Francisco Jiménez de Cisneros, O.F.M. (in his lifetime, known as Ximenes de Cisneros) (1436 – November 8, 1517) was a Spanish cardinal and statesman. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic Events 1519 - Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great a Celebration Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church. A statesman or stateswoman or statesperson is usually a Politician or other notable figure of State who has had a long and respected career in Starting from humble beginnings he rose to the heights of power becoming a religious reformer, twice regent of Spain, Cardinal, Grand Inquisitor, missionary of the Moors, promoted the Crusades in North Africa, and founded the Complutense University (currently the largest in Spain). A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor Grand Inquisitor ( Latin: Inquisitor Generalis) is the lead official of an Inquisition. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Among his literary works he is best known for funding the Complutensian Polyglot Bible, the first printed polyglot of the entire Bible. The Complutensian Polyglot Bible is the name given to the first printed polyglot of the entire Bible, initiated and financed by Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de A polyglot (also spelled polyglott) is a book that contains side-by-side versions of the same text in several different languages Etymology According to the Online Etymology Dictionary, the word bible is from Latin biblia, traced from the same word through Medieval Latin and Late Latin
Cardinal Cisneros' life coincided with a dynamic period in Spanish history during the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella when Spain underwent many reforms, from which it emerged in the Golden Age of empire (1500-1700), and Cisneros had much to do with it. The History of Spain spans the period from Prehistoric Iberia, through the rise and fall of the first global empire, to Spain's current position Ferdinand II of Aragon the Catholic (Fernando II de Aragón y V de Castilla "el Católico" Ferran II d'Aragó "el Catòlic" Ferrando II d'Aragón Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516-1700 when this country was ruled by the Habsburg dynasty (also associated to Modern historian John Elliott said as far as any particular policies that can be attributed to Spain's rise "they were those of Ferdinand and Cardinal Cisneros. "
Gonzalo Jiménez de Cisneros was born to a poor family in Torrelaguna in Castile in 1436 and studied at Alcalá de Henares and Salamanca. A former kingdom, Castile (Castilla kasˈt̪iʎa or) gradually merged with its neighbors to become the Crown of Castile and later the Kingdom of Spain Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the river Henares, is a Spanish city whose historical centre is one of UNESCO 's World Heritage Geography The city lies on a mountain by the Tormes River which is crossed by a bridge 150 m long built on 26 arches fifteen of which are of Roman origin, while In 1459, he traveled to Rome to work as a consistorial advocate where he attracted the notice of Pope Pius II. Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 Pope Pius II, born Enea Silvio Piccolomini ( Latin Aeneas Sylvius; October 18, 1405 &ndash August 14, 1464) He returned to Spain in 1465 carrying an "executive" letter from the Pope giving him possession of the first vacant benefice. History See also History of the Papacy Catholics recognize the Pope as a successor to Saint Peter, who Jesus named as the "shepherd" and Originally a benefice was a gift of land ( Precaria) for life as a reward for services rendered That turned out to be Uzeda. Uzeda is a Sicilian Math rock group founded in 1987 consisting of lead singer Giovanna Cacciola guitarists Agostino Tilotta and Giovanni Nicosia bassist Raffaele However, Alfonso Carillo de Acuna, the Archbishop of Toledo and Primate of Spain, refused to accept the letter, wishing instead to bestow the benefice upon one of his own followers. Primate (from the Latin Primus, "first" is a title or rank bestowed on some Bishops in certain Christian churches When Cisneros insisted, he was thrown in prison. For six years, Cisneros held out for his claim, free to leave at any time if he would give it up, but at length in 1480 Carillo relented at Cisneros' strength of conviction and gave him a benefice. Cisneros exchanged it almost at once for a chaplaincy at Siguenza, under Cardinal Pedro González de Mendoza, the bishop of Siguenza, who shortly appointed him vicar-general of his diocese. A chaplain is typically a Priest, Pastor, ordained Deacon, Rabbi, Imam or other member of the Clergy serving a group of Pedro González de Mendoza ( May 3, 1428 &ndash January 11, 1495) was a Spanish cardinal and Statesman. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight A vicar general (often abbreviated VG) is the principal deputy of the bishop of a diocese for the exercise of administrative authority In many rites of the Roman Catholic Church and in Anglican churches, a diocese is an administrative territorial unit administered by a Bishop.
At Siguenza, Cisneros won praise for his work and he seemed to be on the sure road to success among the secular clergy, when in 1484 at the late age of forty-eight he abruptly decided to become a Franciscan friar. The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic A Friar is a member of one of the Mendicant orders. Friars and monks Friars differ from Monks in that they are called to a life of poverty in service Giving up all his worldly belongings, and changing his baptismal name, Gonzalo, for that of Francisco, he entered the Franciscan friary of San Juan de los Reyes, recently founded by Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella of Castile at Toledo. Ferdinand II of Aragon the Catholic (Fernando II de Aragón y V de Castilla "el Católico" Ferran II d'Aragó "el Catòlic" Ferrando II d'Aragón Toledo Spain locationpng|thumb|right|200px|Location of Toledo in Spain Not content with the normal lack of comforts for a friar, he voluntarily slept on the bare ground, wore a hairshirt, doubled his fasts, and generally denied himself with enthusiasm; indeed throughout his whole life, even when at the height of power, his private life was rigorously ascetic. Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid.
He retired to the isolated friary of Our Lady of Castanar and built a rough hut in the neighboring woods, in which he lived at times as an anchorite, and later became guardian of a friary at Salzeda. Anchorite (male/ anchoress (female (adj anchoritic from the Greek anachōreō signifying "to withdraw" "to depart into the rural countryside" Meanwhile Mendoza (now Archbishop of Toledo) had not forgotten him, and in 1492 recommended him to Isabella as her confessor. The title confessor is used in the Christian Church in several ways Jimenez accepted the position on condition that he might still live in his community and follow the religious life, only appearing at court when sent for. The post was politically important, for Isabella took counsel from her confessor not only in private affairs but also matters of state. Cisneros' severe sanctity soon won him considerable influence over Isabella, and in 1494 he was appointed Minister Provincial of the order for Spain. A provincial superior is a major superior of a Religious order acting under the order's Superior general and exercising a general supervision over all the local superiors Cardinal Mendoza died in 1495, and Isabella had secretly procured a papal bull nominating Cisneros to Mendoza's Archdiocese of Toledo, the richest and most powerful in Spain. A Papal bull is a particular type of Letters patent or charter issued by a Pope. With this office was also given the office of chancellor of Castile. The Crown of Castile, as a historic entity is usually considered to have begun in 1230 with the third and definitive union of the two kingdoms of León and Castile Isabella tried to surprise him by presenting the bull as a gift in person, but Cisneros did not react as she had expected. Instead, he fled her presence, and ran away, only to be overcome by Isabella's guards and forced to accept the position against his will. Despite this, Cisneros personally still maintained a simple life; although a message from Rome required him to live in a style befitting his rank, the outward pomp only concealed his private asceticism. Ascetic redirects here You might also be looking for Acetic acid.
From his new position Cisneros set about reforming the Franciscan order in Spain. The ordained friars had to give up the practice of having "wives" (or concubines). In general religious use ordination is the process by which individuals are consecrated, that is set apart as Clergy to perform various religious rites and ceremonies They had to reside in the parish where they were supposed to work, attend confession, and preach every Sunday. A parish is a Local church; it is an administrative unit typically found in episcopal or presbyterian churches The confession of one's Sins is a religious practice important to many faiths e There was intense opposition. By 1498 the reforms were expanded to include not only Franciscans but other religious orders as well. The resistance was so fierce that four hundred monks and friars fled to Africa with their "wives" and became Muslims. A Muslim (مسلم pronounced Muslim, not Muzlim) is an adherent of the Religion The Minister General of the order himself came from Rome to interfere with the archbishop's strict reforms, but the stern and inflexible Jimenez, backed by the influence of a strong Queen, held firm in his convictions. Minister general is the term used for the Superior general of various Religious orders See List of Ministers General of the Order
In 1499 Cisneros accompanied the court of the Spanish Inquisition to Granada, and there joined the Archbishop of Talavera in his efforts to convert the Islamic Moors to Christianity. The Spanish Inquisition started and was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile to maintain Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous region of Andalusia, Spain. The description Moors has referred to several historic and modern populations of Muslim (and earlier non-Muslim people of Berber and Arab descent Talavera had used the more gentle measure of slow conversion through education, but Cisneros proceeded with the more direct and quick means of forced mass conversion and ordered the burning of all Arabic manuscripts in Granada except those dealing with medicine. Arabic (ar الْعَرَبيّة (informally ar عَرَبيْ) in terms of the number of speakers is the largest living member of the Semitic language The indignation of the unconverted Mudejar swelled into open revolt known as the First Rebellion of the Alpujarras. Mudéjar is the name given to the Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus, who remained in Christian territory after the Reconquista but were The revolt was suppressed and they were given a choice of baptism or exile. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted The majority accepted baptism and by 1500 Cisneros reported that "there is now no one in the city who is not a Christian, and all the mosques are churches". A "mosque" in English refers to all types of buildings dedicated for Islamic worship although there is a distinction in Arabic between the smaller privately owned mosque and the larger However, he had created an insolvable problem that would not end until 1609 when the Moriscos would be expelled from Spain. A morisco (Spanish " Moor -like" or mourisco (Portuguese was any Muslim of Spain or Portugal Muslims would remember him as a tyrant. Persecution of Muslims refers to the Religious persecution inflicted upon Muslims Persecution may refer to beating torture confiscation or destruction
On November 26, 1504 Isabella died. Events 43 BC - The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus ("Octavian" later "Caesar Augustus" Ferdinand made a claim for the throne against his son-in-law Philip I of Castile, and Cisneros helped mediate the dispute in the Agreement of Salamanca which left Philip as king of Castile. When Philip died in 1506, Ferdinand was in Naples and Cisneros set up a regent government in his absence, and stopped a plot by a group of high nobles to take over the throne. Naples ( Napoli, Neapolitan: Nàpule) is a historic City in southern Italy, the Capital of the A regent, from the Latin regens "who reigns" is a person selected to act as Head of state (ruling or not because the ruler is a minor In return for his loyalty, Ferdinand made Cisneros Grand Inquisitor for Castile and Leon in 1507 and gave him a Cardinal's hat. Grand Inquisitor ( Latin: Inquisitor Generalis) is the lead official of an Inquisition. A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official usually a bishop, of the Catholic Church.
The next great event in the cardinal's life was the crusade against the Moorish city of Oran in North Africa, in which his religious zeal was supported by Ferdinand's prospect for political and material gain. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Oran ( Arabic:ar وهران pronounced Wahran; also transliterated as Ouahran, Spanish: Orán. North Africa or Northern Africa is the Northernmost Region of the African Continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan A preliminary expedition, equipped at the expense of Cisneros, captured the port of Mers-el-Kebir in 1505; and in 1509 a strong force accompanied by the cardinal in person set sail for Africa, and in one day the wealthy city was taken by storm. Mers-el-Kébir (المرسى الكبير “the Great Harbor” is a port town in northwestern Algeria, located by the Mediterranean Sea near Oran Cisneros returned to Spain and attempted to recover from Ferdinand the expenses of the expedition, but Ferdinand was content with taking Oran and because of his greater interest in Italy he would not support Cisneros' plans for a larger North African crusade conquest.
On January 28, 1516 Ferdinand died, leaving Cisneros as regent of Castile for Charles (afterwards Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor), then a youth of sixteen in the Netherlands. Events 1077 - Walk to Canossa: The Excommunication of Henry IV Holy Roman Emperor is lifted Charles V (24 February 1500 &ndash 21 September 1558 was The Netherlands ( Dutch:, ˈnedərlɑnt is the European part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, which consists of the Netherlands the Netherlands Though Cisneros at once took firm hold of the reins of government, and ruled in a determined and even autocratic manner, the turbulent Castilian nobility and the jealous intriguing Flemish councilors for Charles combined to render Cisneros' position peculiarly difficult. Flanders (Vlaanderen Flandre Flandern is a geographical region located in parts of present day Belgium, France, and the Netherlands. In violation of the laws, Cisneros acceded to Charles's desire to be proclaimed king; he secured the person of Charles's younger brother Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor; he fixed the seat of the courts at Madrid; and he established a standing army by drilling the citizens of the towns. Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor ( Alcalá de Henares (near Madrid) Kingdom of Castile (now Spain) 10 March 1503 &ndash Madrid (pronounced in English in Spanish and colloquially in Spain) is the Capital and largest city of Spain.
In September 1517, Charles landed in the province of Asturias, and Cisneros hastened to meet him. The Principality of Asturias ( Spanish: Principado de Asturias, Asturian: Principáu d'Asturies or Asturies) is an On the way, however, he fell ill (not without a suspicion of poison ). While thus enfeebled, he received a letter from Charles coldly thanking him for his services, and giving him leave to retire to his diocese. A few hours after this virtual dismissal (which some say the cardinal did not have time to learn about) Cardinal Cisneros died at Roa, on the 8th of November 1517. Roa is a Spanish town and Municipality in the south of the province of Burgos.
Cardinal Cisneros was a bold and determined statesman. Described as stern and inflexible, with a confidence that became at times overbearing, he carried through what he had decided to be right, with little regard for the convenience of others or for himself. He was seen as incorruptible, and founded and maintained numerous benevolent institutions in his diocese. His whole life was devoted either to the state or to religion; and his only recreation was in theological or scholastic discussion. Scholasticism was the dominant form of theology and philosophy in the Latin West in the Middle Ages, particularly in the 12th 13th and 14th centuries
The university at Alcalá de Henares, now known as Complutense University of Madrid, was founded in 1500 and opened in 1508. Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the river Henares, is a Spanish city whose historical centre is one of UNESCO 's World Heritage The university, raised at the sole expense of and fostered by Cardinal Cisnenos, attained a great reputation. At one time 7,000 students met within its walls. In 1836, the university was moved to Madrid, and the costly buildings were left vacant until the creation of the modern University of Alcalá de Henares. The University of Alcalá (Universidad de Alcalá is an institute of higher learning located in the city of Alcalá de Henares, to the east of Madrid in Cisneros published religious treatises by himself and others. He also revived the Mozarabic liturgy, and endowed a chapel in Toledo where it was to be used. Mozarabic was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in Muslim dominated areas of the Iberian Peninsula during the early stages of the
He is well known for his sponsorship of the Complutensian Polyglot, the first printed polyglot translation of the Bible in which six different versions were put in parallel columns with the original Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and Hebrew so that readers for the first time could check all the translations simultaneously. The Complutensian Polyglot Bible is the name given to the first printed polyglot of the entire Bible, initiated and financed by Cardinal Francisco Jiménez de A polyglot (also spelled polyglott) is a book that contains side-by-side versions of the same text in several different languages Aramaic is a Semitic language with Greek (el ελληνική γλώσσα or simply el ελληνικά — "Hellenic" is an Indo-European language, spoken today by 15-22 million people mainly Latin ( lingua Latīna, laˈtiːna is an Italic language, historically spoken in Latium and Ancient Rome. The text occupies five volumes, and a sixth contains a Hebrew lexicon, etc. The work commenced in 1502. The New Testament was finished in January 1514, and the whole in April 1517. The book was dedicated to Pope Leo X but the cardinal died months after it was completed and did not live to see it published. Pope Leo X, born Giovanni de' Medici (December 11 1475 – December 1 1521 was Pope from 1513 to his death
In 1884, Spanish colonists commemorated Cisneros by founding Villa Cisneros, now Dakhla, Western Sahara. Dakhla ( Dajla) or ad-Dakhla (الداخلة (formerly Villa Cisneros) is a city in the Morocco-administered Western Sahara with about 67468 Dakhla ( Dajla) or ad-Dakhla (الداخلة (formerly Villa Cisneros) is a city in the Morocco-administered Western Sahara with about 67468
^ Cardinal Cisneros is known by many name variations: