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The French Republican Calendar or French Revolutionary Calendar is a calendar proposed during the French Revolution, and used by the French government for about thirteen years from late 1793 to 1805, and for 18 days in 1871. The word Calendar consist of two words 1 Cal ( in Pashto means Year in Hindi and Persian is Sal- also means Year The French Revolution (1789–1799 was a period of political and social upheaval in the History of France, during which the French governmental structure previously an
The calendar was designed by the politician and agronomist Charles Gilbert Romme, although it is usually attributed to Fabre d'Églantine, who invented the names of the months. Agronomists (called Agrologists in Canada are scientists who specialize in Agronomy, which is the science of utilizing plants for food fuel feed and Gilbert Romme ( March 26 1750 &ndash June 17 1795) was a French politician and mathematician who developed the French Republican Philippe François Nazaire Fabre d'Églantine (commonly known as Fabre d'Églantine; July 28, 1750 &ndash April 5, 1794 It was adopted by the Jacobin-controlled National Convention on 24 October 1793 which also extended it proleptically to its epoch of 22 September 1792. The Jacobin Club was the largest and most powerful political club of the French Revolution. During the French Revolution, the National Convention or Convention, in France, comprised the Constitutional and legislative assembly Events 69 - Second Battle of Bedriacum, forces under Antonius Primus the commander of the Danube armies loyal to Vespasian, defeat Year 1793 ( MDCCXCIII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common The proleptic Julian calendar is produced by extending the Julian calendar to dates preceding AD 4 when its quadrennial leap year stabilized In the fields of Chronology and Periodization, an epoch means an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular Era. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year
Years appear in writing as Roman numerals (usually), with epoch 22 September 1792, the beginning of the 'Republican Era' (the day the French First Republic was proclaimed, one day after the Convention abolished the monarchy). Roman numerals are a Numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Year 1792 ( MDCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year The First Republic in France, officially the French Republic (République française was proclaimed on 21 September 1792 during the French Revolution. As a result, Roman Numeral I indicates the first year of the republic, that is, the year before the calendar actually came into use. The first day of each year was that of the autumnal equinox. An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle There were twelve months, each divided into three ten-day weeks called décades. The month is a unit of Time, used with Calendars which is approximately as long as some natural period related to the motion of the Moon; The tenth day, décadi, replaced Sunday as the day of rest and festivity. The five or six extra days needed to approximate the solar or tropical year were placed after the months at the end of each year. A tropical year (also known as a solar year) is the length of time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons as seen from Earth Each day was divided into ten hours, each hour into 100 decimal minutes and each decimal minute had 100 decimal seconds. A day (symbol d is a unit of Time equivalent to 24 Hours and the duration of a single Rotation of planet Earth with respect to the The hour (symbol h) is a unit of Time. It is not an SI unit but is accepted for use with the SI A minute is a Unit of measurement of Time or of Angle. The minute is a unit of Time equal to 1/60th of an Hour or 60 The second ( SI symbol s) sometimes abbreviated sec, is the name of a unit of Time, and is the International System of Units Thus an hour was more than twice as long as a conventional hour; a minute was slightly longer than a conventional minute; and a second was slightly shorter than a conventional second. Clocks were manufactured to display this decimal time, but it did not catch on and mandatory use was officially suspended April 7, 1795, although some cities continued to use decimal time as late as 1801. Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput, or Clock is a gene which encodes proteins regulating Circadian rhythm. Decimal time is the representation of the Time of Day using units which are Decimally related Events 529 - First draft of Corpus Juris Civilis (a fundamental work in Jurisprudence) is issued by Eastern Roman Emperor Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
A period of four years ending on a leap day was to be called a "Franciade. " The name "Olympique" was originally proposed  but changed to Franciade to commemorate the fact that it had taken the revolution four years to establish a republican government in France. 
The leap year was called Sextile, an allusion to the "bissextile" leap years of the Julian and Gregorian calendars, because it contained a sixth complementary day. Bissext, or bissextus ( Lat. bis, twice sextus, sixth theday intercalated by the Julian calendar in the February of everyfourth A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing one or more extra days (or in the case of Lunisolar calendars an extra month in order to keep the The Sansculottides (also Epagomènes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complémentaires, jours épagomènes
The Concordat of 1801 re-established the Roman Catholic Church in France with effect from Easter Sunday, 18 April 1802, restoring the names of the days of the week with the ones they had in the Gregorian Calendar, while keeping the rest of the Republican Calendar, and fixing Sunday as the official day of rest and religious celebration. The Concordat of 1801 is a reflection of an agreement between Napoleon Bonaparte and Pope Pius VII that reaffirmed the Roman Catholic Church as the majority Easter ( Greek: Πάσχα Pascha or Pasxa) is the most important religious feast in the Christian Liturgical year. Events 1025 - Bolesław Chrobry is crowned in Gniezno, becoming the first King of Poland. Year 1802 ( MDCCCII) was a Common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a Common year starting on Wednesday of the A week (also called sennight or sevennight) is a unit of Time longer than a Day and shorter than a Month. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today 
Napoléon finally abolished the calendar with effect from 1 January 1806 (the day after 10 Nivôse an XIV), a little over twelve years after its introduction. Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. New Year See also New Year The Ancient Romans began their consular year on January 1st since 153 BC Year 1806 ( MDCCCVI) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common However, it was used again during the brief Paris Commune, 6–23 May 1871 (16 Floréal–3 Prairial An LXXIX). The Paris Commune (La Commune de Paris was a Government that briefly ruled Paris from 18 March (more formally from 26 March) to 28 May
Many conversion tables and programs exist, largely created by genealogists. Some enthusiasts in France still use the calendar, more out of historical re-enactment than practicality.
Some legal texts that were adopted when the Republican Calendar was official are still in force in France and have kept their original dates for citation purposes.
The name "French Revolutionary Calendar" refers to the fact that the calendar was created during the revolution, but is somewhat of a misnomer. Indeed, there was initially a debate as to whether the calendar should celebrate the Revolution, i. e. , 1789, or the Republic, i. e. , 1792.  Immediately following July 14, 1789, papers and pamphlets started calling 1789 year I of Liberty and the following years II and III. It was in 1792, with the practical problem of dating financial transactions, that the legislative assembly was confronted with the problem of the calendar. Originally, the choice of epoch was either January 1, 1789 or July 14, 1789. After some hesitation the assembly decided on January 2, 1792 that all official documents would use the "era of Liberty" and that the year IV of Liberty started on January 1, 1792. This usage was modified on September 22, 1792 when the Republic was proclaimed and the Convention decided that all public documents would be dated Year I of the French Republic. The decree of January 2, 1793 stipulated that the year II of the Republic began on January 1, 1793. The establishment of the Republic was also used for the final version of the calendar, therefore, the calendar commemorates the Republic, not the Revolution. In France, it is only known as the calendrier republicain.
|“||Each year starts at midnight, with the day when the true autumnal equinox falls for the observatory of Paris. A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing one or more extra days (or in the case of Lunisolar calendars an extra month in order to keep the||”|
|“||The period of four years, at the end of which this addition of one day is usually necessary, is called the Franciade. . . The fourth year of the Franciade is called Sextile.||”|
These two specifications are incompatible, as leap years defined by the equinox do not recur on a regular four year schedule. Thus, the years III, VII, and XI were observed as leap years, and the years XV and XX were also planned as such, even though they were five years apart.
A fixed arithmetic rule for determining leap years was proposed in the name of the Committee of Public Education by Gilbert Romme on 19 Floréal An III (8 May 1795). Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen Year 1795 ( MDCCXCV) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a The proposed rule was to determine leap years by applying the rules of the Gregorian calendar to the years of the French Republic (years IV, VIII, XII, etc. were to be leap years) except that year 4000 (the last year of ten 400-year periods) should be a common year instead of a leap year. Because this proposal was never adopted, the original astronomical rule continued, which excluded any other fixed arithmetic rule. The proposal was intended to avoid uncertain future leap years caused by the inaccurate astronomical knowledge of the 1790s (even today, this statement is still valid due to the uncertainty in ΔT). This article is about the time difference for the temperature difference see Psychrometrics. In particular, the committee noted that the true equinox of year 144 was predicted to occur at "11:59:40 p. m. ", which was closer to midnight than its inherent 3 to 4 minute uncertainty.
The calendar was abolished because having a ten-day work week gave workers less rest (one day off every ten instead of one day off every seven); because the equinox was a mobile date to start every new year (a fantastic source of confusion for almost everybody); and because it was incompatible with the secular rhythms of trade fairs and agricultural markets. Trade is the willing exchange of goods, services, or both Trade is also called Commerce.
Another criticism of the calendar was that despite the poetic names of its months, they are tied to the climate and agriculture of France and therefore not applicable to France's overseas territories.
Apparently, the designers of the calendar were unaware of the possibility of a lunisolar calendar as their proposals do not appear to make any mention lunar months, lunisolar calendars, or of the Metonic cycle. A lunisolar calendar is a Calendar in many Cultures whose date indicates both the Moon phase and the time of the solar Year. In Lunar calendars a lunar month is the time between two identical syzygies ( New moons or Full moons. Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in Astronomy and Calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the Tropical year  As a result the Republican calendar, just like the Julian and Gregorian calendars, has months whose lengths only have a vestigial relation to an actual physical phenomenon. The Julian calendar, a reform of the Roman calendar, was introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC and came into force in 45 BC (709 Ab urbe condita The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used Calendar in the world today This is inconsistent with Romme's assertion that the new calendar should be faithful to natural cycles and should not perpetuate past mistakes: 
|“||. . . reason demands that we follow nature rather than servilely continuing upon the erroneous path of our predecessors. . .||”|
The proposal for the new calendar is a litany of criticism of previous efforts, the previous quote of Romme being representative. As another typical example is Romme's opinion about the nomenclature of the French Gregorian calendar:
|“||This nomenclature is clearly a monument to servitude and ignorance, in which each successive civilization has left an imprint of its impoverishment. The astrological names of the days of the week and their cabalistic order which has been preserved since the first Egyptians and by the impostors which profited thereby and the blindness of men who continually preferred to suffer rather than change any of the idiotic habits of their fathers would dishonor our Revolution if we did not maintain the vigilance which has so successfully attacked all preconceptions.||”|
This tone sets a high standard by which the Republican calendar might itself be judged.
Perhaps the most famous date in this calendar was immortalised by Karl Marx in the title of his pamphlet, The 18th Brumaire of Louis Napoléon (1852). The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Napoleon was written by Karl Marx between December 1851 and March 1852 and originally published in 1852 in Die Revolution The 18 Brumaire An VIII (9 November 1799) is considered the end of the French Revolution. 18 Brumaire, the coup of 18 Brumaire or sometimes simply Brumaire refers to the Coup d'état by which General Napoleon Bonaparte overthrew Events 694 - Egica, a king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims sentencing all Year 1799 ( MDCCXCIX) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a
Another famous revolutionary date is 9 Thermidor An II (July 27, 1794), the date the Convention turned against Robespierre, who, along with others associated with the Mountain, was guillotined the following day. The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror. Events 1214 - Battle of Bouvines: In France, Philip II of France defeats John of England. Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (maksimiljɛ̃ fʁɑ̃swa maʁi izidɔʁ də ʁɔbɛspjɛʁ ( 6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) The Mountain (in French La Montagne) refers in the context of the history of the French Revolution to a political group whose members called The guillotine ( pronounced /ˈgijətin/ or /ˈgɪlətin/ in English in French was a device used for carrying out executions by Decapitation. (See Glossary of the French Revolution for other significant dates under this calendar. This is a glossary of the French Revolution. It generally does not explicate names of individual people or their political associations those can be found in List of people associated )
Based on the above event, the term "Thermidorian" entered the Marxist vocabulary as referring to revolutionaries who destroy the revolution from the inside and turn against its true aims. Marxism is the political philosophy and practice derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. For example, Trotsky and his followers used this term about Stalin. Leon Trotsky ( Russian:, Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij Joseph Stalin ( ნამდვილი გვარი ჯუღაშვილი|Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili; March 5 1953 was General Secretary of the Communist Party
Emile Zola's novel Germinal takes its name from the calendar, as does the dish, Lobster thermidor. Émile François Zola ( (2 April 1840 &ndash 29 September 1902 was an influential French Writer, the most important exemplar of the literary school of Germinal (1885 is the thirteenth novel in Émile Zola 's twenty-volume series Les Rougon-Macquart. Lobster Thermidor is a French dish consisting of a creamy cheesy mixture of cooked Lobster meat Egg yolks and Brandy or The frigates of the Floréal class all bear names of Republican months. Definition of the requirements After the end of the Cold War it was felt that the risks of a large-scale military confrontation had all but disappeared
The Convention of 9 Brumaire An III, October 30, 1794, established the Ecole Normale Superieure. Events 637 - Antioch surrenders to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge. Year 1794 ( MDCCXCIV) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a École Normale de Musique de ParisThe École normale supérieure (also known as Normale Sup’, Normale, ENS, ENS-Paris, ENS-Ulm or The date appears prominently on the entrance to the school.
