|Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard|
29 July 1907 – 16 March 1912
|Preceded by||Sir Matthew Nathan|
|Succeeded by||Sir Francis Henry May|
|Born||January 22, 1858|
|Died||April 11, 1945 (aged 87)|
Dorking, Surrey, England, UK
|Alma mater||Royal Military College, Sandhurst|
|Profession||Soldier, explorer, colonial administrator|
Frederick John Dealtry Lugard, 1st Baron Lugard, GCMG, CB, DSO, PC (January 22, 1858 – 11 April 1945) was a British soldier, explorer of Africa and colonial administrator, who was Governor of Hong Kong (1907–1912) and Governor-General of Nigeria (1914–1919). The Governor of Hong Kong ( abbreviated 港督 was the head of the Hong Kong Government, ex-officio Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral Events 1014 - Byzantine-Bulgarian Wars: Battle of Kleidion: Byzantine emperor Basil II inflicts a decisive defeat Year 1907 ( MCMVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year Events 597 BC - Babylonians capture Jerusalem, replace Jehoiachin with Zedekiah as king Year 1912 ( MCMXII) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Leap year starting Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Matthew Nathan, GCMG ( Chinese Translated Name 彌敦 (3 January 1862 – 18 April 1939 was a British soldier and civil Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar Dorking is an historic Market town at the foot of the North Downs approximately south of London, in Surrey, England. Surrey is a county in the South East of England and is one of the Home Counties. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located Alma mater is Latin for "nourishing mother" It was used in Ancient Rome as a title for the mother Goddess, and in Medieval The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst ( RMAS) commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is the British Army officer initial training centre The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George Prince Regent (later George The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George The Distinguished Service Order ( DSO) is a Military decoration of the United Kingdom, and formerly of other Commonwealth countries awarded for Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign. Events 565 - Eutychius is deposed as Patriarch of Constantinople by John Scholasticus. Year 1858 ( MDCCCLVIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Common Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The Governor of Hong Kong ( abbreviated 港督 was the head of the Hong Kong Government, ex-officio Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral This page contains a list of Governors-General of Nigeria. See also Lists of incumbents, List of Presidents of Nigeria.
Lugard was born in Madras (now Chennai) in India, but was raised in Worcester, England. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Worcester (ˈwʊstə is a city and County town of Worcestershire, in the West Midlands of England. England is a Country which is part of the United Kingdom. Its inhabitants account for more than 83% of the total UK population whilst its mainland He was the son of the Reverend F. G. Lugard, a British Army Chaplain at Madras, and Mary Howard (1819–1865), the youngest daughter of Reverend John Garton Howard (1786–1862), a younger son of Yorkshire landed gentry. Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain. Lugard was educated at Rossall School and the Royal Military College, Sandhurst. Rossall School is a British, co-educational, public school (an independent school in England in between Cleveleys and Fleetwood The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst ( RMAS) commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is the British Army officer initial training centre
Lugard was commissioned into the 9th Foot (East Norfolk Regiment) in 1878, joining the second battalion in India, and serving in the following campaigns:
In May 1888, Lugard took command of an expedition organized by the British settlers in Nyasaland against Arab slave traders on Lake Nyasa, and was severely wounded. A battalion is a Military unit of around 500-1500 men usually consisting of between two and seven companies and typically commanded by a Lieutenant Colonel Afghanistan /æfˈgænɪstæn/ officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan ( Pashto: د افغانستان اسلامي جمهوریت, The Mahdist War was a Colonial war of the late 19th century It was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese and the Egyptian and later British The Third Anglo-Burmese War or The Third Burmese war lasted several weeks in 1885 with sporadic resistance into 1887 The History of Malawi covers the area of present-day Malawi. The region was once part of the Maravi Empire. Lake Malawi (also known as Lake Nyasa, Lake Nyassa, Lake Niassa, and Lago Niassa in Mozambique) is the most southerly Lake
After he left Nyasaland in April 1889, Lugard joined the Imperial British East Africa Company. The Imperial British East Africa Company (IBEAC was the administrator of British East Africa, which was the forerunner of the East Africa Protectorate, later In their service, he explored the Sabaki river and the neighbouring region, in addition to elaborating a scheme for the emancipation of the slaves held by Arabs in the Zanzibar mainland. Sabaki redirects here For the go term see Go terms Sabaki Athi-Galana-Sabaki River is the second longest river in Kenya Zanzibar ( is part of the East African republic of Tanzania. It consists of the Zanzibar Archipelago in the
In 1890, Lugard was sent by the company to Uganda, where he secured British predominance of the area and put an end to the civil disturbances. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. The efforts came with severe fighting, chiefly notable for an unprovoked attack by the French on the British faction.
