|French and Indian War|
|Part of the Seven Years' War|
Map of the scene of operations of the French and Indian War
| Great Britain|
2,200 natives (1759)
|50,000 regulars and militia (1759)|
|Casualties and losses|
|11,000 killed, wounded or captured||11,300 killed, wounded or captured|
The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was the North American chapter of the Seven Years' War. The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to Spanish Florida ( Spanish: La Florida) refers to the Spanish Colony of Florida. The Ancien Régime, a French term rendered in English as “Old Rule” “Old Kingdom” or simply “Old Regime” refers primarily to the aristocratic The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the The Algonquins (or Algonkins) are an aboriginal North American people speaking Algonquin, an Anishinaabe language. The shannon (later named Delaware Indians by Europeans were in the 17th century organized bands of Native American peoples with shared cultural and linguistic "Huron" redirects here For other uses see Huron (disambiguation. The Ojibwa or Chippewa (also Ojibwe, Ojibway, Chippeway) is the largest group of Native Americans - First Nations The Shawnee, or Shaawanwaki, Shaawanooki and Shaawanowi lenaweeki, are a people native to North America. The Míkmaq or Mi'kmaq (miːgmax sometimes spelled Micmac in English and formerly Mìgmaq ( Mi'gmaq) in Míkmaw) are a The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The Thirteen Colonies were part of what became known as British America, a name that was used by Great Britain until the Treaty of Paris (1783 recognized the The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths The name refers to the two main enemies of the British: the royal French forces and the various American Indian forces allied with them. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States. The conflict, the fourth such colonial war between the kingdoms of France and Great Britain, resulted in the British conquest of all of New France east of the Mississippi River, as well as Spanish Florida. The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied The Ancien Régime, a French term rendered in English as “Old Rule” “Old Kingdom” or simply “Old Regime” refers primarily to the aristocratic The Kingdom of Great Britain, also known as the United Kingdom of Great Britain, was a State in northwest Europe, in existence from 1707 to 1800 The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to Spanish Florida ( Spanish: La Florida) refers to the Spanish Colony of Florida. The outcome was one of the most significant developments in a century of Anglo-French conflict. The Second Hundred Years' War is a phrase used by some Historians ref>Buffinton Arthur H To compensate its ally, Spain, for its loss of Florida, France ceded its control of French Louisiana west of the Mississippi. The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español was one of the largest Empires in history and one of the first Global empires In the 15th and 16th centuries Louisiana (La celina+mario) was the name of an administrative district of New France. France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon. For the region see Caribbean. The Caribbean Sea (kəˈrɪbiən or /ˌkærɨˈbiːən/ is a tropical Sea in the Western Hemisphere The Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is a group of small islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, the
The conflict is known by several names. In British North America, wars were often named after the sitting British monarch, such as King William's War or Queen Anne's War. British North America consisted of the colonies and territories of the British Empire in continental North America after the end of the American Revolutionary The first of the French and Indian Wars, King William's War ( 1689 – 1697) was the name used in the English colonies in America to refer to the North Queen Anne's War ( 1702 &ndash 1713) was the second in a series of four French and Indian Wars fought between France and England (later Because there had already been a King George's War in the 1740s, British colonists named the second war in King George's reign after their opponents, and thus it became known as the French and Indian War. King George's War is the name given to the operations in North America that formed part of the 1740&ndash1748 War of the Austrian Succession. George II (George Augustus 10 November 1683 &ndash 25 October 1760 was King of Great Britain and Ireland, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg (  This traditional name remains standard in the United States, although it obscures the fact that American Indians fought on both sides of the conflict. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States.  American historians generally use the traditional name or the European title (the Seven Years' War), and have also invented other, less frequently used names for the war, including the Fourth Intercolonial War and the Great War for the Empire. The Seven Years' War (1756&ndash1763 involved all of the major European powers of the period causing 900000 to 1400000 deaths 
In Great Britain and France, the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War war usually has no special name, and so the entire worldwide conflict is known as the Seven Years' War (or the Guerre de sept ans). In Warfare a theater or theatre is defined as a specific geographical area of conduct of armed conflict bordered by areas where no combat is taking place The "Seven Years" refers to events in Europe, from the official declaration of war in 1756 to the signing of the peace treaty in 1763. These dates do not correspond with the actual fighting in North America, where the fighting between the two colonial powers was largely concluded in six years, from the Jumonville Glen skirmish in 1754 to the capture of Montreal in 1760. The Battle of Jumonville Glen, also known as the Jumonville affair, was the opening battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 
In Canada, both French- and English-speaking Canadians refer to it as the Seven Years' War (Guerre de Sept Ans) or the War of the Conquest (Guerre de la Conquête), since it is the war in which New France was conquered by the British and became part of the British Empire. The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the The British Empire was the largest empire in history and for over a century was the foremost global power. This war was also known as the Forgotten War.
