|Mauril Bélanger • Paul Martin, Sr. • Newsy Lalonde • Dionne Quintuplets|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Eastern Ontario, Northeastern Ontario|
|predominantly Christian (Roman Catholicism, other denominations)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Franco-Manitoban, French Canadians, French-speaking Quebecer, Québécois, Acadians, Cajuns, French Americans, Metis, French|
Franco-Ontarians (French: Franco-ontarien) are French Canadian or francophone residents of the Canadian province of Ontario. Mauril A Bélanger, PC, MP (born June 15, 1955) is a Member of the Canadian Parliament. Paul Joseph James Martin, PC, CC, QC ( June 23, 1903 &ndash September 14, 1992) often referred to as Edouard "Newsy" Lalonde ( October 31, 1887, Cornwall Ontario – November 21, 1970) was a Canadian professional The Dionne quintuplets, born on May 28, 1934, are the first Quintuplets known to survive their Infancy. Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Eastern Ontario is the region of the Canadian province of Ontario which lies in a wedge-shaped area between the Ottawa and St Cities and towns Northeastern Ontario has six cities They are Greater Sudbury, Sault Ste French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States Christianity ( Greek Χριστιανισμός from the word Xριστός ( Christ)is a monotheistic Religion centered on the life and teachings Franco-Manitobans are a community of French Canadians or French -speaking people living in Manitoba. French-speaking Quebecers (also Franco-Quebecers, or Francophone Quebecers; in French Franco-Québécois, Québécois francophones or A Québécois or Quebecois (pronounced) or in the feminine Québécoise (pronounced) (plural Québécoises) is a native or resident of the This article is about the Acadian people and culture The Acadians (Acadiens are the descendants of the seventeenth-century French Cajuns ('keʒən les Cadiens are an Ethnic group mainly living in Louisiana, consisting of the descendants of Acadian exiles and peoples of other French Americans or Franco-Americans are citizens or permanent residents of the United States of French descent Legal residents and citizens To be French according to the first article of the Constitution is to be a citizen of France regardless of one's origin race or religion ( French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people The adjective francophone (alternately Francophone) means French -speaking typically as primary language whether referring to individuals groups or places Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page The provinces and territories of Canada combine to make up the world's second largest country in total area. Ontario (ɒnˈtɛrioʊ is a province located in the central part of Canada, the largest by population and second largest after Quebec They are sometimes known as "Ontarois".
According to the 2001 Canadian census, there were 485,630 francophones in Ontario (declaring a single mother tongue), comprising 4. Year 2001 ( MMI) was a Common year starting on Monday according to the Gregorian calendar. A census is the procedure of acquiring information about every member of a given population 3 per cent of the province's total population. In Biology a population is the collection of inter-breeding organisms of a particular Species; in Sociology A further 82,305 Ontarians declared French to be one of multiple mother tongues. Franco-Ontarians constitute the largest French-speaking community in Canada outside of Quebec, and the largest minority language group within Ontario. Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk In addition to these francophones, there are a good number of Ontarians, usually with roots in francophone countries, who, despite being more at home in French than in English, are not regarded as francophone for official purposes because they are native speakers of languages other than French, such as Arabic, Haitian creole, and various languages of West Africa.
The francophone population is concentrated primarily in Eastern Ontario (41. Eastern Ontario is the region of the Canadian province of Ontario which lies in a wedge-shaped area between the Ottawa and St 3 per cent — 226,705 francophones), in Ottawa, Cornwall and many rural farming communities, and in Northeastern Ontario (25. Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. Cornwall is a City in eastern Ontario, Canada and the seat of the United Counties of Stormont Dundas and Glengarry Ontario. Cities and towns Northeastern Ontario has six cities They are Greater Sudbury, Sault Ste 2 per cent — 138,585 francophones), in the cities of Sudbury, North Bay and Timmins and a number of smaller towns. Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada. North Bay ( time zone EST) is a city in Northeastern Ontario, Canada (2006 population 53966 Other communities with notable francophone populations are Toronto, Windsor, Penetanguishene and Welland. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and lies at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. Penetanguishene (pɛnəˈtæŋgwəʃiːn) sometimes shortened to Penetang is a Town in Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada. Welland (formally The Corporation of the City of Welland; 2006 population 50331) is a city in the Regional Municipality of Most communities in Ontario have at least a few Franco-Ontarian residents.
Ottawa, with 128,620 francophones, has the province's largest Franco-Ontarian community by size. Greater Sudbury, 29 per cent francophone, has the largest proportion of Franco-Ontarians to the general population among the province's major cities, and Prescott and Russell United Counties has the highest proportion of Franco-Ontarians to the general population among the province's census divisions, with about two-thirds of the population being francophone. For the former Ontario electoral district see Prescott and Russell (electoral district The United Counties of Prescott and Russell (Comtés unis de Prescott
Some smaller communities have a francophone majority. These include Hearst, Kapuskasing, Embrun, St. Charles, West Nipissing, Rockland, Casselman, Dubreuilville, Vankleek Hill and Hawkesbury. Hearst (2001 census population 5825 2006 census population 5620 is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario. Kapuskasing (population 8509 in the Canada 2006 Census) is a Town on the Kapuskasing River in the Cochrane District of northern Ontario Embrun (pronounced /ˈɛmbɹʌn̩/ in Canadian English and /ɑ̃ St Charles is a town in the Canadian province of Ontario. It is in the Sudbury District. The Municipality of West Nipissing is a Town in northeastern Ontario, Canada on Lake Nipissing in the Nipissing District. Rockland is a bilingual (mostly Francophone) community located about 25 Kilometers east of Ottawa, Ontario Canada part of the city of Clarence-Rockland Casselman is a Village in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Prescott and Russell on the South Nation River. Dubreuilville is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario, located in the Algoma District. Vankleek Hill is a community in Champlain township in eastern Ontario, situated south of Hawkesbury on Highway 34. Hawkesbury is a town in Eastern Ontario, Canada, on the Ottawa River, near the Quebec -Ontario Border.