After the successful efforts to end disturbances, Lugard became Military Administrator of Uganda from December 26, 1890 to May 1892. The Republic of Uganda is a Landlocked country in East Africa. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbrook - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht. Year 1890 ( MDCCCXC) was a Common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common Year 1892 ( MDCCCXCII) was a Leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar (or a Leap year While administering Uganda, he journeyed round Ruwenzori to Albert Edward Nyanza, mapping a large area of the country. Lake Edward or Edward Nyanza is the smallest of the Great Lakes of Africa. He also visited Albert Nyanza, and brought away some thousands of Sudanese who had been left there by Emin Pasha and H. M. Stanley during the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. Lake Albert or Albert Lake may refer to Lake Albert (Africa, one of the African Great Lakes Lake Albert (South Australia Mehmet Emin Pasha ( March 28, 1840 &ndash October 23, 1892) born Isaak Eduard Schnitzer, baptized (c Sir Henry Morton Stanley, GCB, born John Rowlands ( January 28 1841 &ndash May 10 1904) was a British journalist The Emin Pasha Relief Expedition of 1886 to 1889 was one of the last major European expedition into the interior of Africa in the nineteenth century ostensibly
When Lugard returned to England in 1892, he successfully persuaded Prime Minister William Gladstone and his cabinet from abandoning Uganda. In 1894, Lugard was despatched by the Royal Niger Company to Borgu, where he secured treaties with the kings and chiefs acknowledging the sovereignty of the British company, while distancing the other colonial powers that were there. The Royal Niger Company was a mercantile company chartered by the British government in the nineteenth century Borgu was a country in Africa, partitioned between the Great Britain and France by the Anglo-French Convention of 1898.
From 1896 to 1897, Lugard took charge of an expedition to Lake Ngami on behalf of the British West Charterland Company. Lake Ngami is an Endorheic Lake in Botswana north of the Kalahari Desert. From Ngami he was recalled by the British government and sent to West Africa, where he was commissioned to raise a native force to protect British interests in the hinterland of Lagos and Nigeria against French aggression. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with Nigeria, officially named the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a federal Constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal
In August 1897, Lugard organized the West African Frontier Force, and commanded it until the end of December 1899, when the disputes with France were composed. The West African Frontier Force (RWAFF was a multi-battalion field force formed by the British Colonial Office in 1900 to garrison the West African colonies of
After he relinquished command of the West African Frontier Force, Lugard was made High Commissioner of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria, a position he held until 1906. Northern Nigeria is a geographical region of Nigeria. It is more arid and has less population density than the south At that time, the portion of Northern Nigeria under effective control was small, and Lugard's task in organizing this vast territory was made more difficult by the refusal of the sultan of Sokoto and many other Fula princes to fulfil their treaty obligations. Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of Nigeria, near to where the Sokoto River and Rima River meet The Fula or Fulbe or Fulani (the latter being an Anglicisation of the word in their language Fulɓe) are an ethnic group of
In 1903, British control over the whole protectorate was made possible a successful campaign against the emir of Kano and the sultan of Sokoto. In International law, a protectorate is a autonomous territory that is "protected" by a stronger state or entity hense the protector which engages to protect Kano is the administrative center of the Kano State and the third largest City in Nigeria, in terms By the time Lugard resigned as commissioner, the entire Nigeria was being peacefully administered under the supervision of British residents. There were however uprisings that were brutally put down by Lugards troops. A Mahdi rebellion in 1906 at the Satiru, a village near Sokoto resulted in the total destruction of the town with huge number of casualties. In Islamic eschatology the Mahdi ( ar مهدي, also Mehdi; "Guided One" is the prophesied redeemer of Islam who will stay on earth
About a year after he resigned as High Commissioner of the Protectorate of Northern Nigeria, Lugard was appointed as Governor of Hong Kong, a position he held until March of 1912. Northern Nigeria is a geographical region of Nigeria. It is more arid and has less population density than the south The Governor of Hong Kong ( abbreviated 港督 was the head of the Hong Kong Government, ex-officio Commander-in-Chief and Vice-Admiral During his tenure, Lugard proposed to return Weihaiwei to the Chinese government, in return for the ceding of the rented New Territories in perpetuity. Administrative divisions The Prefecture-level city of Weihai administers 4 county-level divisions, including 1 districts and 3 county-level cities New Territories, abbreviated to NT or NT, is a region in Hong Kong excluding Hong Kong Island, Kowloon and Stonecutters Island However, the proposal received less than warm receptions, and it was not acted upon. Some believed that if the proposal was acted on, Hong Kong might forever remain in British hands.