The Republican calendar year began at the autumn equinox and had twelve months of 30 days each, which were given new names based on nature:
Note: Fervidor appeared on many printed calendars for Year II of the French Republic (September 22, 1793 - September 21, 1794). An equinox is the event of the Sun passing over the Earth's equator in its annual cycle Vendémiaire was the first Month in the French Republican Calendar. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Brumaire was the second Month in the French Republican Calendar. Frimaire was the third Month in the French Republican Calendar. Nivôse (also Nivose) was the fourth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Pluviôse (also Pluviose) was the fifth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Ventôse (also Ventose) was the sixth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Germinal was the seventh Month in the French Republican Calendar. For the ship class see Floréal class frigate Floréal was the eighth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Prairial was the ninth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Messidor was the tenth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Thermidor was the eleventh Month in the French Republican Calendar. Fructidor was the twelfth Month in the French Republican Calendar.
The English translations stated above are approximate, as most of the month names were new words coined from French, Latin or Greek. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly The endings of the names are grouped by season.
The month is divided into three décades or 'weeks' of ten days each, named simply:
Décades were abandoned in Floréal an X (April 1802). 
Instead of most days having a saint as in the Roman Catholic calendar of saints, each day has an animal (days ending in 5), a tool (days ending in 0) or else a plant or mineral (all other days) associated with it. A saint (from the Latin sanctus) is a human being to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated a high level of Holiness and Sanctity For earlier forms of the General Roman Calendar see the Tridentine Calendar, the General Roman Calendar as in 1954, General Roman Calendar of Pope Pius
|Vendémiaire (Sep 22 ~ Oct 21)||Brumaire (Oct 22 ~ Nov 20)||Frimaire (Nov 21 ~ Dec 20)|
|Nivôse (Dec 21 ~ Jan 19)||Pluviôse (Jan 20 ~ Feb 18)||Ventôse (Feb 19 ~ Mar 20)|
|Germinal (Mar 21 ~ Apr 19)||Floréal (Apr 20 ~ May 19)||Prairial (May 20 ~ Jun 18)|
|Messidor (Jun 19 ~ Jul 18)||Thermidor (Jul 19 ~ Aug 17)||Fructidor (Aug 18 ~ Sep 16)|
Five extra days — six in leap years — were national holidays at the end of every year. Vendémiaire was the first Month in the French Republican Calendar. Brumaire was the second Month in the French Republican Calendar. Frimaire was the third Month in the French Republican Calendar. For the Tokyo University supercomputer see Gravity Pipe. GRAPE, or GRA phics P rogramming E nvironment is Saffron ( Kurdish/Persian زَعْفَرَان is a Spice derived from the dried Stigma of the Flower of the saffron crocus ( Crocus sativus Chestnut ( Castanea) (including some chinkapin or Chinquapin) is a Genus of eight or nine Species of Deciduous CROCUS is a Research reactor at École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne in Switzerland, sometimes described as zero power but in fact limited The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. Impatiens is a genus of about 900-1000 species of Flowering Plants in the family Balsaminaceae. 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Mirabilis jalapa (The four o'clock flower or marvel of Peru) is the most commonly grown ornamental species of Mirabilis, and is available Pumpkin is a Gourd -like squash of the genus Cucurbita and the family Cucurbitaceae (which also includes gourds Buckwheat refers to plants in two genera of the Dicot family Polygonaceae: the Eurasian genus Fagopyrum, and the North American genus The sunflower ( Helianthus annuus) is an Annual plant in the family Asteraceae and native to the Americas, with a large flowering A fruit press is a device used to separate Fruit solids - stems skins Seeds, pulp leaves and Detritus - from Fruit juice This article is about the cultivation and uses of industrial hemp not its psychoactive cousin Cannabis (drug. The peach ( Prunus persica) is a species of Prunus native to China that bears an edible juicy fruit also called a peach For similar vegetables also called "turnip" see Turnip (disambiguation. Amaryllis is a monotypic (only one species Genus of plant also known as the Belladonna Lily or naked ladies. Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family The eggplant, aubergine, or brinjal ( Solanum melongena) is a plant of the family Solanaceae (also known as the nightshades The chili pepper, chilli pepper, or chili, is the fruit of the plants from the Genus Capsicum, which are members of the nightshade The tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum, syn Lycopersicon lycopersicum) is a herbaceous usually sprawling plant in the Solanaceae or nightshade family Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for An aging barrel is a barrel used to age Wine or distilled spirits such as Whiskey, Brandy, or Rum. The apple is the pomaceous Fruit of the apple tree Species Malus domestica in the Rose family Rosaceae. See also Wild celery Apium graveolens is a plant species in the family Apiaceae, and yielding celery and Celeriac A pear is a pomaceous Fruit produced by a tree of Genus Pyrus. The beet or beetroot is a Flowering plant species ( Beta vulgaris) in the family Chenopodiaceae. Goose (plural geese) is the English name for a considerable number of Birds belonging to the family Anatidae. The heliotropes ( Heliotropium) is a Genus of plants in the family Boraginaceae with 250 to 300 species Ficus is a Genus of about 850 Species of woody Trees Shrubs Vines Epiphytes and hemi-epiphytes in the family Sorbus torminalis ( Wild Service Tree) sometimes known as the Chequer(s Tree or Checker(s Tree, is a species of Sorbus The plough ( American spelling plow; both plaʊ is a Tool used in Farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed See also Aruncus, which is also known as "goatsbeard" The water caltrop or water chestnut is either of two Species of the Genus Trapa -- Trapa natans and Trapa bicornis. The Jerusalem artichoke ( Helianthus tuberosus) also called the sunroot or sunchoke or earth apple or topinambur, is a species Endive (ˈɛndiv or /ˈɛndɪv/ Cichorium endivia is a Leaf vegetable belonging to the daisy family. A turkey is either of two extant Species of large Birds in the Genus Meleagris native to North America. Sium sisarum or skirret is a Perennial plant of the family Apiaceae sometimes grown as a Root vegetable. Watercresses ( Nasturtium officinale, N microphyllum; formerly Rorippa nasturtium-aquaticum, R Plumbaginaceae is a family of Flowering plants, with a Cosmopolitan distribution. The pomegranate ( Punica