There were numerous causes for the French and Indian War, which began less than a decade after France and Britain had fought on opposing sides in the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748). The War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748 involved nearly all the powers of Europe Both New France and New England wanted to expand their territories with respect to fur trading and other pursuits that matched their economic interests. Using trading posts and forts, both the British and the French claimed the vast territory between the Appalachian Mountains and the Mississippi River, from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico, known as the Ohio Country. The Appalachian Mountains ( often called the Appalachians, are a vast system of mountains in eastern North America. The Mississippi River is the second longest River in the United States, with a length of from its source in Lake Itasca in Minnesota to The Laurentian Great Lakes are a chain of freshwater lakes located in eastern North America, on the Canada–United States border. The Gulf of Mexico ( Spanish: Golfo de México) is the ninth largest Body of water in the world The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains English claims resulted from royal grants which had no definite western boundaries. The French claims resulted from La Salle's claiming the Mississippi River for France—its drainage area includes the Ohio River Valley. René Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle ( November 22, 1643 &ndash March 19, 1687) was a French In order to secure these claims, both European powers took advantage of Native American factions to protect their territories and to keep each other from growing too strong. For indigenous peoples in the United States other than Hawaii and Alaska see also Native Americans in the United States.
Newfoundland's Grand Banks were fertile fishing grounds and coveted by both sides. Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of The conclusion of this war would see France keeping only the islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, allowing them access to the Grand Banks to this day. The Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is a group of small islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, the
The English colonists also feared papal influence in North America, as New France was administered by French governors and Roman Catholic hierarchy, and missionaries such as Armand de La Richardie were active during this period. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and The Viceroyalty of New France (Nouvelle-France was the area colonized by France in North America during a period extending from the exploration of the This article refers to hierarchy in the Catholic Church. For hierarchy in other communions with a "catholic" character please see articles on the churches A missionary is a member of a Religion who works to convert those who do not share the missionary's faith someone who proselytizes. Armand de La Richardie ( 7 June, 1686 - 17 March, 1758) was a French Roman Catholic Missionary in Canada For the predominantly Protestant British settlers, French control over North America could have represented a threat to their religious and other freedoms provided by English law. Protestantism refers to the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated in the 16th century Protestant Reformation. Likewise, the French feared the anti-Catholicism prevalent among English holdings. In this period, Catholicism was still enduring persecution under English law.
In June 1747, Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, the Governor-General of New France, ordered Pierre-Joseph Céloron to lead an expedition to the Ohio Country with the objective of removing British influence from the area. Roland-Michel Barrin de La Galissonière, Marquis de La Galissonière sometimes spelled Galissonnière (b The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio Territory) was the name used in the 18th century for the regions of North America west of the Appalachian Mountains Céloron was also to confirm the allegiance of the Native Americans inhabiting the territory to the French crown. Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States
Céloron's expedition consisted of 213 soldiers of the Troupes de la marine (French Marines), who were transported by 23 canoes. The Troupes de la Marine (Troops of the Marine also known as independent companies of the navy and colonial regulars were under the authority of the French Minister of Marine The expedition left Lachine, on June 15, 1749, and two days later reached Fort Frontenac. Events 763 BC - Assyrians record a Solar eclipse that will be used to fix the Chronology of Mesopotamian history Year 1749 ( MDCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Fort Frontenac was a French Trading post and military fort built in 1673 in what is now Kingston Ontario, Canada. The expedition then continued along the shoreline of present-day Lake Erie. Lake Erie (ˈɪəriː is the fourth largest Lake (by surface area of the five Great Lakes, and the tenth largest globally At Chautauqua Portage (Barcelona, New York), the expedition moved inland to the Allegheny River. The Allegheny River is a principal Tributary of the Ohio River and is located in the Eastern United States.