Lugard was largely remembered for his efforts to create the University of Hong Kong in 1911, despite the cold receptions from the imperial Colonial Office and most local British companies, such as the Hong Kong and Shanghai Banking Corporation. HSBC Holdings plc ( (,,,) is a Public limited company incorporated in England and Wales, headquartered in London.
The Dual Mandate in British Tropical Africa is one of Lugard's works regarding indirect rule in colonial Africa. In this work, Lugard outlines the reasons and methods that should be employed in the colonization of Africa by Britain. Some of his justifications included spreading Christianity and ending barbarism. He also saw state sponsored colonization as a way to protect missionaries, local chiefs, and local people from each other as well as from foreign powers. Also, for Lugard, it was vital that Britain gain control of unclaimed areas before Germany, Portugal, or France claimed the land and its resources for themselves. He realized that there were vast profits to be made through the exporting of resources like rubber and through taxation of native populations, as well as importers and exporters. In addition, these resources and inexpensive native labour (slavery having been outlawed by Britain in 1834) would provide vital fuel for the industrial revolution in resource depleted Britain as well as monies for public works projects. Abolitionism was a political movement of the 18th and 19th century which sought to make Slavery illegal particularly in the United States and British West Indies Finally, Lugard reasoned that colonization had become a fad and that in order to remain a super power, Britain would need to hold colonies in order to avoid appearing weak.
Lugard pushed for native rule in African colonies. He reasoned that black Africans were very different from white Europeans. Therefore, natives should act as a sort of middle manager in colonial governance. This would avoid revolt because, as Lugard believed, the people of Africa would be more likely to follow someone who looked like them, spoke their languages, and shared their customs. The technique was employed successfully by European colonial leaders.
In 1912, Lugard returned to Nigeria as Governor of the two protectorates. His main mission was to complete the amalgamation into one colony. Joining two or more political units such as municipalities, counties, or cities into one entity is referred to as amalgamation when the process occurs Although controversial in Lagos, where it was opposed by a large section of the political class and the media, the amalgamation did not arouse passion in the rest of the country. Lagos ( pron ˈleɪgɒs or /ˈlɑːgoʊs/ overseas is the most populous Conurbation in Nigeria with From 1914 to 1919, Lugard was made Governor General of the now combined Colony of Nigeria. Throughout his tenure, Lugard sought strenuously to secure the amelioration of the condition of the native people, among other means by the exclusion, wherever possible, of alcoholic liquors, and by the suppression of slave raiding and slavery.
From 1922 to 1936 he was British representative on the League of Nation's Permanent Mandates Commission. The Permanent Mandates Commission was the commission of the League of Nations responsible for oversight of mandates.
Lugard married Flora Louise Shaw in 1902. Dame Flora Louisa Shaw Lady Lugard DBE (1852 Woolwich, London – 1929 Surrey, England) the daughter of an English father Captain Flora was a distinguished writer on colonial subjects for The Times. The Times is a daily national Newspaper published in the United Kingdom since 1785 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. Lugard died on 11 April 1945. Events 491 - Flavius Anastasius becomes Byzantine Emperor, with the name of Anastasius I. Year 1945 ( MCMXLV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar
Lugard was created Companion of the Order of the Bath (CB) in 1895. The Most Honourable Order of the Bath (formerly The Most Honourable Military Order of the Bath) is a British Order of chivalry founded by George He was knighted as Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George (KCMG) in 1901 and raised to Knight Grand Cross (GCMG) in 1911. The Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George is a British order of chivalry founded on 28 April 1818 by George Prince Regent (later George He was appointed to the Privy Council, entitling him to style himself "The Right Honourable", in the 1920 New Year Honours. Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council is a body of advisors to the British Sovereign.
Sir Matthew Nathan
|Governor of Hong Kong|
1907 – 1912
Sir Francis May
|Governor-General of Nigeria|
1914 – 1919
Governor of Nigeria
|Peerage of the United Kingdom|
|Baron Lugard of Abinger|
1907 – 1945