The French presence in Ontario dates to the mid-17th century. As a means of recording the passage of Time, the 17th Century was that Century which lasted from 1601 - 1700 in the Gregorian calendar Early settlements in the area include the Mission of Sainte-Marie among the Hurons at Midland in 1649, Sault Ste. Marie in 1668, and Fort Pontchartrain du Détroit (Detroit, Michigan), located opposite Windsor, in 1701. Sainte-Marie Among the Hurons ( French: Sainte-Marie-au-pays-des-Hurons) was a French Jesuit settlement in Wendake, the land of the Midland (population 16700 2006 Canada Census is a Town located on Georgian Bay in Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada. Sault Ste Marie (nicknamed "the Sault" or "the Soo" is a City on the St Southern Ontario was part of the Pays d'en-haut (Upper Country) of the French regime, and later part of the province of Quebec until Quebec was split into The Canadas in 1791. Upper Canada and Lower Canada, collectively referred to as the Canadas, were two British colonies in Canada. Year 1791 ( MDCCXCI) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common However, most of those with roots originating in Quebec or New Brunswick crossed over into Ontario seeking employment opportunities in the late 19th century well into the 20th century, while others migrated into New England.
The term Franco-Ontarian has, in fact, two related usages, which overlap significantly but are not identical: it may refer to francophone residents of Ontario, regardless of their place of birth, or to people of French Canadian ancestry born in Ontario, regardless of their primary language or current place of residence.
In popular usage, the first meaning predominates and the second is poorly understood. Although most Franco-Ontarians meet both definitions, there are notable exceptions. For example, although Louise Charron was the first native-born Franco-Ontarian appointed to the Supreme Court of Canada bench, she was preceded as a francophone judge from Ontario by Louise Arbour, a Québécoise who had her professional career as a lawyer and judge in Ontario. Louise Charron (born March 2, 1951 in Sturgeon Falls Ontario) is a Canadian jurist The Supreme Court of Canada ( French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian Louise Arbour, CC (born February 10, 1947) is the former UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, a former justice of the Supreme Court of A Québécois or Quebecois (pronounced) or in the feminine Québécoise (pronounced) (plural Québécoises) is a native or resident of the As a result, both women have been referred to as "the first Franco-Ontarian Supreme Court justice", although the technically correct practice is to credit Charron, Franco-Ontarian in both senses, with that distinction.
Conversely, two of the most famous rock musicians from Ontario, Avril Lavigne and Alanis Morissette, are Franco-Ontarian by the second definition but not by the first, since they were born to Franco-Ontarian parents but currently work and live predominantly using the English language (both currently have residence in Los Angeles). Rock music is a genre of Popular music often though not necessarily employing Electric guitar, Bass guitar, and Drums. Avril Lavigne Whibley (born September 27 1984 better known by her birth name of Avril Lavigne (ˈævrɨl ləˈviːn is a Canadian Grammy Award Alanis Nadine Morissette (born June 1 1974 is a Canadian-born Singer-songwriter, Record producer, and Actress. English is a West Germanic language originating in England and is the First language for most people in the United Kingdom, the United States
Further, former Prime Minister Paul Martin was born in Windsor to a Franco-Ontarian father (from Pembroke) and an Anglophone mother, although many Canadians consider him a Quebecer as he represents a Montreal riding in Parliament. The Prime Minister of Canada ( French: Premier ministre du Canada) is the primary Minister of the Crown, chairman of the Cabinet, and thus Paul Edgar Philippe Martin. PC, MP (also known as Paul Martin Jr Pembroke ( 2006 population 13930 CA population 23195 is a City at the confluence of the Muskrat Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec An electoral district (also known as a Constituency or a riding in the Canadian English political Jargon) is a geographically-based
Both meanings can be politically charged. Using the second to the exclusion of the first may be considered offensive to some in that it excludes francophones born in or with ethnic origins from other countries, such as Haiti, Vietnam or Tunisia, from the Franco-Ontarian community. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: Vietnam (ˌviːɛtˈnɑːm Việt Nam) officially Tunisia (تونس Tūnis officially the Tunisian Republic ( is a country located in North Africa. Using the first to the exclusion of the second obscures the very real ethno-cultural distinctions that exist between Franco-Ontarians, Québécois, Acadians, Métis and other Canadian francophone communities, and the pressures toward assimilation into the anglophone majority that the community faces. This article is about the Acadian people and culture The Acadians (Acadiens are the descendants of the seventeenth-century French The Métis are descendants of marriages of Cree, Ojibway Algonquin, Saulteaux, and Menominee aboriginals to Europeans, An Anglophone (or anglophone) is someone who speaks the English language.
