May 30, 1990 – December 10, 1999
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Stipe Mesić|
|Born||May 14, 1922|
Veliko Trgovišće, Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes
|Died||December 10, 1999 (aged 77) |
Dubrava clinic, Zagreb, Croatia
|Political party||Croatian Democratic Union|
Franjo Tuđman (May 14, 1922 - December 10, 1999) was the first president of Croatia in the 1990s. The President of Croatia is the Head of state. Croatia is a Parliamentary democracy where the President's main role is leading the armed forces Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between Events 1416 - The Council of Constance, called by the Emperor Sigismund a supporter of Antipope John XXIII burns Jerome of Prague following Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Stjepan "Stipe" Mesić (born December 24, 1934) is a Croatian politician Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Veliko Trgovišće (Translation Big Market Place) is a Village and Municipality in Krapina-Zagorje county in Croatia. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Zagreb (ˈzɑːgrɛb is the Capital and the largest city of Croatia. Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska demokratska zajednica HDZ is the main Center-right Political party in Croatia. Events 1264 - Battle of Lewes: Henry III of England is captured in France making Simon de Montfort the Year 1922 ( MCMXXII) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Croatia (Hrvatska ˈxȓvatska officially the Republic of Croatia ( Republika Hrvatska) is a southern Central European country at the crossroads between The 1990s collectively refers to the years between and including 1990 and 1999
Tuđman's political party HDZ (Hrvatska Demokratska Zajednica, Croatian Democratic Union) won the first post-communist multi-party elections in 1990 and he became the president of the country. The Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska demokratska zajednica HDZ is the main Center-right Political party in Croatia. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) A year later he proclaimed the Croatian declaration of independence. He was reelected twice and remained in power until his death in 1999. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar)
Franjo Tuđman was born in Veliko Trgovišće, a village in the Hrvatsko Zagorje region of northern Croatia, then a part of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Veliko Trgovišće (Translation Big Market Place) is a Village and Municipality in Krapina-Zagorje county in Croatia. The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croato-Slovene ie Serbo-Croatian, Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija
During WWII Tuđman, together with his brother Stjepan, fought on the side of Tito's partisans. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The Yugoslav Partisans, or simply the Partisans, ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian, Slovene: Partizani During the fighting his brother was killed in 1943, but Franjo had better luck, meeting his future wife Ankica. Year 1943 ( MCMXLIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Shortly after the end of the war his father Stjepan, who was an important member of the Croatian Peasant Party, killed his wife and then himself, according to the police finding. The Croatian Peasant Party (Hrvatska seljačka stranka HSS is a conservative political party in Croatia At that time Tuđman declared that his parents had been killed by the Ustaša, but after the breakup of Yugoslavia he blamed communists for the killing. For the militiamen of the Military Frontier, see Uskoci The Ustaša - Croatian Revolutionary Movement ( Croatian: This version of events has become the official version in modern Croatia. After the war's end Tuđman worked in the Ministry of Defence in Belgrade, attending military academy in 1957. Belgrade (Београд Beograd is the Capital and largest city of Serbia. A military academy or service academy (American English is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps of the Army the Navy Air Force In this period of his life he became the president of FK Partizan which in the time of his presidency created many jokes. Fudbalski klub Partizan ( Serbian Cyrillic: Фудбалски клуб Партизан English: Football Club Partizan) is a professional football
He became one of the youngest generals in the Yugoslav People's Army in the 1960s — a fact which some observers linked to the fact that he came from Zagorje, a region that gave few Communist partisans, except for Tito himself. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA YPA ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian: Jugoslavenska Narodna Armija or Jugoslovenska Others have observed that Tuđman was probably the most educated of Tito's generals (as regards military history, strategy and the interplay of politics and warfare) — this claim is supported by the fact that generations of future Yugoslav generals based their general exam theses on his voluminous book on guerrilla warfare throughout history: Rat protiv rata ("War against war"), 1957, which covers topics as diverse as Hannibal's drive across the Alps, the Spanish war against Napoleon and Yugoslav partisan warfare. A Strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often "winning Year 1957 ( MCMLVII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar) Hannibal (Pronounced in Phoenician: Hanniba'al means " Ba'al is my grace " or " Ba'al has given me grace " 247 BC &ndash Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian
Tuđman left active army service in 1961 to found the Institut za historiju radničkoga pokreta Hrvatske ("Institute for the History of Croatia's Workers' Movement"), and remained its director until 1967. Year 1961 ( MCMLXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Year 1967 ( MCMLXVII) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar of the 1967 Gregorian calendar.