granatum) is a Fruit -bearing Deciduous Shrub or small Tree growing to between five and eight metres tall In Agriculture, a set of harrows is an implement for cultivating the surface of the Soil. Acerola ( Malpighia glabra) or Acerolla, also known as Barbados cherry or wild crapemyrtle, is a tropical Fruit -bearing Shrub Madder is the common name of the Plant genus Rubia, the type genus of the madder family Rubiaceae. An orange —specifically the sweet orange —is the Citrus fruit Citrus sinensis ( syn Pheasants are a group of large Birds in the order Galliformes. The pistachio ( Pistacia vera L Anacardiaceae or sometimes Pistaciaceae) is a small Tree native to mountainous regions of Lathyrus tuberosus, also known as the Tuberous Pea, Earthnut Pea, or Aardaker, is a small climbing Perennial plant The Quince (kwɪns or Cydonia oblonga, is the sole member of the genus Cydonia and native to warm-temperate southwest Asia in the Caucasus Sorbus domestica ( Service Tree, or sometimes True Service Tree to distinguish it from the Wild Service Tree; syn The roller is an agricultural Tool used for flattening land or breaking up large clumps of Soil, especially after ploughing. Phyteuma is a genus of about 40-45 species of Flowering plants in the family Campanulaceae, native to Europe and western Asia. For similar vegetables also called "turnip" see Turnip (disambiguation. Common Chicory ( Cichorium intybus) is a bushy perennial Herb with blue lavender or occasionally white Flowers It grows Medlar ( Mespilus) is a genus of two species of Flowering plants in the subfamily Maloideae of the family Rosaceae. Pigs, also called hogs or' swine', are Ungulates which have been domesticated as sources of food leather and similar products since ancient times Corn salad ( Valerianella locusta) is a small Dicot Annual plant of the family Valerianaceae. Cauliflower is one of several vegetables in the species Brassica oleracea, in the family Brassicaceae. Honey is a sweet and Viscous fluid produced by Honey bees (and some other species and derived from the nectar of Flowers According to the Junipers are Coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. A pickaxe is a Hand tool with a hard head attached Perpendicular to the handle Wax has traditionally referred to a substance that is secreted by Bees ( Beeswax) and used by them in constructing their Horseradish ( Armoracia rusticana, syn Cochlearia armoracia) is a Perennial plant of the Brassicaceae family which also includes mustard Cedar ( Cedrus) is a genus of Coniferous Trees in the Plant family Pinaceae. Firs ( Abies) are a genus of between 45-55 species of Evergreen conifers in the family Pinaceae. The European Roe Deer ( Capreolus capreolus) is a Deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions Gorse ( Ulex) comprises a Genus of about 20 species of Evergreen Shrubs in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Cupressus sempervirens, the Mediterranean Cypress,(Or Italian Tuscan or Graveyard Cypress or Pencil Pine is a species of cypress native to the eastern Hedera (English name ivy, plural ivies) is a genus of 15 species of climbing or ground-creeping Evergreen woody plants in the family Junipers are Coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. Hoes are Bladed Tools used to agitate the surface of the Soil around Plants to remove weeds pile soil around the base Acer ( maple) is a Genus of Trees or Shrubs They are variously classified in a family of their own the Aceraceae, or Calluna vulgaris (also known as Ling is the sole species in the Genus Calluna in the family Ericaceae. Phragmites australis, the common reed, is a large perennial grass found in Wetlands throughout temperate and tropical regions of the Common sorrel ( Rumex acetosa) also known as spinach dock, is a perennial herb that is cultivated as a garden Herb or Crickets, family Gryllidae (also known as "true crickets" are Insects somewhat related to Grasshoppers and more closely related to katydids Pine nuts are the edible Seeds of Pines (family Pinaceae, genus Pinus) Cork material is a Prime-subset of generic cork tissue, harvested for commercial use primarily from the Cork Oak tree Quercus The Olive ( Olea europaea) is a Species of small Tree in the family Oleaceae, native to the coastal areas of the eastern A shovel is a Tool for lifting and moving loose material such as Coal, Gravel, Snow, Soil, or Sand and is an Nivôse (also Nivose) was the fourth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Pluviôse (also Pluviose) was the fifth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Ventôse (also Ventose) was the sixth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Peat is an accumulation of partially Decayed Vegetation matter. Bitumen is a mixture of organic Liquids that are highly Viscous, black sticky entirely soluble in Carbon disulfide, and composed primarily Sulfur or sulphur (ˈsʌlfɚ see spelling below) is the Chemical element that has the Atomic number 16 The dog ( Canis lupus familiaris) is a domesticated Subspecies of the gray wolf, a Mammal of the Canidae family of the order Lava is molten rock expelled by a Volcano during an eruption When first expelled from a volcanic vent it is a Liquid at Temperatures Topsoil is the upper outermost layer of soil usually the top 2 to 8 inches Manure is Organic matter used as Organic fertilizer in Agriculture. Potassium nitrate is a Chemical compound with the Chemical formula K[[Nitrogen N]] O 3 Granite (ˈɡrænɪt is a common and widely occurring type of intrusive, Felsic, igneous rock. Clay is a naturally occurring material composed primarily of fine-grained Minerals which show plasticity through a variable range of Water content, and Slate is a fine-grained foliated homogeneous, Metamorphic rock derived from an original Shale -type Sedimentary rock composed of Clay Sandstone is a Sedimentary rock composed mainly of Sand -size Mineral or rock grains. Rabbits are small Mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world Flint (or flintstone) is a hard sedimentary Cryptocrystalline form of the Mineral Quartz, categorized as a variety of Chert Marl or Marlstone is a Calcium carbonate or lime -rich mud or Mudstone which contains variable amounts of Clays and Aragonite Limestone is a Sedimentary rock composed largely of the Mineral Calcite ( Calcium carbonate: CaCO3 Marble is a nonfoliated Metamorphic rock resulting from the Metamorphism of Limestone, composed mostly of Calcite (a crystalline form of Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from Chaff. Gypsum is a very soft Mineral composed of Calcium sulfate dihydrate with the Chemical formula Ca[[sulfur S]] O 4·2 Salt is a Dietary mineral composed primarily of Sodium chloride that is essential for Animal life but toxic to most land plants Iron (ˈаɪɚn is a Chemical element with the symbol Fe (ferrum and Atomic number 26 Copper (ˈkɒpɚ is a Chemical element with the symbol Cu (cuprum and Atomic number 29 WikipediaManual of Style (spelling, articles should conform to one overall spelling style of English typically the one most linked to the article topic (if it is geographic Tin is a Chemical element with the symbol Sn (stannum and Atomic number 50 Characteristics Lead has a dull luster and is a dense, Ductile, very soft highly Zinc (ˈzɪŋk from Zink is a Metallic Chemical element with the symbol Zn and Atomic number 30 Mercury (ˈmɜrkjʊri also called quicksilver or hydrargyrum, is a Chemical element with the symbol Hg ( Latinized hydrargyrum Daphne is a genus of between 50-95 Species of Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs in the Plant family Thymelaeaceae Mosses are small soft Plants that are typically 1–10  cm (0 Ruscaceae is a family of Flowering plants in the order Asparagales that includes several genera previously included in the Liliaceae, for example in The common snowdrop ( Galanthus nivalis) is the best-known representative of a small Genus of about 20 species in the family Amaryllidaceae that Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family Viburnum tinus ( Laurustinus, Laurustinus Viburnum, or Laurestine) is a species of Flowering plant in the genus Viburnum Fomes fomentarius (formerly Ungulina fomentaria or Polyporus fomentarius) is a Bracket fungus often named horse's hoof fungus or tinder Daphne mezereum is a species of Daphne in the Flowering plant family Thymelaeaceae, native to most of Europe and western Populus is a genus of between 25–35 species of Flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere. The axe, or ax, is an implement that has been used for millennia to shape split and cut Wood, Harvest timber, as a Weapon Commonly known as Hellebores, members of the genus Helleborus comprise approximately 20 species (ongoing fieldwork may see this figure change of Herbaceous Broccoli is a plant of the Cabbage family Brassicaceae (formerly Cruciferae The Bay Laurel ( Laurus nobilis, Lauraceae) also known as True Laurel, Sweet Bay, Grecian Laurel, Laurel, or The hazels ( Corylus) are a genus of Deciduous Trees and large Shrubs native to the temperate northern hemisphere Cattle, colloquially referred to as cows, are domesticated Ungulates a member of the Subfamily Bovinae of the family Buxus is a Genus of about 70 species in the family Buxaceae. Common names include box (majority of English-speaking countries or boxwood Lichens (ˈlaɪkən or /lɪtʃən/ are symbiotic associations of a Fungus (the mycobiont with a photosynthetic partner (the photobiont also known as Taxus baccata is a conifer native to western central and southern Europe, northwest Africa, northern Iran and southwest The lungworts are the Genus Pulmonaria of Flowering plants in the family Boraginaceae, native to Europe The billhook is a traditional cutting tool used mainly in European Agriculture and Forestry, but also common in other parts of the world where it was Thlaspi arvense (common name Field Penny-cress) is a foetid Eurasian plant having round flat pods naturalized throughout North America Daphne is a genus of between 50-95 Species of Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs in the Plant family Thymelaeaceae Elytrigia repens ( Couch Grass; syn Triticum repens L Agropyron repens (L Polygonum is a Genus in the Buckwheat family Polygonaceae. Common names of polygonum species include knotweed, knotgrass Hares and jackrabbits are Leporids belonging to the Genus Lepus. The hazels ( Corylus) are a genus of Deciduous Trees and large Shrubs native to the temperate northern hemisphere Cyclamen is a Genus of 20 Species of Flowering plants traditionally classified in the family Primulaceae, but in recent years Chelidonium majus, commonly known as the greater celandine or tetterwort (in America the latter refers to Sanguinaria canadensis A sled, sledge or sleigh is a Vehicle with runners for sliding instead of wheels for rolling Coltsfoot ( Tussilago farfara) is a plant in the family Asteraceae. The Dogwoods comprise a group of 30-50 species of mostly Deciduous Woody plants growing as Shrubs and Trees some species are herbaceous perennial Matthiola ( syn Mathiola RBr) or stock is a Genus of Flowering plants It is named after Pietro Andrea This article is about the privet plant in the genus Ligustrum. The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe For the genus Hippophae, see Sea-buckthorn. The Buckthorns ( Rhamnus) are a genus (or two genera if Frangula Viola, commonly called Violets, is a Genus of Flowering plants in the family Violaceae, with around 400-500 species distributed Salix caprea ( Goat Willow, also known as the Pussy Willow or Great Sallow) is a common species of Willow native to Europe A spade is a tool designed primarily for the purpose of digging or removing earth Elms are Deciduous and Semi-deciduous Trees comprising the genus Ulmus, family Ulmaceae, found Fumariaceae is the Botanical name for a family of Flowering plants. The domestic goat ( Capra aegagrus hircus) is a subspecies of goat Domesticated from the Wild goat of Southwest Asia and Eastern Europe Spinach ( Spinacia oleracea) is a Flowering plant in the family of Amaranthaceae. The family Asteraceae or Compositae (known as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family) is the largest family of Flowering For the 2nd century BC grammarian sometimes thought to be named Anagallis see Agallis. Chervil ( Anthriscus cerefolium) is a delicate annual Herb related to Parsley. Twine is a strong Thread or String composed of two or more smaller strands or Yarns twisted together Parsley ( Petroselinum crispum) is a bright Green, biennial Herb, also used as Spice. Bellis perennis is a common European species of Daisy, often considered the archetypal Species of that name though many other related Tuna, are several Species of ocean-dwelling Fish in the family Scombridae, mostly in the genus Thunnus. A forest is an area with a high density of Trees There are many definitions of a forest based on various criteria Adiantum ( maidenhair fern) is a Genus of about 200 species of Ferns in the family Pteridaceae, though some researchers An ash can be any of four different tree genera from four very distinct families; most commonly in a combined form (e A dibber is a pointed hand operated wooden tool for making holes in the ground so that seeds or bulbs can be planted Germinal was the seventh Month in the French Republican Calendar. For the ship class see Floréal class frigate Floréal was the eighth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Events 1535 - French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships 110 men and Prairial was the ninth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Events 325 - The First Council of Nicaea &ndash the first Ecumenical Council of the Christian Church is held Primula vulgaris ( syn P acaulis (L Hill is a species of Primula native to western and southern Europe (from the Platanus is a small genus of Trees native to the Northern Hemisphere. Asparagus officinalis is a flowering plant species in the genus Asparagus from which the Vegetable known as asparagus is obtained Tulipa, commonly called tulip, is a Genus of about 150 species of bulbous Flowering plants in the family Liliaceae. The chicken ( Gallus gallus, sometimes G gallus domesticus) is a domesticated Fowl which is traditionally believed to have descended from Chard ( Beta vulgaris var cicla) also known as Swiss Chard, Silverbeet, Perpetual Spinach, Crab Beet and Mangold Birch is the name of any Tree of the genus Betula ( Bé-tu-la) in the family Betulaceae, closely related to the Alder is the common name of a Genus of Flowering plants ( Alnus) belonging to the Birch family (Family Betulaceae) For the third season episode of Star Trek Enterprise, see " Hatchery (Star Trek Enterprise " Vinca (from Latin vincire: "to bind fetter" or Periwinkle is a genus of five species in the family Apocynaceae, For the babyfood see Beech-Nut. Beech ( Fagus) is a genus of ten Species of Deciduous Trees in the Bees are flying Insects closely related to Wasps and Ants Bees are a Monophyletic lineage within the superfamily Apoidea Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) is a Temperate annual or Biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. Larches are Conifers in the genus Larix, in the family Pinaceae. Poison hemlock redirects here For other uses of "hemlock" see Hemlock. The radish ( Raphanus sativus) is an edible Root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre- A beehive is in a general sense an enclosed structure in which some species of Honey bees (genus Apis) live and raise their young Cercis, or Redbuds, is a genus of about 6-10 species in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae of the pea family Fabaceae, native to warm- Temperate Lettuce ( Lactuca sativa) is a Temperate annual or Biennial plant of the daisy family Asteraceae. The Chestnut oak ( Quercus prinus; synonyms Quercus montana Willd Eruca sativa (syn E vesicaria subsp sativa (Miller Thell Brassica eruca L The unrelated but somewhat similar-looking Chinaberry ( Melia azedarach) is sometimes called "lilac" too Anemone ( A-ne-mó-ne, from the Gr Άνεμος wind is a Genus of about 120 Species of flowering plants in the The pansy or pansy violet s are a large group of plants cultivated as garden Flowers Pansies are derived from Viola tricolor and can include Blueberries are Flowering plants in the genus Vaccinium, sect A knife is a handheld sharp-edged instrument consisting of handle attached to a Blade used for cutting A rose is a perennial flowering Shrub or vine of the Genus Rosa, within the family Rosaceae, that contains over 100 species The term oak can be used as part of the common name of any of about 400 species of Trees and Shrubs in the Genus Quercus (from Latin A fern is any one of a group of about 20000 Species of Plants classified in the phylum or division Pteridophyta, also known as Filicophyta Hawthorn ( Crataegus) is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in The Nightingale ( Luscinia megarhynchos) also known as Rufous and Common Nightingale, is a small Passerine Bird that was formerly Aquilegia ( columbine) is a Genus of about 60-70 species of Herbaceous Perennial plants that are found in Meadows Woodlands Convallaria majalis, commonly known as the Lily of the Valley or Lily-of-the-Valley, is the only species in the genus Convallaria Agaricus bisporus, known as table mushroom, cultivated mushroom or button mushroom, is an edible Basidiomycete Fungus which A Hyacinth is any plant of genus Hyacinthus, which are bulbous Herbs formerly placed in the lily family Liliaceae but now regarded as the A rake ( Old English raca, cognate with Dutch raak, German Rechen, from a root meaning "to scrape together" Rheum is a genus of Perennial plants that grows from thick short Rhizomes The genus is in the family Polygonaceae, and includes the vegetable Sainfoins ( Onobrychis) are Eurasian perennial Herbs that have pale pink flowers and round single-seeded pods (see image below Arecaceae or Palmae (also known by the name Palmaceae, which is taxonomically invalid or commonly palm tree) the palm family is a family of Flowering For the place see Comfrey Minnesota Comfrey (also comphrey) is an important Herb in Organic gardening, having many medicinal Salad Burnet ( Sanguisorba minor) is a plant in the family Rosaceae, native to western central and southern Europe, northwest Africa and Alyssum is a genus of about 100-170 species of Flowering plants in the family Brassicaceae, native to Europe, Asia, and northern Atriplex ( Á-tri-plex) is a plant Genus of 100-200 Species, known by the common names of saltbush and orache Hoes are Bladed Tools used to agitate the surface of the Soil around Plants to remove weeds pile soil around the base Sea-lavender (also Sea Lavender, Sealavender) or Statice is any of 120 species of Flowers in the Genus Limonium This article is about the plants Fritillary butterflies are several genera in the Heliconiini ( Subfamily Heliconiinae) Borage ( Borago officinalis L also known as "starflower" ( گل گاوزبان ایرانی is Echium amoenum) is an annual Herb originating in Valerian ( Valeriana officinalis, Valerianaceae) is a hardy perennial flowering Plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers Carp is a common name for various Freshwater Fish of the family Cyprinidae, a very large The spindles, genus Euonymus, comprise about 170-180 species of Deciduous and Evergreen Shrubs and small Trees They Chives ( Allium schoenoprasum) are the smallest Species of the Onion family Alliaceae, native to Europe, Asia and See also Anchusa class corvette, a former class of Royal Navy ships The genus Anchusa L For the prepared condiment see Mustard (condiment. For other uses of the term "mustard" see Mustard. A shepherd is a person who tends to feeds or guards Sheep, especially in flocks Alfalfa ( Medicago sativa) is a flowering plant in the pea family Fabaceae cultivated as an important forage crop Daylilies comprise the small Genus Hemerocallis of flowering plants in the family Hemerocallidaceae. Alsike redirects here Alsike Sweden is also a town in the Knivsta Municipality, Sweden. Garden Angelica ( Angelica archangelica; Syn Archangelica officinalis Hoffm For duck as a food see Duck (food; for other meanings see Duck (disambiguation. Lemon balm ( Melissa officinalis) not to be confused with Bee balm, Monarda species is a perennial Herb in the Arrhenatherum, commonly called Oat-Grass or Button-grass is a genus with seven species and subspecies from the grass family Poaceae. Lilium martagon ( Martagon or Turk's cap lily) is a species of lily. Thyme (ˈtaɪm is a well known herb in common usage the name may refer to either the any or all members of the plant Genus Thymus, For the ancient Sicilian tyrant see Scythes. A scythe (ˈsaɪð from Old English siðe. Garden strawberries are a common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide A pea (inaccurately called a '''sweet pea''' by food distubutors is most commonly the small spherical Seed or the seed-pod of the Legume Pisum Acacia is a Genus of Shrubs and Trees belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first Quail is a collective name for several genera of mid-sized Birds in the Pheasant family Phasianidae, or in the family Odontophoridae. Sambucus ( Elder or Elderberry) is a genus of between 5 and 30 species of Shrubs or small Trees (two species Herbaceous) A poppy is any of a number of showy Flowers typically withone per stem, belonging to the poppy family. Tilia is a Genus of about 30 species of Trees native throughout most of the temperate Northern Hemisphere, in Asia (where the greatest A pitchfork is an agricultural Tool with a long handle and long thin widely separated Centaurea cyanus ( Cornflower, Bachelor's button, Basket flower, Bluebottle, Boutonniere flower, Hurtsickle) is a small Honeysuckles ( Lonicera; syn Caprifolium Mill) are arching Shrubs or twining Vines in the family Caprifoliaceae Galium is a large Genus of annual and perennial Herbaceous plants in the family Rubiaceae, with about 400 Species For the submarine class see Tench class submarine. The tench or doctor fish ( Tinca tinca) is a Freshwater Jasmine or Jessamine ( Jasminum) (from Persian yasmin, ie "gift from God" via Arabic) is a Genus of Shrubs This article is about the plant of genus Verbena. For other plants called "verbenas" see below. Thyme (ˈtaɪm is a well known herb in common usage the name may refer to either the any or all members of the plant Genus Thymus, For the ancient Balkan region and tribe see Paionia. The peony or paeony ( Paeonia) is the only genus in the "CARTS" redirects here For the transportation system see Capital Area Rural Transportation System, or Chautauqua CARTS. Messidor was the tenth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Thermidor was the eleventh Month in the French Republican Calendar. Fructidor was the twelfth Month in the French Republican Calendar. Rye ( Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain and forage crop Oats redirects here It may mean either the common cereal oat discussed here or any cultivated or wild species of the Genus Avena. Organicsalsajpg||thumb|right|Onions used in salsa.]]Cooked onions in frying pan Veronica is the largest genus in the Flowering plant family Plantaginaceae, with about 500 species it was formerly classified in the family Scrophulariaceae In its common modern meaning a mule is the offspring of a male Donkey and a female Horse, which is classified as a kind of F1 hybrid. Rosemary ( la Rosmarinus officinalis) is a woody perennial Herb with fragrant evergreen needle-like leaves. The cucumber ( Cucumis sativus) is a widely cultivated plant in the Gourd family Cucurbitaceae, which includes squash, and in the same The term shallot is used to describe two different Allium species of plant A sickle is a hand-held Agricultural Tool with a curved Blade typically used for harvesting grain crop or cutting grass for Hay. Coriander ( Coriandrum sativum) also commonly called cilantro, is an annual Herb in the family Apiaceae. The Globe Artichoke ( Cynara cardunculus) Globe Artichokes are known to have been cultivated at Naples around the middle of the 9th century and This article is about the Spice; for other meanings see Clove (disambiguation. The Lavenders Lavandula are a Genus of about 25–30 species of Flowering plants in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to the Mediterranean The chamois ( Rupicapra rupicapra) is a Goat -like animal native to the Carpathian Mountains of Romania the European Alps, the Gran Tobacco is an Agricultural product recognized as an addictive drug processed from the fresh Leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. The Red currant ( Ribes rubrum) is a member of the genus Ribes in the Gooseberry family Grossulariaceae, native to parts of western The Genus Lathyrus consists of the sweet peas and vetchlings, Flowering plants in the Legume family Fabaceae. This article is about the Cherry berry also classified as fruit for the ornamental tree See Cherry Blossom. A park is a protected area of Land and Water, usually in its natural or semi-natural (landscaped state and set aside for some purpose often to do with human Mentha ( mint) is a Genus of about 25 Species (and many hundreds of varieties) of Flowering plants in the family Bean is a common name for large plant Seeds of several genera of the family Fabaceae (formerly Leguminosae used for human food or animal The guineafowl (sometimes called guineahen are a family of birds in the same order as the Pheasants turkeys and other game birds and is native to Common sage ( Salvia officinalis) is a small perennial Evergreen Subshrub, with woody stems grayish leaves and blue to purplish flowers Allium sativum L, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the Onion family Alliaceae. Common Vetch ( Vicia sativa L also known as Tare or Vetch, is a Nitrogen fixing leguminous plant Wheat ( Triticum spp is a worldwide cultivated grass from the Levant area of the Middle East. The shawm was a Medieval and Renaissance Musical instrument of the Woodwind family made in Europe from the late 13th century until Einkorn wheat (from German Einkorn, literally "one grain" can refer either to the wild species of Wheat, Triticum boeoticum (the spelling Verbascum thapsus ( Great or Common Mullein) is a species of Mullein native to Europe, northern Africa and Asia Melon is a term used for various members of the Cucurbitaceae family with fleshy fruit Ryegrass ( Lolium) is a genus of nine species of tufted Grasses family Poaceae. Equisetum is a genus of Vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds Artemisia vulgaris ( mugwort or common wormwood) is one of several species in the genus Artemisia with names containing mugwort Safflower ( Carthamus tinctorius L) is a highly branched Herbaceous, Thistle -like annual usually with many long sharp spines on the leaves The BlackBerry is a Wireless Handheld device introduced in 1999 as a two-way pager A watering can is a portable container usually with a handle and a spout used to water plants by hand Panicum virgatum, commonly known as switchgrass, is a warm season Grass and is one of the dominant Species of the central North American The common name Glasswort came into use in the 16th Century to describe plants growing in England whose ashes could be used for making soda-based (as opposed to Potash The Apricot ( Prunus armeniaca, "Armenian plum" in Latin syn Basil ( Ocimum basilicum) (ˈbeɪzəl or /ˈbæzəl/ of the Family Lamiaceae. Althaea officinalis ( Marshmallow, Marsh Mallow, or Common Marshmallow) is a species native to Africa, which is used as a Flax (also known as common flax or linseed) (binomial name Linum usitatissimum) is a member of the genus Linum The Almond ( Prunus dulcis, syn Prunus amygdalus Batsch Amygdalus communis L Gentiana is a genus of Flowering plants belonging to the Gentian family ( Gentianaceae) tribe Gentianeae and monophyletic subtribe Gentianinae A lock is a device for raising and lowering boats between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal Waterways. Carlina ( carline thistle) is a genus of about 30 species of Thistles in the family Asteraceae, native to Europe, north Africa The caper ( Capparis spinosa L is a perennial spiny shrub that bears rounded fleshy leaves and big white to pinkish-white flowers The lentil or daal or pulse ( Lens culinaris) is a bushy Annual plant of the legume family grown for its lens-shaped Seeds The family Asteraceae or Compositae (known as the aster, daisy, or sunflower family) is the largest family of Flowering Otters are semi- aquatic (or in one case aquatic) fish-eating Mammals The otter subfamily Lutrinae forms part of the family The Myrtle ( Myrtus) is a genus of one or two species of Flowering plants in the family Myrtaceae, native to southern Europe and north Rapeseed ( Brassica napus) also known as rape, oilseed rape, rapa, rapaseed and (in the case of one particular group of Lupin, often spelled lupine in North America, is the common name for members of the Genus Lupinus in the legume family Cotton is a soft staple Fibre that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant ( Gossypium sp A grinding mill is a Unit operation designed to break a solid material into smaller pieces A plum or gage is a stone fruit Tree in the genus Prunus, subgenus Prunus. The millets are a group of small- Seeded Species of Cereal crops or grains widely grown around the world for Food and Fodder A puffball is a member of any of a number of groups of fungus in the division Basidiomycota. Barley ( Hordeum vulgare) is an annual Cereal Grain, which serves as a major animal Feed crop, with smaller amounts used for Salmon is the common name for several species of Fish of the family Salmonidae. The tuberose ( Polianthes tuberosa) is a Perennial plant of the agave family Agavaceae, extracts of which are used as a middle note in Perfumery Melon is a term used for various members of the Cucurbitaceae family with fleshy fruit Liquorice (UK or licorice (US (see spelling differences;, or) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted A ladder is a vertical or inclined set of rungs or steps. There are two types rigid ladders that can be leaned against a vertical surface such as a Wall, and Watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ( Thunb) Matsum & Nakai family Cucurbitaceae) refers to both Fruit and Plant of a vine-like (climber Fennel ( Foeniculum vulgare) is a Plant Species in the Genus Foeniculum (treated as the sole species in the genus by Berberis ( Bér-be-ris, barberry, pepperidge bush) a Genus of about 450-500 species of Deciduous and Evergreen Walnuts (genus Juglans) are Plants in the family Juglandaceae. Trout is the common name given to a number of Species of Freshwater Fish belonging to the Salmonidae family The lemon ( Citrus × limon) is a hybrid in cultivated wild plants Dipsacus is a Genus of Flowering plant in the family Dipsacaceae. For the genus Hippophae, see Sea-buckthorn. The Buckthorns ( Rhamnus) are a genus (or two genera if Frangula Tagetes is a Genus of 52 species of annual and perennial Herbaceous plants in the Daisy family ( Asteraceae or The Common Hazel ( Corylus avellana) is a species of Hazel native to Europe and western Asia, from the British Isles The hop ( Humulus) is a small genus of Flowering plants native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere. Sorghum is a genus of numerous species of grasses, some of which are raised for grain and many of which are used as Fodder plants either cultivated or as part Crayfish, crawfish, crawdads, or crodgers are freshwater Crustaceans resembling small Lobsters to which they are closely For the fruit known as "Chinese Bitter Orange" see Trifoliate orange. The goldenrod is a yellow Flowering plant in the Family Asteraceae. Maize (ˈmeɪz ( Zea mays L. ssp mays) known as corn in some countries is a cereal grain domesticated in Mesoamerica Chestnut ( Castanea) (including some chinkapin or Chinquapin) is a Genus of eight or nine Species of Deciduous A basket is a container which is traditionally constructed from stiff fibres often made of Willow. The Sansculottides (also Epagomènes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complémentaires, jours épagomènes A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing one or more extra days (or in the case of Lunisolar calendars an extra month in order to keep the These were originally known as les sans-culottides (after sans-culottes), but after year III (1795) as les jours complémentaires:
The calendar was abolished in the year XIV (1805). Sans-culottes ( French for "without Knee-breeches " was a term created around 1790 - 1792 by the French Aristocracy to describe the The Sansculottides (also Epagomènes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complémentaires, jours épagomènes Events 1176 - The Battle of Myriokephalon is fought 1462 - The Battle of Świecino (or Battle of Żarnowiec The Sansculottides (also Epagomènes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complémentaires, jours épagomènes Events 96 - Nerva is proclaimed Roman Emperor after Domitian is assassinated The Sansculottides (also Epagomènes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complémentaires, jours épagomènes Events 335 - Dalmatius is raised to the rank of Caesar by his uncle Constantine I. The Sansculottides (also Epagomènes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complémentaires, jours épagomènes Events 451 - The Battle of Chalons takes place in North Eastern France. The Sansculottides (also Epagomènes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complémentaires, jours épagomènes Events 1217 - The Estonian tribal leader Lembitu of Lehola was killed in a battle against Teutonic Knights. The Sansculottides (also Epagomènes; French Sans-culottides, Sanculottides, jours complémentaires, jours épagomènes Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians After this date, opinions seem to differ on the method by which the leap years would have been determined if the calendar were still in force. There are at least four hypotheses used to convert dates from the Gregorian calendar:
The following table shows when several years of the Republican Era begin on the Gregorian calendar, according to each of the four above methods:
* Leap year, extra day added at end of year
Another, modern civil calendar proposal also applies the 128-years rule, keeps the year numbering and the names of the months, but maintains the old roman New Year's Day, the lengths of month like the seven-days-week. Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 66 - Emperor Nero creates the Legion I Italica. 1236 - The Lithuanians Events 1122 - Concordat of Worms. 1459 - Battle of Blore Heath, the first major battle of the English .