The expedition headed south to the Ohio River at present-day Pittsburgh, and Céloron buried lead plates engraved with the French claim to the Ohio Country. The Ohio River is the largest Tributary by volume of the Mississippi River. Whenever British merchants or fur-traders were encountered by the French, they were informed of the illegality of being on French territory and told to leave the Ohio Country.
When Céloron's expedition arrived at Logstown, the Native Americans in the area informed Céloron that they owned the Ohio Country and that they would trade with the British regardless of what the French told them to do. The village of Logstown (also Logg's Town, French: Chiningue" IPronounced Shenango was a significant Native American settlement in 
The French continued their expedition. At its farthest point south, Céloron's expedition reached the junction between the Ohio River and the Miami River. The junction lay just south of the village of Pickawillany, where the Miami Chief, "Old Britain" (as styled by Céloron), lived. Pickawillany was a Miami Indian village located on the current site of the city of Piqua Ohio in the United States. The Miami are a Native American tribe originally found in Indiana, southwest Michigan and Ohio, and now living also in Oklahoma
When Céloron arrived at Pickawillany, he informed "Old Britain" of the "dire consequences" of the elderly chief continuing to trade with the British. "Old Britain" ignored the warning. After his meeting with Old Britain, Céloron and his expedition began the trip home. They did not reach Montreal until November 10, 1749. Events 1444 - Battle of Varna: The crusading forces of King Vladislaus III of Varna (aka Ulaszlo I of Hungary and Wladyslaw Year 1749 ( MDCCXLIX) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
The best summary of the expedition's findings came from none other than Céloron himself. In his report, Céloron wrote: "All I can say is that the Natives of these localities are very badly disposed towards the French, and are entirely devoted to the English. I don't know in what way they could be brought back. "
On March 17, 1752, the Governor-General of New France, Marquis de la Jonquière died. Events 45 BC - In his last victory Julius Caesar defeats the Pompeian forces of Titus Labienus and Pompey the Younger Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of Jacques-Pierre de Taffanel de la Jonquière ( April 18, 1685 &ndash March 17, 1752) was french admiral and Governor general of His temporary replacement was Charles le Moyne de Longueuil. It was not until July 1, 1752 that Ange Duquense de Menneville arrived in New France to take over the post. "July 1st" redirects here For the Ayumi Hamasaki song see H (song. Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of Other topics that could fall under Marquis Duquesne can be found at Marquis Duquesne (disambiguation Ange Duquesne de Menneville Marquis
In the spring of 1752, Longueuil dispatched an expedition to the Ohio River area. The expedition was led by Charles Michel de Langlade, an officer in the Troupes de la marine. Charles Michel de Langlade (1729 &ndash c 1800 was a Great Lakes fur-trader of New France and Odawa heritage Langlade was given 300 men comprised of members of the Ottawa and French-Canadians. His objective was to punish the Miami people of Pickawillany for not following Céloron's orders to cease trading with the British.
At dawn on June 21, 1752, the French war party attacked the British trading centre at Pickawillany, killing fourteen people of the Miami nation, including "Old Britain". Events 524 - Godomar, King of the Burgundians defeats the Franks at the Battle of Vézeronce. Year 1752 ( MDCCLII) was a Leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar for European countries but not Great Britain) of The expedition then returned home.
In the spring of 1754, Paul Marin de la Malgue was given command of a 2,000 man force of Troupes de la Marine and Aboriginals. Paul Marin de la Malgue ( bap 19 March 1692 &ndash 29 October 1753) was the eldest son of Charles-Paul Marin de la Malgue His orders were to protect the King's land in the Ohio Valley from the British.
Marin followed the route that Céloron had mapped out four years previously. The main difference in the two expeditions was that, whereas Céloron had buried lead plates, Marin was constructing and garrisoning forts.