Apart from his book on guerrilla warfare, Tuđman wrote a series of articles criticizing the Yugoslav Socialist establishment, and was subsequently expelled from the Party. Socialism refers to a broad set of economic theories of social organization advocating state or collective ownership and administration of the Means of production and distribution His most important book from that period was Velike ideje i Mali narodi ("Great ideas and small nations"), a monograph on political history that collided with central dogmas of Yugoslav Communist elite with regard to the interconnectedness of the national and social elements in the Yugoslav revolutionary war (during WWII). World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including
In 1971 he was sentenced to two years of prison for alleged subversive activities during the Croatian Spring. Year 1971 ( MCMLXXI) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. The Croatian Spring (Hrvatsko proljeće also called masovni pokret or MASPOK, for "mass movement" was a political movement from the early 1970s that called This was a national movement that was actually set in motion by Tito and Croatian party chief Bakarić in the climate of growing liberalism in the late 60s. Dr Vladimir Bakarić ( 8 March 1912 &ndash 16 January 1983) was a Croatian communist and It was initially a tepid and ideologically controlled party liberalism, but it soon grew into mass nationalist-based manifestation of dissatisfaction with the position of Croatia within Yugoslavia, and threatened the party's political monopoly. See also Kingdom of Yugoslavia, Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavia ( Serbo-Croatian As a result, the movement was suppressed by Tito, who used the military and the police to crush what he saw as separatism and a threat to the party's influence. Bakarić quickly distanced himself from the Croatian Communist leadership that he himself helped gain power earlier, and sided with the Yugoslav president. However, Tito took the protesters' demands into consideration, and in 1974 the new Yugoslav constitution granted the majority of the demands sought by the Croatian Spring.
Tuđman's role in 1971 was that of a dissident who questioned what he saw as the cornerstones of modern Serbian nationalism - the number of victims of the Jasenovac concentration camp, as well as the role of centralism in Yugoslavia and the ideology of unitary "Yugoslavism". A dissident, broadly defined is a person who actively challenges an established doctrine policy or institution Serbs ( Serbian: Срби Srbi) are a South Slavic people living in the Balkans and Central Europe, mainly in Serbia, Centralization (or centralisation) is the process by which the activities of an organization particularly those regarding decision-making become concentrated within Tuđman felt that what was originally a Croatian Romantic pan-Slavic idea from the 19th century had mutated into the front for what he claimed was a pan-Serbian drive for domination over non-Serb peoples. Pan-Slavism was a movement in the mid 19th century aimed at unity of all the Slavic peoples The main focus was in the Balkans where the South Slavs had been
On other topics like Communism and one-party monopoly, Tuđman remained mostly within the framework of Communist ideology. His sentence was commuted by Tito's government and Tuđman was released after nine months.
Tuđman was tried again in 1981 for having spread "enemy propaganda", while giving an interview to the Swedish TV on the position of Croats in Yugoslavia and was sentenced to three years of prison, but again he only served a portion (this time eleven months). Year 1981 ( MCMLXXXI) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981
In the latter part of the 1980s, when Yugoslavia was creeping towards its demise, torn by conflicting national aspirations, Tuđman formulated a Croatian national program. His primary goal was the establishment of the Croatian nation-state; therefore all ideological disputes from the past should be thrown away. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy In practice, this meant strong support from anti-Communist Croatian diaspora, especially financial.
Even though Tuđman's final goal was an independent Croatia, he was well aware of the realities of internal and foreign policy. So, his chief initial proposal was not a fully independent Croatia, but a confederal Yugoslavia with growing decentralization and democratization. Tuđman envisaged Croatia's future as a welfare capitalist state that will inevitably move towards central Europe and away from the Balkans. Central Europe is the Region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and
He also asserted that Serbian nationalism controlled the JNA (Yugoslav People's Army - Serbs, who constituted less than 40% of Yugoslavia's population, made up ca. The Yugoslav People's Army (JNA YPA ( Serbo-Croatian, Croatian, Serbian, Macedonian: Jugoslavenska Narodna Armija or Jugoslovenska 80% of commissioned officers corps and could wreak havoc on Croatian and Bosnian soil. The JNA was being rapidly Serbianized, both ideologically and ethnically, in less than four years. Tuđman's proposal was that Serbs in Croatia, who made up 11% of Croatia's population, should gain cultural autonomy, with some elements of territorial autonomy as well.
As far as Bosnia and Herzegovina was concerned, Tuđman was more ambivalent. Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan He thought that Bosniaks were essentially Croats of Muslim faith and would, freed from Communist censorship, declare themselves ethnically as Croats, therefore making Bosnia a predominantly Croatian country. The Bosniaks or Bosniacs (Bošnjak pl Bošnjaci bɔ'ʃɲaːt͡si are a South Slavic people living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina ("Bosnia"
Tuđman's connections with Croatian diaspora (he had traveled a few times to Canada and the US after 1987) proved to be crucial when he founded the Croatian Democratic Union ("Hrvatska demokratska zajednica" or HDZ) in 1989 — a party that was to stay in power until 2000. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The United States of America —commonly referred to as the Year 1987 ( MCMLXXXVII) was a Common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar) The Croatian Democratic Union (Hrvatska demokratska zajednica HDZ is the main Center-right Political party in Croatia.
Essentially this was a nationalist Croatian movement that affirmed Croatian values based on Catholicism, blended with historical and cultural traditions generally suppressed in Communist Yugoslavia. As a Christian Ecclesiastical term Catholic —from the Greek adjective, meaning "general" or "universal"—is described The aim was to gain national independence and to establish a Croatian nation-state. For the online game see Jennifer Government NationStates. The nation-state is a certain form of State that derives its legitimacy His party won around 60% of the seats in the Croatian Parliament. Afterwards the HDZ's constitutional changes, which included his refusal to accept Serbs as a constituent nation, inflamed Serb opinion in Croatia. Current Constitution of the Republic of Croatia was adopted by the Parliament of the Republic of Croatia on December 22, 1990. This resulted in many Serbs being purged from their jobs in the police, security forces, the media and factories. Tuđman was elected to the position of President of Croatia. The President of Croatia is the Head of state. Croatia is a Parliamentary democracy where the President's main role is leading the armed forces
From 1990 to 1995, Tuđman proved to be a master strategist. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) Year 1995 ( MCMXCV) was a Common year starting on Sunday. Events of 1995 According to the testimonies of both friends and enemies, he outmaneuvered Croatia's adversaries on many levels. While his opponent Milošević was a brilliant tactician who, by many accounts, lacked strategic vision, Tuđman was the exact opposite - frequently clumsy and erratic in behavior, he possessed the strong sense of mission and the vision of Croatia's independence, and the statesman's wisdom of how to realize it.
