Republic of Cameroon is a unitary republic of central and western Africa. A hallmark of the French colonial project in the late 19th century and early 20th century was the civilizing mission (mission civilisatrice), the principle that it was Europe's duty to bring civilization to benighted peoples. The Civilization mission (Mission civilisatrice was the underlying principle of French colonial rule in the late 19th and early 20th centuries As such, colonial officials undertook a policy of Franco-Europeanization in French colonies, most notably French West Africa. French West Africa ( Afrique occidentale française, AOF) was a Federation of eight French colonial territories in Africa: Africans who adopted French culture, including fluent use of the French language and conversion to Christianity, were granted equal French citizenship, including suffrage. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Later, residents of the "Four Communes" in Senegal were granted citizenship in a program led by the Afro-French politician Blaise Diagne. The " Four Communes " (French quatre vieilles) of Senegal were the four oldest colonial towns in French controlled west Africa. Blaise Diagne ( October 13, 1872 - May 11, 1934) was a Senegalese political leader the first black African elected to the
The French colonial empire began to fall apart during the Second World War, when various parts of their empire were occupied by foreign powers (Japan in Indochina, Britain in Syria, Lebanon, and Madagascar, the US and Britain in Morocco and Algeria, and Germany in Tunisia). Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية Madagascar, or Republic of Madagascar (older name Malagasy Republic) is an Island nation in the Indian Ocean off the southeastern The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. However, control was gradually reestablished by Charles de Gaulle. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French The French Union, included in the 1946 Constitution, replaced the former colonial Empire. The French Union (Union française was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system the " French Empire The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958.
However, France was immediately confronted with the beginnings of the decolonization movement. Decolonization refers to the undoing of Colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction Paul Ramadier (SFIO)'s cabinet repressed the Malagasy insurrection in 1947. Paul Ramadier ( 17 March 1888, La Rochelle - 14 October 1961) was a prominent French Socialist politician of The recorded history of Madagascar began in the 7th century when Arabs established Trading posts along the northwest coast of the island In Asia, Ho Chi Minh's Vietminh declared Vietnam's independence, starting the Franco-Vietnamese War. For the city named after him see Ho Chi Minh City. Hồ Chí Minh (name The Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam Ðộc Lập Ðồng Minh Hội, English "League for the Independence of Vietnam" was a National liberation Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially The First Indochina War (also known as the French Indochina War, the The Anti-French War, the Franco-Vietnamese War, the Franco-Vietminh War, In Cameroun, the Union of the Peoples of Cameroon's insurrection, started in 1955 and headed by Ruben Um Nyobé, was violently repressed. Cameroun was a French mandate territory in central Africa now constituting the majority of the territory of the Republic of Cameroon. The Union of the Peoples of Cameroon (Union des Populations du Cameroun is a Political party in Cameroon. Ruben Um Nyobé ( 1913 - September 13, 1958) was an Anti-imperialist Cameroonian leader slain by the French army on September 13 1958
When this ended with French defeat and withdrawal from Vietnam in 1954, the French almost immediately became involved in a new, and even harsher conflict in their oldest major colony, Algeria. French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems Ferhat Abbas and Messali Hadj's movements had marked the period between the two wars, but both sides radicalized after the Second World War. Ferhat Abbas ( 24 October, 1899 &ndash 23 December, 1985) ( Algerian: Ferḥat Ɛebbas Arabic: فرحات عباس was an Ahmed Ben Messali Hadj ( Arabic, مصالي الحاج (b 1898 in Algeria, d In 1945, the Sétif massacre was carried on by the French army. The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945 The Algerian War started in 1954. The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from Algeria was particularly problematic for the French, due to the large number of European settlers (or pieds-noirs) who had settled there in the 125 years of French rule. Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot" plural Pieds-Noirs, pronounced /pje Charles de Gaulle's accession to power in 1958 in the middle of the crisis ultimately led to independence for Algeria with the 1962 Evian Accords. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's The Évian Accords comprise a Treaty which was signed on March 18, 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the
The French Union was replaced in the new 1958 Constitution by the French Community. The French Union (Union française was a political entity created by the French Fourth Republic to replace the old French colonial system the " French Empire The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958. The French Community (Communauté française was the political entity which replaced in 1958 the French Union, which in turn was the descendant of the French colonial Only Guinea refused by referendum to take part to the new colonial organization. Guinea, officially Republic of Guinea (pronounced /ˈgɪni/ République de Guinée is a country in West Africa, formerly known as French Guinea However, the French Community dissolved itself in the midsts of the Algerian War; all of the other African colonies were granted independence in 1960, following local referendums. A referendum (plural referendums or referenda) ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita Some few colonies chose instead to remain part of France, under the statuses of overseas départements (territories). The French Overseas Departments and Territories ( French: départements d'outre-mer and territoires d'outre-mer or DOM-TOM) consist broadly of Critics of neocolonialism claimed that the Françafrique had replaced formal direct rule. Neocolonialism is a term used by post-colonial critics of Developed countries ' involvement in the developing world Françafrique is a term that refers to France 's relationship with Africa. They argued that while de Gaulle was granting independence on one hand, he was creating new ties through Jacques Foccart's help, his counsellor for African matters. Jacques Foccart ( 31 August 1913 – 19 March 1997) was French President Charles de Gaulle 's and then Georges Pompidou 's Foccart supported in particular the Biafra secession (or Nigerian civil war) during the late 1960s. The Nigerian Civil War, also known as the Nigerian-Biafran War, 6 July 1967 &ndash 13 January 1970 was a political conflict caused by the attempted Secession