The first fort that was constructed by Paul Marin was at Presque Isle (Erie, Pennsylvania) on Lake Erie's south shore. He then had a road built to the headwaters of Rivière aux Boeuf. Marin then constructed a second fort at Le Boeuf (Waterford, Pennsylvania). Waterford is a borough in Erie County, Pennsylvania, United States. This fort was designed to guard the headwaters of the Rivière aux Boeuf.
On September 3, 1753, Tanaghrisson (d. Events 36 BC - In the Battle of Naulochus, Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa, Admiral of Octavian, defeats Sextus Pompeius Year 1753 ( MDCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Tanacharison or Tanaghrisson (c 1700? &ndash 4 October 1754) was an American Indian leader who played a pivotal role in the beginning of the 1754), Chief of the Mingo, arrived at Fort Le Boeuf. The Mingo are an Iroquois group of Native Americans that migrated west to the Ohio Country in the mid-eighteenth century Tanaghrisson hated the French because, as legend had it, the French had killed and eaten his father. Tanaghrisson told Marin, "I shall strike at whoever. . . ", threatening the French.
The show of force by the French had alarmed the Iroquois in the area. They sent Mohawk runners to William Johnson's manor in Upper New York. Johnson, known to the Iroquois as "Warraghiggey", meaning "He who does big business", had become a respected member of the Iroquois Confederacy in the area. The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse In 1746, Johnson was made a colonel of the Iroquois, and later a colonel of the Western New York Militia.
At Albany, New York, there was a meeting between Governor Clinton of New York and Chief Hendrick, as well as other officials from a handful of American colonies. Chief Hendrick insisted that the British abide by their obligations and block French expansion. When an unsatisfactory response was offered by Clinton, Chief Hendrick proclaimed that the "Covenant Chain", a long-standing friendly relationship between the Iroquois Confederacy and the British Crown, was broken.
Governor Robert Dinwiddie of Virginia found himself in a predicament. Robert Dinwiddie (1693 &ndash July 27, 1770) was a British colonial administrator who served as lieutenant governor of colonial Virginia Many merchants had invested heavily in fur trading in Ohio. If the French made good on their claim to the Ohio Country and drove out the British, then the Virginian merchants would lose a lot of money.
Dinwiddie could not possibly allow the loss of the Ohio Country to France. To counter the French military presence in Ohio, in October 1753 Dinwiddie ordered Major George Washington of the Virginia militia to deliver a message to the commander of the French forces in the Ohio Country, Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre ( October 24, 1701 &ndash September 8, 1755) traced his lineage to a number of New France Washington, along with his interpreter Jacob Van Braam and several other men, left for Fort Le Boeuf on the 31st of October. In perhaps the earliest and best sourced biography of George Washington by perhaps the new nations premier writer Washington Irving it gives details to the effect that Fort Le Boeuf was a Fort established by the French in 1753 on a fork of French Creek, near present-day Waterford, in northwest
A few days later, Washington and his party arrived at Wills Creek (Cumberland, Maryland). Here Washington enlisted the help of Christopher Gist, a surveyor who was familiar with the area.
Washington and his party arrived at Logstown on November 24, 1753. Events 380 - Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal Year 1753 ( MDCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year At Logstown, Washington met with Tanaghrisson, who was angry over the encroachment by the French military of his land. Washington convinced Tanaghrisson to accompany his small group to Fort Le Boeuf.
On December 12, 1753, Washington and his men reached Fort Le Boeuf. Events 627 - Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II 's Persian Year 1753 ( MDCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Jacques Legardeur de Saint-Pierre invited Washington to dine with him that evening. Over dinner, Washington presented Saint-Pierre with the letter from Dinwiddie that demanded an immediate French withdrawal from the Ohio Country. Saint-Pierre was quite civil in his response, saying, "As to the Summons you send me to retire, I do not think myself obliged to obey it. " The French explained to Washington that France's claim to the region was superior to that of the British, since René-Robert Cavelier, Sieur de La Salle (1643–1687) had explored the Ohio Country nearly a century earlier. René Robert Cavelier Sieur de La Salle, or Robert de LaSalle ( November 22, 1643 &ndash March 19, 1687) was a French 
Washington's party left Fort Le Boeuf early on December 16, 1753. Events 755 - An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion Year 1753 ( MDCCLIII) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year By January 16, 1754, they had arrived in Williamsburg, Virginia. Events 27 BC - The title Augustus is bestowed upon Gaius Julius Caesar Octavian by the Roman Senate. Year 1754 ( MDCCLIV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or In his report, Washington stated, "The French had swept south. " They had constructed and garrisoned forts at Presque Isle, Le Boeuf and Venango.