The Franco-Ontarian identity is further split into three groups according to historical waves of settlement/immigration. The first wave of settlement in the Detroit/Windsor area came in the 18th century during the French regime. Most settlers then came from what is now Quebec, including both full French and Métis. A second wave came in the 19th and early 20th centuries to the areas of Eastern Ontario and Northeastern Ontario. This was an immigration wave in the sense that Ontario was primarily British and mainly English-speaking, but the migrants can also be considered settlers, because they founded many villages or settled within already existing francophone communities. In the Ottawa Valley, in particular, some families have moved back and forth across the Ottawa river for generations (the river is the border between Ontario and Quebec), which results in a complex borderland identity. The Ottawa-Bonnechere Graben (also known as the Ottawa Graben) with its branch the Timiskaming Graben, is an ancient Rift valley in the In the city of Ottawa some areas such as Vanier and Orleans have a rich franco-heritage where families often have members on both sides of the Ottawa River. Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. This is about the river in Canada For other uses see Ottawa River (disambiguation.
The third and most recent wave consists of Quebecers and other francophones (Haitians, Maghrebans, Europeans, etc. Haiti ( English: ˈheɪ·tiː or haɪ·ˈjiː·tiː French Haïti a·i·ti Haitian Creole: The Maghreb (المغرب العربي al-Maġrib al-ʿArabī) also rendered Maghrib (or rarely Moghreb) meaning "place of Sunset ) who move to the larger cities and often preserve their original identity (Québécois, Haitian, etc. ) as their primary cultural affiliation. Franco-Ontarians may also have historical ties to more than one of these three groups, which blurs the lines between these distinctions.
As a result, the complex political and sociological context of Franco-Ontarian can only be fully understood by recognizing both meanings and understanding the distinctions between the two.
The term "Ontarois", following the convention that a francophone minority is referred to with ending of -ois, for instance Algérois, is sometimes used to distinguish French-speaking Ontarians, while the general term for Ontarian in French is Ontarien.
Although Ontario as a whole is not officially bilingual, the Ontario government's French Language Services Act designates 25 areas of the province where provincial ministries and agencies are required to provide local French-language services to the public. Official bilingualism is the term used in Canada to collectively describe the policies constitutional provisions and laws which give English and French a privileged The French Language Services Act is a law in the province of Ontario, Canada which is intended to protect the rights of Franco-Ontarians or French An area is designated as a French service area if the francophone population is greater than 5,000 people or 10 per cent of the community's total population.
The French Language Services Act applies to provincial government services only. It does not require municipal governments to provide bilingual services. Municipal governments may, however, provide French language services at their own discretion.
The following census divisions (denoted in red on the map) are designated areas in their entirety:
The following census divisions (denoted in green on the map) are not fully designated areas, but have communities within their borders which are designated for bilingual services:
In May 2006, the city of Kingston was named the province's 25th designated area for bilingual services. In the Canadian province of Ontario, there are three different types of Census divisions: single-tier municipalities upper-tier municipalities (which can Algoma District is a District and Census division in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. Cochrane District Ontario is a District and Census division in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. Greater Sudbury (2006 Census population 157857 is a city in Northern Ontario, Canada. Hamilton (ˈhæməltən ( 2006 population 504559 UA population 647634 CMA population Nipissing District Ontario is a District in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. Ottawa (ˈɒtəwə or sometimes /ˈɒtəwɑː/ is the Capital of Canada and the country's fourth largest municipality. For the former Ontario electoral district see Prescott and Russell (electoral district The United Counties of Prescott and Russell (Comtés unis de Prescott The Sudbury District is a District in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. Timiskaming is a District and Census division in Northeastern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. Toronto (təˈrɒntoʊ colloquially pronounced or) is the largest city in Canada and is the provincial capital of Ontario For the town in England see Chatham Kent. The Municipality of Chatham-Kent ( 2006 Tilbury ( 2001 population 4534 is a Community in the municipality of Chatham-Kent, Ontario Kent County area is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. Kent County area is a historic county in the Canadian province of Ontario. Essex County is a County and Census division located in Southwestern Ontario and covers an area at the southernmost tip of Canada Lakeshore is a Town in southwestern Ontario, Canada on Lake St Tecumseh (2001 population 25105 is a Town on Lake St Clair east of Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Windsor is the southernmost city in Canada and lies at the western end of the heavily populated Quebec City-Windsor Corridor. Kenora District ( Canada 2006 Census population 64419 is a District and Census division in Northwestern Ontario in the Canadian Ignace is a township in the Kenora District of Northwestern Ontario, located at Highway 17 ( Trans Canada Highway) and Secondary Middlesex County is a Census division located in Western Ontario. London is a city in Southwestern Ontario, Canada along the Quebec City-Windsor Corridor with a metropolitan area population of 457720 the city proper Port Colborne ( 2006 population 18599 is a city on Lake Erie, at the southern end of the Welland Canal, in Welland (formally The Corporation of the City of Welland; 2006 population 50331) is a city in the Regional