This was seen at crucial junctures of modern Croatia's history, including the war against the combined forces of the Serbian nationalist rebels (assisted at first by the JNA), the war in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Operation Storm, and the Dayton peace agreement. Operation Storm ( Croatian: Operacija Oluja, Serbian Cyrillic: Oпeрaциja Oлуja was the Code name given to a large-scale military operation The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol For instance, Tuđman's strategy of stalling the Yugoslav Army in 1991 by signing frequent cease fires mediated by foreign diplomats was efficient — when the first cease fire was signed, the emerging Croatian Army had seven brigades; by the final cease fire (the twentieth), the Croats had 64 brigades. Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. In March 1991, he was believed to have signed the Karađorđevo agreement a military pact signed Milošević in the town of Karađorđevo. Events in March American Red Cross Month Fire Prevention month ( The Philippines) Women's History Month ( United Year 1991 ( MCMXCI) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar of the Gregorian Calendar. Karađorđevo meeting was an meeting between Croatian President Franjo Tuđman and Serbian President Slobodan Milošević to redistribute The treaty was meant to limit conflicts between the Bosnian Serb and Croat forces by allowing both parties to concentrate on taking Bosnian territory. The Army of the Republika Srpska (Војска Републике Српске (ВРС Serbian, Bosnian, Croatian Vojska Republike Srpske HVO may refer to Croatian Defence Council Hydrogenated vegetable oil Hawaiian Volcano Observatory, a unit of the Bosnia and Herzegovina ( Latin script: Bosna i Hercegovina, Cyrillic script: Босна и Херцеговина is a country on the Balkan According to some sources Tuđman's intention in this was to annex the part of Bosnia with a Croatian minority so that his state would have borders similar to Banovina Hrvatska . The Banovina of Croatia or Banate of Croatia ( Croatian, Bosnian, and Serbian: Banovina Hrvatska) was a province ( Banovina However , there is no written proof for that.
The most common accusation is that of autocratic behavior and despotism. However, many argue that, faced with a superior military aggressor, the Croats, who had not yet built functioning national institutions, had to rely on a strong personal leadership Tuđman embodied. Although such kind of leadership necessarily involved unpleasant side-effects like traits of autocratic behavior, it might have been beneficial in crucial matters, as the Croats under Tuđman won the war and founded the nation-state, at least partly thanks to this characteristic.
In 1997, the HDZ government undertook several programs to refurbish Tuđman's tarnished image, especially for Western consumption. One of these projects included an "official" biography of the President, written by an American science-fiction author, Joe Tripician. The resulting biography, however, was critical of Tuđman, and was never published.
Tuđman, who had been thrice elected as President of Croatia, fell ill with cancer in 1993. Year 1993 ( MCMXCIII) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar) He recovered, but the general state of health declined in 1999 and Tuđman died from an internal hemorrhage on December 10, 1999. Year 1999 ( MCMXCIX) was a Common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1999 Gregorian calendar) Bleeding, technically known as hemorrhaging / haemorrhaging (see American and British spelling differences) is the loss of Blood from Events 1041 - Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V
Had Tuđman lived longer, he may have been brought up on war crimes charges by the UN war crimes tribunal in The Hague. The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991  Graham Blewitt, a senior Tribunal prosecutor, told the Agence France Presse wire service that "There would have been sufficient evidence to indict president Tuđman had he still been alive. "  The Tribunal's indictment of Croatian general Ante Gotovina lists Tuđman as a key participant in a "joint criminal enterprise" aimed at the "permanent removal of the Serb population from the Krajina region by force, fear or threat of force, persecution, forced displacement, transfer and deportation, appropriation and destruction of property and other means. Ante Gotovina (born October 12, 1955, Island of Pašman, Croatia) is a former lieutenant general ( general pukovnik) of the Croatian The Republic of Serbian Krajina abbreviated RSK (Република Српска Крајина РСК sometimes also translated "Republic of Serb Krajina" " 
President Tuđman initiated the process of privatization and de-nationalization in Croatia. The Croatian privatization controversy is a common name used to describe matters associated with the Criminal activity which plunged the Republic of Croatia into Privatization is the incidence or process of transferring ownership of business from the Public sector (government to the Private sector (business Nationalization, also spelled nationalisation, is the act of taking an industry or assets into the Public ownership of a national government However, this was far from transparent and fully legal. The fact that the new government's legal system was inefficient and slow, as well as the wider context of the Yugoslav wars caused numerous incidents known collectively in Croatia as the "privatization robbery" (Croatian: privatizacijska pljačka). The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and Croatian language ( hrvatski jezik) is a South Slavic language which is used primarily in Croatia, by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina in neighbouring Nepotism was endemic and during this period many influential individuals with the backing of the authorities acquired state-owned property and companies at extremely low prices, afterwards selling them off piecemeal to the highest bidder for much larger sums. Nepotism is the showing of favoritism toward relatives and friends based upon that relationship rather than on an objective evaluation of ability Meritocracy or suitability This proved very lucrative for the new owners, but in the vast majority of cases this (along with the separation from the previously secured Yugoslav markets) also caused the bankruptcy of the (previously successful) firm, causing the unemployment of thousands of citizens, a problem Croatia still struggles with to this day. Sao Paulo Stock Exchangejpg|thumb| Virtual market arena where buyer and seller are not present and trade via intemediates and electronical information Bankruptcy is a legally declared inability or impairment of ability of an individual or organization to pay their Creditors Creditors may file a bankruptcy petition against Unemployment occurs when a person is available to work and currently seeking work but the person is without work.
It is also beyond doubt that not few shadowy figures who moved close to Tuđman, the centre of power in Croatian society, profited from this enormously, having amassed wealth with suspicious celerity. Although this phenomenon is common to chaotic reforms in most post-communist societies (the best example being Russia with her "oligarchs"), the majority of Croats are of the opinion that Tuđman could and should have prevented at least a part of these malfeasances because nothing similar has happened to Slovenia with who Croatia has been inside Yugoslavia. Slovenia, officially the Republic of Slovenia (Republika Slovenija) is a Country in southern Central Europe bordering Italy to the west The most common allegations sprouting from this state that he probably personally profited from this.
The charge of nepotism and favoritism (elitism), frequently leveled at Tuđman himself, has been resolved in 2007 when his daughter, Nevenka Tuđman, was found guilty of corruption, but set free because too many years has passed from time of the crime. Elitism is the belief or attitude that those individuals who are considered members of the Elite &mdash a select group of people with outstanding personal abilities intellect . There are also other instances of apparent family nepotism. His son Miroslav Tuđman occupied the position of Chief of the HIS, the Croatian secret service, during the time of his father's presidency . Franjo Tuđman is often accused of having acquired his personal property by dishonest means .
In 1989 Tuđman published his most famous work, The Horrors of War or Wastelands of Historical Reality (Bespuća povijesne zbiljnosti) in which he questioned the number of victims during World War II in Yugoslavia. Year 1989 ( MCMLXXXIX) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar) World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including It is considered by many to be a strange book - a compilation of meditations on the role of violence in world history interspersed with personal reminiscences on his squabbles with Yugoslav apparatchiks. World History is a field of historical study that emerged as a distinct academic field in the 1980s. Apparatchik ( Russian: аппара́тчик plural apparatchiki) is a Russian colloquial term for a full-time professional Functionary It then slowly spirals towards the true center of his work: the attack on what he claimed was a hyperinflation of Serbian casualties in the Independent State of Croatia (NDH). The Independent State of Croatia ( Croatian: Nezavisna Država Hrvatska, NDH was a Puppet state of the Axis powers.
Serbian historians have claimed that the number of Serbs killed in the Jasenovac concentration camp was between 500,000 and 800,000. Many researchers such as the Israeli Yad Vashem of the center for Holocaust studies  and the Simon Wiesenthal Center , still maintains similar figures, which were also reported by German, Italian, Croatian and partisan generals during the war. Yad Vashem (יד ושם also spelled Yad VaShem; "Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority" is Israel 's official memorial to the Jewish The Simon Wiesenthal Center (often abbreviated SWC) with headquarters in Los Angeles However most Croatian historians and some other international organizations such as the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum , and the Jasenovac museum  are speaking of some 100,000 victims. The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum is a national institution located adjacent to The National Mall in Washington D That number is supoorted also by Croatian Jewish historiographer Ivo Goldstein.   The last serious research of victim numbers before the Yugoslav wars was conducted by Croatian economist Vladimir Žerjavić and Serbian researcher Bogoljub Kočović . The Yugoslav Wars were a series of violent conflicts in the territory of the former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (SFRY that took place between 1991 and Vladimir Žerjavić ( August 2, 1912 - 5 September 2001 was a Croatian economist and a United Nations specialist Bogoljub Kočović (1920 is a Bosnian jurist and Statistician, Yugoslave by ethnic affiliation 59,589 victims (again of all nationalities) have been identified by name (in a Yugoslav name list that was made in 1964). See also relevant article and the official Jasenovac concentration camp Website ). Tuđman had estimated, relying on some earlier investigations, that the total number of victims in the Jasenovac camp (Serbs, Jews, Gypsies, Croats, and others) was somewhere between 30,000 and 60,000, thus in a scale similar to the one that is currently prevalent in Croatia. These figures are, however, considerably lower than the generally accepted numbers, which caused ample controversy.
Another controversy surrounding The Horrors of War was Tuđman's alleged anti-Semitism, expressed in this book and elsewhere. Antisemitism (alternatively spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism; also rarely known as judeophobia) is the Prejudice against or hostility Tuđman is said to have estimated that a total of only 900,000 (as opposed to 6 million) Jews perished in the Holocaust of the Second World War. The Holocaust (from the Greek el ''ὁλόκαυστον'' (el-Latn holókauston holos, "completely" and kaustos, "burnt" also known as (New York Times, April 22, 1993. ) However, this was reportedly a misinformation that caused some Croats to accuse the "New York Times" of anti-Croat bias and calumny). In his "Horrors of War", Tuđman had accepted German historian Reitlinger's estimates estimate that the number of Jewish victims during WW2 was closer to 4 million as opposed to the most quoted number of 5 to 6 million men, women and children murdered. Another frequently mentioned quotation is the claim that "the establishment of Hitler's new European order could be justified by the need to remove the Jews" (1989, 2 ed. Hi and welcome to Wikipedia! Please understand that this article is frequently vandalized and vandalism is reverted immediately , p. 149), which supposedly actually describes the hidden agenda of the Hitlerite propaganda machine rather than Tuđman's own opinions. Aside from the war statistics issue, Tuđman's book contained views on Jewish role in history that many readers found simplistic and profoundly biased. Tuđman based his views on the Jewish condition (in terms of pages, a small portion of the "Horrors of war") on the memoirs of Croatian Communist Ante Ciliga, one of the top officials, and later a renegade, of the pre-war Komintern, who described his experiences in the Jasenovac concentration camp during a year and a half of his incarceration. Communism is a Socioeconomic structure that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless, stateless Society based Ante Ciliga (1898-1991 was one of the founders of the Yugoslav Communist Party (KPJ Ciliga's experiences, recorded in his book "Sam kroz Europu u ratu (1939-1945)"/Through the war-time Europe alone (1939-1945), paint an unfavorable picture of his Jewish inmate's behavior, emphasizing their alleged clannishness, etho-centrism and apartness. Ciliga claimed that Jews had held a privileged position in Jasenovac and actually, as Tuđman concludes, "held in their hands the inmates management of the camp up to 1944", something that was made possible by the idea that "in its origins Pavelic's party was philo-Semitic" (cit. For the vice president of the National assembly of the State of Slovenes Croats and Serbs see Ante Pavelić (1869 Ante Pavelić ( July in Tuđman's work, p. 316-319). Furthermore, Ciliga theorized that the behavior of the Jews had been determined by the more than 2000-year old tradition of extreme ethnic egoism and unscrupulousness that he claims is expressed in the Old Testament (ibid. In Western Christianity, the Old Testament refers to the books that form the first of the two-part Christian Biblical canon. , p. 320). Tuđman picked all this as a dispassionate analysis of Jewish behavioral traits- which it, according to many, is not. He summarized, among other things, that "The Jews provoke envy and hatred but actually they are 'the unhappiest nation in the world', always victims of 'their own and others' ambitions', and whoever tries to show that they are themselves their own source of tragedy is ranked among the anti-Semites and the object of hatred by the Jews". (ibid. , p. 320). However, in another part of the book (p. 160), Tuđman himself did express the belief that these traits weren't unique to the Jews; while criticizing what he alleges to be aggression and atrocities in the Middle East on the part of Israel, he claimed that they arose "from historical unreasonableness and narrowness in which Jewry certainly is no exception" (p. The Middle East is a Subcontinent with no clear boundaries often used as a synonym to Near East, in opposition to Far East. For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Israel topics. 160-161).
The accusations of anti-Semitism were sometimes disputed due to Tuđman's contacts with representatives of the Jewish World Congress (Tommy Baer) and various Jewish intellectuals (Alain Finkielkraut, Philip Cohen). Alain Finkielkraut (born in Paris on June 30 1949) is a French essayist and son of a Jewish Polish artisan manufacturing fine leather goods Sir Philip Cohen, FRS, FRSE (born 22 July 1945) is Royal Society Research Professor at the University of Dundee, Scotland Still, it was invoked by Tuđman's opponents. During his 1990 election campaign, Tuđman notoriously said: "Since many government-paid propagandists insinuate we (HDZ/CDU) are in fact agents of UDBA and KOS (Yugoslav political police), and point out that many of our founding members have Serbian and Jewish wives, I am very happy that my wife is neither Serbian nor Jewish, so they cannot question my credentials with regard to that matter. Year 1990 ( MCMXC) was a Common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar) "
On 22 April 1998 President Tuđman received the credentials of the first Israeli ambassador to Croatia, Natan Meron. In his speech Tuđman said, among other things: 'During the Second World War, within the quisling regime in Croatia, Holocaust crimes were also committed against members of the Jewish people. The Croatian public then, during the Second World War, and today, including the Croatian government and me personally, have condemned the crimes that the Ustasa committed not only against Jews but also against democratic Croats and even against the members of other nations in the Independent State of Croatia. '
If Tuđman’s stature as a historian and publicist is to be evaluated, it should take into consideration the following facts:
Generally, Tuđman’s historical works are considered, especially in Croatia, to have gained the status of indispensable synthetic surveys of Croatian 20th century history, while his shorter political-cultural analysis and geopolitical essays belong to the treasury of classical Croatian political thought, along with writings of Ivo Pilar and Milan Šufflay. Ivo Pilar ( June 19, 1874 – September 3, 1933) was a Croatian Historian, Politician and Jurist, considered Milan Šufflay ( November 9, 1879 - February 19, 1931) was a Croatian Historian and Politician. However, Tuđman’s overly Marxist treatises and polemical squabbles are period pieces that have already become obsolete and do not provoke historians' or general reader's interest any more.
Despite the controversy, Tuđman is credited with creating the basis for an independent Croatia, and helping the country move away from communism and towards democracy. The Mirogoj Cemetery is considered to be one of the most beautiful Cemetery parks in Europe and thanks to its design numbers among the more noteworthy Landmarks He is sometimes given the title "father of the country" for his role the country's independence. Prime Minister Ivo Sanader, the head of the HDZ (Tuđman's party), has stated, "His work is great and his opponents and those who have tried to belittle what he did will be forgotten, while Franjo Tuđman will be remembered in history. Ivo Sanader saˈnaːdɛr}} (formerly Ivica Sanader) (born June 8, 1953 in Split) is the current Prime Minister of Croatia " His legacy is still strong in Croatia; there are schools, monuments, squares, buildings, and streets in many cities named after him, and statues have been erected. Plans to create a square in Zagreb after the late president has attracted strong debate among his supporters and the oppositional ruling party of Zagreb (the Social Democratic Party of Croatia) on the location of the square; his family and supporters wanted the Roosevelt or Tito square while the SDP refused and wanted a square away from the center of the town. The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske is the main Social democratic political party in Croatia. The Social Democratic Party of Croatia (Socijaldemokratska partija Hrvatske is the main Social democratic political party in Croatia. The SDP won, and a different square was chosen in December of 2006.
An impressive bridge, the northern entry to Dubrovnik, is also named in Tuđman's honour. ||-||-||-||-||-||-||} Dubrovnik (ˈdǔbro̞ːʋniːk Dalmatian: Ragusa; Latin: Ragusium, also Rhausium, Rhaugia;
|Party political offices|
|President of Croatian Democratic Union|
17 May 1989-10 December 1999
Vladimir Šeks (acting)
as Chairman of Presidency of the Socialist Republic of Croatia
President of Croatia
30 May 1990 – 10 December 1999
Vlatko Pavletić (acting)