The French and Indian War was the last of four major colonial wars between the British, the French, and their Native American allies. The French and Indian Wars is a name used in the United States for a series of conflicts in North America that represented the actions there that accompanied Unlike the previous three wars, the French and Indian War began on North American soil and then spread to Europe, where Britain and France continued fighting. Britain officially declared war on France on May 15, 1756, marking the beginnings of the Seven Years' War in Europe. Events 1252 - Pope Innocent IV issues the Papal bull Ad exstirpanda, which authorizes but also limits the Year 1756 ( MDCCLVI) was a Leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Native Americans fought for both sides, but primarily alongside the French (with one exception being the Iroquois Confederacy, which sided with the American colonies and Britain). Native Americans in the United States are the indigenous peoples from the regions of North America now encompassed by the continental United States The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the "League of Peace and Power" the "Five Nations" the "Six Nations" or the "People of the Longhouse The first major event of the war was in 1754. Major George Washington, then twenty-one years of age, was sent to negotiate boundaries with the French, who did not give up their forts. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Washington led a group of Virginian (colonial) troops to confront the French at Fort Duquesne (present day Pittsburgh). Fort Duquesne (originally called Fort Du Quesne) was a Fort established by the French in 1754, at the junction of the Allegheny Washington stumbled upon the French at the Battle of Jumonville Glen (about six miles (10 km) NW of soon-to-be-established Fort Necessity [see below]), and in the ensuing skirmish, a French Officer (Joseph Coulon de Jumonville) was killed, news of which would have certainly provoked a strong French response. The Battle of Jumonville Glen, also known as the Jumonville affair, was the opening battle of the French and Indian War fought on May 28, 1754 See also Battle of the Great Meadows Fort Necessity National Battlefield, located Joseph Coulon de Villiers Sieur de Jumonville ( 8 September 1718 &ndash May 28 1754) was a French Canadian military officer Washington pulled back a few miles and established Fort Necessity. See also Battle of the Great Meadows Fort Necessity National Battlefield, located The French forced Washington and his men to retreat. Meanwhile, the Albany Congress was taking place as means to discuss further action. The Albany Congress, also known as the Albany Conference, was a meeting of representatives of seven of the British North American colonies in 1754 (specifically
Edward Braddock led a campaign against the French at Fort Duquesne in 1755; Washington was again among the British and colonial troops. General Edward Braddock (January 1695 &ndash July 13, 1755) was a British soldier and commander-in-chief for North America during the actions at the start of the Braddock employed European tactics: bold, linear marches and firing formations. This led to disaster at the Monongahela, where the French and natives, though heavily outmanned and outgunned (the British had a heavy cannon), used superior tactics (using the trees and bushes as cover) to gun down and rout the British. The Braddock expedition (also called "Braddock's campaign" was a failed British attempt to capture the French Fort Duquesne in the summer of Braddock was killed; Washington, despite four close calls, escaped unharmed and led the survivors in retreat. This stunning British defeat heralded a string of major French victories over the next few years, at Fort Oswego, Fort William Henry, Fort Duquesne, and Carillon, where veteran Montcalm famously defeated five times his number. The Battle of Fort Oswego was one in a series of early French victories in the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War won in spite of The Battle of Fort William Henry was General Montcalm 's siege and capture of the British held Fort William Henry in August 1757 The Battle of Fort Duquesne, which took place on September 14 1758, was a failed attempt by elements of General John Forbes 's British - American The Battle of Carillon was fought at Fort Carillon (later known as Fort Ticonderoga) on the shore of Lake Champlain on what was then the border between Louis-Joseph de Montcalm-Gozon Marquis de Saint-Veran ( February 28, 1712 &ndash September 14, 1759) was the commander of the French The sole British successes in the early years of the war came in 1755, at the Battle of Lake George, which secured the Hudson Valley; and in the taking of Fort Beauséjour (which protected the Nova Scotia frontier) by Lieutenant Colonel Robert Monckton. The Battle of Lake George was fought on September 8 1755, in the north of the Province of New York. For the Magazine, see Hudson Valley (magazine The Battle of Fort Beauséjour can be considered as being the first major British-American offensive action of the French and Indian War ( Seven Years' War in North Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's Robert Monckton ( 24 June 1726 &ndash 21 May 1782) was an officer of the British army and a colonial administrator An unfortunate consequence of the latter was the subsequent forced deportation of the Acadian population of Nova Scotia and the Beaubassin region of Acadia. This article is about the Acadian people and culture The Acadians (Acadiens are the descendants of the seventeenth-century French Nova Scotia (ˌnəʊvəˈskəʊʃə ( Latin for New Scotland; Alba Nuadh Nouvelle-Écosse is a Canadian province located on Canada 's The Tantramar Marshes are a National Wildlife Area on the southern part of the Isthmus of Chignecto, which joins The Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture ( ACADIA) is a Non-profit organization active in the area of Computer-aided architectural design
The year 1756 brought with it William Pitt, Secretary of State of Great Britain. William Pitt 1st Earl of Chatham PC (15 November 1708 &ndash 11 May 1778 was a British Whig Statesman who achieved his greatest fame as The Secretary of State for the Southern Department was a position in the Cabinet of the government of Kingdom of Great Britain up to 1782 His leadership, and France's continued neglect of the North-American theater, eventually turned the tide in favor of the British. The French were driven from many frontier posts such as Fort Niagara, and the key Fortress Louisbourg fell to the British in 1758. The Battle of Fort Niagara was one of the final battles in the French and Indian War, the North American theatre of the Seven Years' War. Fortress of Louisbourg (in French, Forteresse de Louisbourg) is a Canadian National Historic Site and the location of a partial reconstruction In 1759, the Battle of the Plains of Abraham gave Quebec City to the British, who had to withstand a siege there after the Battle of Sainte-Foy a year later. The Battle of the Plains of Abraham, also known as the Battle of Quebec, was a pivotal battle in the French and Indian War, the North American theatre of the Quebec City ( French: Ville de Québec, or simply Québec) (kwɨˈbɛk or /keˈbɛk/ is the Capital of the Canadian province The Battle of Sainte-Foy, sometimes called the Battle of Quebec, was fought on April 28, 1760 in Quebec City Quebec, Canada during In September of 1760, Pierre François de Rigaud, Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal, the King's Governor of New France, negotiated a surrender with British General Jeffrey Amherst. Pierre François de Rigaud Marquis de Vaudreuil-Cavagnal ( 22 November, 1698 &ndash 4 August 1778) was a Canadian -born French colonial The Governor of New France was the Viceroy of the King of France in North America Field Marshal Jeffery Amherst 1st Baron Amherst of Montreal KB (sometimes spelled Geoffrey, or Jeffrey, he himself spelled his name as General Amherst granted Vaudreuil's request that any French residents who chose to remain in the colony would be given freedom to continue worshiping in their Roman Catholic tradition, continued ownership of their property, and the right to remain undisturbed in their homes. The British provided medical treatment for the sick and wounded French soldiers and French regular troops were returned to France aboard British ships with an agreement that they were not to serve again in the present war. The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Land Army is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and its largest
Though most of the North American fighting ended on September 8, 1760, when the Marquis de Vaudreuil surrendered Montreal — and effectively all of Canada — to Britain (one notable late battle allowed the capture of Spanish Havana by British and colonial forces in 1762), the war officially ended with the signing of the Treaty of Paris on February 10, 1763. Events 70 - Roman forces under Titus sack Jerusalem. 1264 - The Statute of Kalisz Year 1760 ( MDCCLX) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap The Treaty of Paris, often called the Peace of Paris, or the Treaty of 1763, was signed on February 10, 1763, by the kingdoms of Great Britain Events 1355 - The St Scholastica's Day riot breaks out in Oxford, England, leaving 63 scholars and perhaps 30 locals dead Year 1763 ( MDCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The treaty resulted in France's loss of all its North American possessions east of the Mississippi (all of Canada was ceded to Britain) except Saint Pierre and Miquelon, two small islands off Newfoundland. The Territorial Collectivity of Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Collectivité territoriale de Saint-Pierre-et-Miquelon is a group of small islands in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Newfoundland — ˈn(jufənˌlænd (Terre-Neuve Talamh an Éisc — is a large island 15 km off the east coast of France regained the Caribbean islands of Guadeloupe and Martinique, which had been occupied by the British. Guadeloupe is an island group or Archipelago located in the eastern Caribbean Sea at, with a land area of 1628 square kilometres (629  sq Martinique is an Island in the eastern Caribbean Sea, having a land area of 1128 km² The economic value of these islands was greater than that of Canada at the time, because of their rich sugar crops, and the islands were easier to defend. Sugar is a class of edible Crystalline substances mainly Sucrose, Lactose, and Fructose. Spain gained Louisiana, including New Orleans, in compensation for its loss of Florida to the British. Louisiana (La celina+mario) was the name of an administrative district of New France. New Orleans (nʲuːˈɔrliənz nʲuːˈɔrlənz French: La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port city and the largest city in Louisiana Florida ( is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States, bordering Alabama to the northwest and Georgia to the
Also, Britain gained control of French Canada, a colony containing approximately 65,000 French-speaking, Roman Catholic residents. Canada was the name of the French colony that once stretched along the St Early in the war, in 1755, the British had expelled French settlers from Acadia (some of whom eventually fled to Louisiana, creating the Cajun population). The Association for Computer Aided Design In Architecture ( ACADIA) is a Non-profit organization active in the area of Computer-aided architectural design Louisiana (La celina+mario) was the name of an administrative district of New France. Cajuns ('keʒən les Cadiens are an Ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other Now at peace, and eager to secure control of its hard-won colony, Great Britain found itself obliged to make concessions to its newly conquered subjects; this was achieved with the Quebec Act of 1774. The Quebec Act of 1774 was an Act of the Parliament of Great Britain (citation 14 Geo The history of the Seven Years' War, particularly the siege of Québec and the death of British Brigadier General James Wolfe, generated a vast number of ballads, broadsides, images, maps and other printed materials, which testify to how this event continued to capture the imagination of the British public long after Wolfe's death in 1759. General James Wolfe ( 2 January, 1727 &ndash 13 September, 1759) was a British Army officer known for his training reforms 
The European theatre of the war was settled by the Treaty of Hubertusburg on February 15, 1763. The Treaty of Hubertusburg (Frieden von Hubertusburg was signed on 15 February 1763 at Hubertusburg by Prussia, Austria, and Events 590 - Khosrau II is crowned as king of Persia 1637 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor Year 1763 ( MDCCLXIII) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The war changed economic, political, and social relations between Britain and its colonies. It plunged Britain into debt, which the Crown chose to pay off with tax money from its colonies. These taxes contributed to the beginning the American Revolutionary War. In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" See Nash, The Urban Crucible Chapter 5.
|Battle of Jumonville Glen|
Battle of the Great Meadows (Fort Necessity)
|1755||May 29th – July 9th|
June 3rd – 16th
Battle of Fort Beauséjour
Battle of the Monongahela
Battle of Lake George
Sackville, New Brunswick
Lake George, New York
August 10th – 14th
|Battle of Fort Bull|
Battle of Fort Oswego
|Rome, New York|
Oswego, New York
|1757||August 2nd – 6th|
|Battle of Fort William Henry|
Second Battle of Bloody Creek
|Lake George, New York|
Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia
|1758||June 8th - July 26th|
July 7th – 8th
|Second Battle of Louisbourg|
Battle of Carillon (Fort Ticonderoga)
Battle of Fort Frontenac
Battle of Fort Duquesne
Battle of Fort Ligonier
|Louisbourg, Nova Scotia|
Ticonderoga, New York
July 6th – 26th
|Battle of Ticonderoga (1759)|
Battle of Fort Niagara
Battle of Beauport
Battle of the Plains of Abraham
|Ticonderoga, New York|
Fort Niagara, New York
August 16th – 24th
|Battle of Sainte-Foy|
Battle of Restigouche
Battle of the Thousand Islands
Ogdensburg, New York
|1762||September 15th||Battle of Signal Hill||St. John's, Newfoundland|
|1763||February 10th||Treaty of Paris||Paris, France|