Municipality of Mississauga (ˌmɪsɪˈsɑgə) incorporated in 1974 is a City located in the Regional Municipality of Peel Brampton (pronounced bramton is the third-largest city in the Greater Toronto Area of Ontario, Canada and the seat of Peel Region. Renfrew is a County in the Canadian province of Ontario. In 2006 the population was 97545 and county covered, giving a Population density Laurentian Valley is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada on the Ottawa River in Renfrew County. Pembroke ( 2006 population 13930 CA population 23195 is a City at the confluence of the Muskrat Whitewater Region is a township located within the scenic Ottawa Valley, in eastern Ontario, Canada on the Ottawa River in Simcoe is a County located in central Ontario, originally established as "Simcoe District" in 1843 by the Legislature of Upper Canada Essa is a township west and south of the city of Barrie in the County of Simcoe. Penetanguishene (pɛnəˈtæŋgwəʃiːn) sometimes shortened to Penetang is a Town in Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada. Tiny is a township, part of Simcoe County in south-central Ontario, Canada. Stormont Dundas and Glengarry United Counties is a County and Census division in Ontario, Canada. Cornwall is a City in eastern Ontario, Canada and the seat of the United Counties of Stormont Dundas and Glengarry Ontario. North Glengarry is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Stormont Dundas and Glengarry. North Stormont is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada in the United Counties of Stormont Dundas and Glengarry. South Glengarry is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada on the St South Stormont is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada in the United Counties of Stormont Dundas and Glengarry. North Dundas is a township in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Stormont Dundas and Glengarry spread Thunder Bay District is a District and Census division in Northwestern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario. Greenstone is an amalgamated Town in the Canadian province of Ontario. Manitouwadge is a township in the Canadian province of Ontario. The Town of Marathon is located in Thunder Bay district, Ontario, Canada, on the north shore of Lake Superior north of Pukaskwa National Terrace Bay is a township in Thunder Bay District in northern Ontario located on the north shore of Lake Superior east of Thunder Bay. Kingston Ontario is a Canadian city located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St With the three-year implementation period provided for by the French Language Services Act, Kingston will officially become a bilingual service centre in 2009.
The Office of Francophone Affairs is the government agency responsible for ensuring that French language services are provided. The Office of Francophone Affairs in the Canadian province of Ontario is responsible for the provision of government services to Franco-Ontarian citizens Francophones who live in non-designated areas can also receive French language services by directly contacting the Office of Francophone Affairs in Toronto, or in the nearest designated community. The cabinet minister currently responsible for the Office of Francophone Affairs is Madeleine Meilleur. Madeleine Meilleur (born November 22, 1948) is a politician in Ontario, Canada.
The judicial system in Ontario is officially bilingual in all areas, although in some parts of the province a legal matter involving francophones may have to be transferred to another region where francophone services are more readily available. A francophone who wishes to be served in French by the judicial system cannot be refused this transfer if he or she cannot be served locally in French.
There are 44 municipalities in Ontario which are officially or functionally bilingual at the municipal level. Most of these are members of the Francophone Association of Municipalities of Ontario, or AFMO. The Francophone Association of Municipalities of Ontario (or AFMO, from its French name Association française des municipalités d'Ontario) is a
In the past, the Ontario government was often much less supportive of and often openly hostile toward the Franco-Ontarian community. Regulation 17, passed in 1912, forbade French-language instruction in Ontario schools. Regulation 17 ( French: Règlement 17) was a regulation of the Ontario Ministry of Education, issued in July 1912 by the Conservative This was eventually rescinded, and Ontario now has eight French-language Roman Catholic school boards and four French-language public school boards. A board of education or a school Board or school committee is the title of the Board of directors of a school local School district The term public school has two distinct (and virtually opposite meanings depending on the location of usage in the United States, Australia and Each of these school boards serves a significantly larger catchment area than an English-language school board in the province, due to the smaller francophone population. In Human geography: a catchment area is the area and population from which a city or individual service attracts visitors or customers
One of the unfortunate effects of Regulation 17 is that a whole generation of Franco-Ontarians grew up without a formal education since the drop-out rate for francophones was quite high during this period. Franco-Ontarians thus opted for jobs which did not require reading and mathematical skills, such as mining and forestry, and were virtually absent from white collar jobs. Sociologically, it meant that education was not a value transmitted to younger franco-ontarians. Although this has changed somewhat in recent years, some effects of Regulation 17 can still be felt today. According to the 2001 census, francophones in Ontario tend to have a lower level of education than the general population.
Further, those with higher levels of education often pursue job opportunities in larger cities, particularly Ottawa or even Montreal, which can create a barrier to economic development in their home communities. As well, even today many students of Franco-Ontarian background are still educated in anglophone schools. This has the effect of reducing the use of French as a first language in the province, and thereby limiting the growth of the franco-Ontarian community.
Currently, Ontario has two exclusively francophone community colleges, La Cité collégiale in Ottawa, with a second campus in Hawkesbury, and Collège Boréal in Sudbury, with additional campuses in several Northern Ontario communities, and one in Toronto. The province of Ontario, in Canada, has two types of publicly-funded Community colleges Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology and Institutes of Technology La Cité collégiale is a French-language college of applied arts and technology located in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada. Collège Boréal is a francophone College of Applied Arts and Technology based and with its principal campus in Sudbury, Ontario, Canada (Collège Boréal also operates a network of student access centres throughout the province to promote its programs and services. ) A third college, Collège des Grands-Lacs in Toronto, ceased operations in 2002. Collège des Grands-Lacs (English College of the Great Lakes) was a Francophone College of Applied Arts and Technology in Toronto See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Its programs and services are now the Toronto campus of Collège Boréal. The Ontario Agricultural College has a francophone campus in Alfred. The Ontario Agricultural College (OAC originated at the agricultural laboratories of the Toronto Normal School, and was officially founded in 1874 as an associate
Ontario has three universities which offer instruction in both English and French, Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Laurentian University in Sudbury and the University of Ottawa. The Royal Military College of Canada (RMC is the Military academy of the Canadian Forces, and is a degree-granting University. Kingston Ontario is a Canadian city located at the eastern end of Lake Ontario, where the lake runs into the St Laurentian University ( Université Laurentienne) founded in 1960 is a mid-sized bilingual University in Greater Sudbury, Ontario For the university in Ottawa Kansas see Ottawa University. The University of Ottawa or Université d'Ottawa in French York University in Toronto has a bilingual federated college, Glendon College, although the university is otherwise an anglophone institution. York University (Université York is a public Research university located in Toronto, Ontario. A federated school, federated college, federated university, or affiliated school is an educational institution which is independent in some respects but Glendon College (French Collège universitaire Glendon) is one of the two campuses of York University, Canada 's third-largest university in Toronto Laurentian University has a federated college, Université de Hearst, which, although not a fully independent university, is the only exclusively francophone university-level institution in the province. Université de Hearst (formerly Collège universitaire de Hearst) is a Canadian postsecondary institution with campuses in Hearst, Timmins
Ottawa is also the home of the École secondaire publique De La Salle , the only franco-Ontarian high school with an arts concentration, similar to that of Canterbury High School. Canterbury High School is an Ottawa-Carleton District School Board high school in the Elmvale Acres neighbourhood of Ottawa, Ontario,
The primary cultural organization of the Franco-Ontarian community is the Assemblée de la francophonie de l'Ontario, or AFO, which coordinates many of the community's cultural and political activities. AFO, or L'Assemblée de la francophonie de l'Ontario ( Francophone Assembly of Ontario) is a Canadian organization which coordinates the political and cultural
The Franco-Ontarian flag consists of two bands of green and white. The left portion has a solid light green background with a white fleur-de-lys in the middle, while the right portion has a solid white background with a stylized green trillium in the middle. The fleur-de-lys (or fleur-de-lis, plural fleurs-de-lis ˌfləː(rdəˈliː (ˌfləː(rdəˈlɪs in Quebec) translated from French as "lily Trillium is a genus of about 40-50 species of perennial herbaceous Flowering plants native to temperate regions of North America and Asia The green represents the summer months, while the white represents the winter months. The trillium is the floral symbol of Ontario, while the fleur-de-lys represents the French-Canadian heritage of the Franco-Ontarian community.
The flag was designed in 1975 by Gaétan Gervais, Yves Tassé and a group of university students in Sudbury, sewn by Jacqueline England and flown for the first time at Laurentian University. It was officially recognized as the emblem of the Franco-Ontarian community in the Franco-Ontarian Emblem Act of 2001.
Ironically, in 2003 a controversy arose in Sudbury when the city government voted against flying the flag at Tom Davies Square for St-Jean-Baptiste Day, claiming that it would be inappropriate for the city government to display on public property a symbol representative of only a portion of the city's population. Tom Davies Square is the City hall of Greater Sudbury, Ontario. In 2006, new mayor John Rodriguez reversed that decision, permitting the flag to be flown, but was again criticized by some voters for acting unilaterally. John R Rodriguez (born February 12 1937 is a Canadian politician and the current mayor of Greater Sudbury, Ontario.
To commemorate the 30th anniversary of the Franco-Ontarian flag in September 2005, Prise de parole, a Sudbury-based publishing house, published a book titled Le Drapeau franco-ontarien (edited by Guy Gaudreau, a history professor at Laurentian University. Prise de parole ( Take the word) is a Canadian book publishing company )
On September 25, 2006, the largest Franco-Ontarian flag was unfurled in Ottawa. Events 303 - On a voyage preaching the Gospel, Saint Fermin of Pamplona is beheaded in Amiens, France Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. The historical park also known as Les Monuments de la francophonie d'Ottawa was built by the francophone community to commemorate francophone contribution in the development and well being of the City of Ottawa. This first of six Monuments de la francophonie d'Ottawa is dedicated to the subject of Education. The flag is 5 x 10 m and was raised on a 27 m pole.
The dialects of French spoken in Ontario are similar to, but distinct from, Quebec French and constitute part of the greater Canadian French dialect. Quebec French ( le français québécois, le français du Québec) or less often Québécois French, is the predominant varieties Due to the large English majority in the province, English loanwords are sometimes used in the informal or slang registers of Franco-Ontarian French. While English loanwords occur to a large extent in many varieties of French in Canada and Europe, there has been more of a conscious effort in Quebec to eliminate anglicisms.
In addition, the majority of Franco-Ontarians are, out of necessity, bilingual in English, a fact that encourages borrowing, as does the fact that the English language has a greater prestige in the province, due to its being a majority language. This means that Franco-Ontarian communities that have a small francophone population tend to have more English-influenced French, and many younger speakers feel more comfortable using English than French. On the other hand, the French spoken in French-dominant Ontarian communities (e. g. , Hearst, Hawkesbury), or in those communities near the Quebec border (e. g. , Ottawa), is virtually indistinguishable from Quebec French.
Furthermore, improved access to publicly-funded French language schools and the establishment of bilingual universities and French language community colleges has improved French language proficiency in younger populations. In addition, the French taught in Ontario French-medium schools is an international French, which allows educated speakers to use standard forms in formal situations where it would be more appropriate.
Franco-Ontarians retain many cultural traditions from their French-Canadian ancestry. For example, unmarried elder siblings dansent sur leur bas (dance on their socks) when their younger siblings get married. Catholic Franco-Ontarians attend messe de minuit (midnight mass) on Christmas Eve. Christmas Eve, December 24, is the day before Christmas Day, the celebrated birthday of Jesus. Many Franco-Ontarians also enjoy late night feasts/parties on Christmas Eve, called réveillon, at which tourtière is a common dish. In France and some other French-speaking places a réveillon is a long dinner and possibly party held on the evenings preceding Christmas Day A tourtière is a Meat pie originating from Quebec, usually made with ground Pork and/or Veal, or Beef.
A notable figure in Franco-Ontarian folklore and legend is Joseph Montferrand, also known as Big Joe Mufferaw. Joseph "Jos" Montferrand ( October 25 1802 - October 4 1864) was a French-Canadian logger strong man and hero of the working Big Joe Mufferaw was a French Canadian folk hero from the Ottawa Valley, perhaps best known today as the hero of a song by Stompin'
Ontario has one francophone daily newspaper, Le Droit in Ottawa. Le Droit (established on March 27, 1913) is a Canadian daily newspaper published in Ottawa, Canada and is operated However, 17 other communities in Ontario are served by francophone community weekly papers, including L'Express in Toronto, Le Voyageur in Sudbury, L'Action in London/Sarnia, Le Rempart in the Windsor area and Le Journal de Cornwall in the Cornwall area. L'Express, formally L'Express de Toronto, is a Toronto -based French language Canadian Newspaper. Le Voyageur is a weekly community Newspaper in Greater Sudbury, Ontario, serving the city's Franco-Ontarian community L'Action is a Canadian weekly newspaper published in London, Ontario for Franco-ontarians in the Southwestern Ontario region
The province has three Radio-Canada television affiliates, CBOFT in Ottawa, CBLFT in Toronto and CBEFT in Windsor, which have transmitters throughout the province. Télévision de Radio-Canada is a Canadian French language Television network. CBOFT is the Radio-Canada station serving Franco-Ontarians in Ottawa and Eastern Ontario, and the Québécois in the Outaouais CBLFT is the Radio-Canada television station serving Franco-Ontarians in Toronto and most of Ontario, including the Western, CBEFT is Radio-Canada's transmitter serving Franco-Ontarians in Windsor. All three stations carry identical programming broadcast from Montreal, except for local news. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec CBOFT produces two separate newscasts, one for broadcast only in the Ottawa area and another for the rest of the province. The provincial government operates TFO, which has transmitters in 18 communities, but is otherwise available only on cable. TFO is a Canadian French language educational Public television network in the province of Ontario. In 2003, TFO produced and aired Francoeur, the first Franco-Ontarian téléroman. Francoeur was a Canadian television series first aired by TFO in 2003. A téléroman ("telenovel" is a French-language dramatic television series similar to a Soap opera or a Spanish language Telenovela In 2008, TFO also began airing the first Franco-Ontarian sitcom, Météo+ — itself, in part, a satire of the Franco-Ontarian community's relative lack of access to local French language media. Météo+ is a Canadian television Sitcom which began airing on TFO, the French language public broadcaster in Ontario,
TVA, TV5 Canada and RDI are available on all Ontario cable systems, as these channels are mandated by the CRTC for carriage by all Canadian cable operators. TVA is a Canadian French language privately owned Television network. TV5 Canada is a Canadian French language Cable television Specialty channel that features cultural programming and is dedicated to the promotion Réseau de l'information (RDI is a Canadian French language Cable television News channel operated by CBC/Radio-Canada CRTC may also stand for Cathode Ray Tube Controller. Canadian Radio-television and Telecommunications Commission ( CRTC, in French Conseil Where there is sufficient local demand for French-language television, Ontario cable systems may also offer French-language channels such as TQS, MusiquePlus and RDS, although these channels only have discretionary status outside of Quebec. TQS is a Canadian French language privately owned Television network based in Quebec. MusiquePlus is a Canadian French language Cable television Specialty channel owned by Astral Media operating from Montreal Réseau des sports (commonly known as RDS) is a Canadian French language Cable television Specialty channel showing Sports
On radio, the Franco-Ontarian community is served primarily by Radio-Canada's La Première Chaîne, which has originating stations in Ottawa (CBOF), Toronto (CJBC), Sudbury (CBON) and Windsor (CBEF), with rebroadcasters throughout Ontario. Première Chaîne is a Canadian French language radio network the news and information service of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation / Société CBOF-FM is a French-language Canadian Radio station located in Ottawa, Ontario. CJBC is a Canadian radio station which broadcasts at AM 860 in Toronto, Ontario. CBON is a Canadian radio station It broadcasts the Société Radio-Canada 's Première Chaîne network at 98 Espace Musique, Radio-Canada's arts and culture network, currently broadcasts only in Ottawa (CBOX), Toronto (CJBC-FM), Sudbury (CBBX), Paris (CJBC-FM-1) and Windsor (CJBC-FM-2), with a transmitter to be added in Timmins in 2007. Espace musique is the French-language music radio service of Canada 's national public broadcaster the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation CBOX-FM is a Canadian radio station It broadcasts the Société Radio-Canada 's Espace musique network at 102 CJBC-FM is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 903 FM in Toronto, Ontario. CBBX-FM is a Canadian radio station It broadcasts the Société Radio-Canada 's Espace musique network at 90 Paris (2006 Urban Area population 11177 is a community on the Grand River in Ontario, Canada.
Non-profit francophone community stations exist in several communities, including Penetanguishene (CFRH), Hearst (CINN), Kapuskasing (CKGN), Cornwall (CHOD), North Bay (CFDN) and Toronto (CHOQ). CFRH is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 881 FM in Penetanguishene, Ontario. CINN is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 911 FM in Hearst Ontario. CKGN is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 897 FM in Kapuskasing, Ontario and 94 CHOD is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 921 FM in Cornwall Ontario. Not to be confused with "CHOQFM" an unlicensed closed-circuit radio station at the Université du Québec à Montréal. Many campus radio stations air one or two hours per week of French-language programming as well, although only CHUO at the University of Ottawa and CKLU at Laurentian University are officially bilingual stations. Campus radio (also known as college radio, university radio or student radio) is a type of Radio station that is run by the students of a college CHUO is a Canadian Radio station, broadcasting at 891 FM in Ottawa. CKLU is a Canadian radio station which broadcasts at FM 967 in Sudbury, Ontario.
Francophone commercial radio stations exist in Sudbury (CHYC) and Timmins (CHYK); the Timmins station also has rebroadcasters in Kapuskasing and Hearst. CHYC-FM is a Canadian radio station which broadcasts at FM 98 CHYK-FM is a Canadian radio station which broadcasts at FM 104 Ottawa francophones are served by the commercial radio stations licensed to Gatineau, and many other Eastern Ontario communities are within the broadcast range of the Gatineau and Montreal media markets. Gatineau ( 2006 census population 242124 is a city in western Quebec, Canada. Montreal, or Montréal in French ( pronounced in French, in English) is the largest city in the Canadian province of Quebec One station in Hawkesbury (CHPR) airs a few hours per week of locally-oriented programming, but otherwise simulcasts a commercial station from Montreal, and CFSF in West Nipissing airs programming in both English and French. Hawkesbury is a town in Eastern Ontario, Canada, on the Ottawa River, near the Quebec -Ontario Border. CHPR is a Canadian Radio station, which airs at 1021 FM in Hawkesbury Ontario. CFSF is a Canadian radio station broadcasting at 993 FM in Sturgeon Falls Ontario.
Through its proximity to Gatineau, Ottawa is the only Ontario community which has regular access to French-language films. However, Cinéfest in Sudbury and the Toronto International Film Festival both regularly include francophone films in their annual festival programs, and community groups in many smaller communities offer French film screenings when possible. Cinéfest is an annual Film festival in Sudbury, Ontario. It is the fourth largest film festival in Canada. The Toronto International Film Festival ( TIFF) is a publicly-attended Film festival held each September in Toronto, Ontario, Canada Francophone films also air on TFO and Radio-Canada.
Eight professional theatre companies offer French language theatrical productions, including four companies in Ottawa (Théâtre du Trillium, Théâtre de la Vieille 17, Vox Théâtre and Théâtre la Catapulte), one in Sudbury (Théâtre du Nouvel-Ontario) and three in Toronto (Théâtre Corpus, Théâtre La Tangente and Théâtre français de Toronto). Théâtre du Nouvel-Ontario ( Theatre of Northern Ontario) is a Canadian professional Theatre company There are also numerous community theatre groups and school theatre groups.
Annual music festivals include La Nuit sur l'étang in Sudbury and the Festival Franco-Ontarien in Ottawa. La Nuit sur l'étang is a Canadian music festival held annually in Sudbury, Ontario. Notable figures in franco-ontarian music include Robert Paquette, Marcel Aymar, En Bref, Chuck Labelle, Les Chaizes Muzikales, Brasse-Camarade, Swing, Konflit dramatiK, Stéphane Paquette and CANO. Robert Paquette (born July 2, 1949 in Sudbury, Ontario) is a Canadian folk Singer-songwriter. Marcel Aymar is a Franco-ontarian singer originally from Baie Sainte-Marie, Nova Scotia. Jean-Guy (Chuck Labelle is a Canadian Singer-songwriter, who is one of the most prominent Canadian performers of Francophone Country music. Brasse-Camarade was a Francophone rock and Blues group from Ontario, Canada during the 1990s led by brothers François and Pierre Swing is a Canadian Néo-trad band of Franco-Ontarian origins Stéphane (Stef Paquette (born 1973 in Chelmsford Ontario) is a Franco-Ontarian Singer-songwriter and actor from Canada. CANO were a Canadian Progressive rock band in the 1970s and 1980s
The unofficial anthem of the franco-ontarian community is the song "Notre Place" by Paul Demers and François Dubé.
Ontario has seven francophone publishing companies, including Sudbury's Prise de parole and Ottawa's Editions Le Nordir. Publishing is the process of production and dissemination of Literature or Information &ndash the activity of making information available for public view Prise de parole ( Take the word) is a Canadian book publishing company Le Nordir is a Canadian book publishing company Located in Ottawa, Ontario, the company publishes Franco-ontarian literature
Notable Franco-Ontarian writers include Lola Lemire Tostevin, Daniel Poliquin, Robert Dickson, Jean-Marc Dalpé, François Paré, Gaston Tremblay, Michel Bock, Doric Germain and Hédi Bouraoui. Lola Lemire Tostevin (born June 15, 1937 in Timmins Ontario) is a Canadian poet and novelist Daniel Poliquin (born December 18, 1953) is a Canadian Novelist and translator. Robert Dickson ( July 23 1944 &ndash March 19 2007) was a Canadian Poet Jean-Marc Dalpé (born 1957 in Ottawa, Ontario) is a Canadian playwright and poet François-Rosaire Paré BA, PhD (born 1949 in Longueuil Quebec) is a French Canadian Author and academic specialising in French literature Gaston Tremblay (1924-1998 was a politician in Quebec, Canada and a Member of the Legislative Assembly of Quebec (MLA Michel Bock is a Canadian Historian, who specializes in the history of Franco-Ontarian communities and cultures Doric Germain (born 1946 in Lac-Sainte-Thérèse Ontario) is a Canadian writer and university professor Hédi André Bouraoui (born July 16, 1932 in Sfax, Tunisia) is a Tunisian Canadian poet novelist and academic who regularly The French-language scholar Joseph Médard Carrière was Franco-Ontarian. French ( français,) is a Romance language spoken around the world by 118 million people as a native language and by about 180 to 260 million people Joseph Médard Carrière (1902–1970 was a Franco-Ontarian French-language scholar
See also List of French Canadian writers from outside Quebec. Although most Canadian Francophone writers are from Quebec, there are also a number of francophone writers from elsewhere in Canada
In the late 1980s, several Ontario towns and cities, most famously Sault Ste. Marie, were persuaded by the Alliance for the Preservation of English in Canada to declare themselves English-only in the wake of the French Language Services Act and the Meech Lake Accord debate. Sault Ste Marie (nicknamed "the Sault" or "the Soo" is a City on the St The Alliance for the Preservation of English in Canada ( APEC) was a political lobby group in Canada, which campaigned against the Canadian government The Meech Lake Accord was a set of failed amendments to the Constitution of Canada negotiated in 1987 by Prime Minister Brian Mulroney and the provincial This was considered by many observers to be a direct contributor to the resurgence of the Quebec sovereignty movement in the 1990s, and consequently to the 1995 Quebec referendum. The Quebec sovereignty movement ( Mouvement souverainiste du Québec) is a political movement aimed at either attaining independent statehood ( Sovereignty) or some The 1995 Quebec referendum was the second Referendum to ask voters in the Canadian province of Quebec whether Quebec should (See also Sault Ste. Marie language resolution. The Sault Ste Marie language resolution was a government motion passed on January 29, 1990 by Sault Ste )
Quebec writer Yves Beauchemin once controversially referred to the Franco-Ontarian community as "warm corpses" who had no chance of surviving as a community. Yves Beauchemin (born 26 June 1941) is a Quebec novelist Born in Rouyn-Noranda, Quebec Beauchemin received his degree in French literature In a similar vein, former Quebec Premier René Lévesque referred to them as "dead ducks".  However, the Quebec government has since provided significant financial assistance to Franco-Ontarian cultural groups and organizations, as it has chosen to assist in supporting and protecting French-language minority communities throughout Canada.
On October 19, 2004 a Toronto lawyer successfully challenged a traffic ticket on the basis that the city had not posted bilingual traffic signs in accordance with the 1986 French Language Services Act. Events 202 BCE - The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal. "MMIV" redirects here For the Modest Mouse album see " Baron von Bullshit Rides Again " The city of Toronto is currently expected to appeal this decision. The results of that appeal may significantly change the nature of municipal responsibilities concerning services to their Franco-Ontarian residents, but the appeal may also overturn the decision as a legal error since the Act had not previously been deemed to cover municipal government services.
Also in 2004, the province's Minister of Francophone Affairs, Madeleine Meilleur, became the province's first cabinet minister to attend a Francophonie summit, travelling to Ouagadougou with counterparts from Quebec, New Brunswick and the federal government. Madeleine Meilleur (born November 22, 1948) is a politician in Ontario, Canada. La Francophonie is an international organisation of French-speaking countries and governments and in French, the community of French-speaking peoples Ouagadougou (ˌwɑgəˈduːguː Mossi wɑgədəgə is the Capital of Burkina Faso and the administrative New Brunswick ( French: Nouveau-Brunswick /nuvobʁɔnzwik/ is one of Canada 's three Maritime provinces and is the only constitutionally Meilleur also expressed the hope that Ontario would someday become a permanent member of the organization.
On January 10, 2005, Clarence-Rockland became the first Ontario city to pass a bylaw requiring all new businesses to post signs in both official languages. Events 49 BC - Julius Caesar crosses the Rubicon, signaling the start of civil war. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Clarence-Rockland is a bilingual City in eastern Ontario, Canada, in the United Counties of Prescott and Russell on the Ottawa Clarence-Rockland is 60 per cent francophone, and the bylaw was widely supported within the community. City council, in fact, noted that the bylaw was intended to address the existence of both English-only and French-only commercial signage in the municipality.
In 2008, the provincial government officially introduced a French license plate, with the French slogan "Tant à découvrir" in place of "Yours to Discover", as an optional feature for drivers who wished to use it. A vehicle registration plate is a metal or plastic plate attached to a Motor vehicle or trailer for official identification purposes 
Other notable Franco-Ontarians not mentioned in the above article include: