|Saint Francis of Assisi|
El Greco, Saint Francis in Prayer, 1580–85, oil on canvas, 115. El Greco' ("The Greek " 1541 &ndash April 7 1614 was a painter, sculptor, and architect of the Spanish Renaissance 5 x 103 cm. Joslyn Art Museum
|Born||26 September 1181 or 1182, Assisi, Italy|
|Died||3 October 1226 (aged 45), Assisi, Italy|
|Venerated in||Roman Catholic Church|
|Canonized||16 July 1228, Assisi by Pope Gregory IX|
|Major shrine||Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi|
|Attributes||Dove, Stigmata, poor Franciscan habit, cross, Pax et Bonum|
|Patronage||animals, merchants, Italy, Meycauayan, Philippines, Catholic Action, the environment, stowaways|
Saint Francis of Assisi (26 September 1181 or 1182 – 3 October 1226) was a Roman Catholic friar and the founder of the Order of Friars Minor, more commonly known as the Franciscans. The Joslyn Art Museum is the principal fine arts Museum in the state of Nebraska, United States of America. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Assisi (əˈsiːzi or /əˈsiːsi/ ( Latin: Asisium) is a Town in Italy in Province of Perugia, Italy, in the Umbria Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Assisi (əˈsiːzi or /əˈsiːsi/ ( Latin: Asisium) is a Town in Italy in Province of Perugia, Italy, in the Umbria Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Canonization is the act by which a particular Christian church declares a deceased person to be a Saint and is included in the canon or list of recognized saints Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Assisi (əˈsiːzi or /əˈsiːsi/ ( Latin: Asisium) is a Town in Italy in Province of Perugia, Italy, in the Umbria Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from March 19, 1227 to August A shrine, from the Latin scrinium (‘box’ also used as a desk like the French bureau) was originally a container usually made of precious materials used The Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi in Assisi, Italy is the burial place of St Francis and the mother church of the Franciscan Order The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas Christianity has used symbols from its very beginnings Each Saint has a story and a reason why he or she led an exemplary life Stigmata are bodily marks sores or sensations of pain in locations corresponding to the Crucifixion wounds of Jesus. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Merchants function as professionals who deal with Trade, dealing in commodities that they do not produce themselves in order to produce Profit. Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The City of Meycauayan or Meycauayan is a 2nd class urban city in the province of Bulacan, Philippines. The Philippines ( Filipino: Pilipinas, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (fil ''Republika ng Pilipinas'' RP Catholic Action was the name of many groups of lay Catholics who were attempting to encourage a Catholic influence on society A stowaway is a person who travels illegally by aircraft, Bus, Ship or Train. Events 46 BC - Julius Caesar dedicates a Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's A Friar is a member of one of the Mendicant orders. Friars and monks Friars differ from Monks in that they are called to a life of poverty in service The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic The term Franciscan is commonly used to refer to members of Catholic
He is known as the patron saint of animals, birds, the environment, and Italy, and it is customary for Catholic churches to hold ceremonies honoring animals around his feast day of October 4. The patron saint of a particular group of people is a Saint who would protect and 'love' the group and its members Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest The Calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organizing a Liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more Saints 
Francis was born to Pietro di Bernardone, a rich cloth merchant, and his wife Pica Bourlemont, about whom little is known except that she was originally from France. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics.  He was one of seven children. Pietro was in France on business when Francis was born, and Pica had him baptized as Giovanni di Bernardone in honor of Saint John the Baptist, in the hope he would grow to be a great religious leader. In Christianity, baptism ( Greek, "immersing" "performing Ablutions " is the ritual act with the use of water by which one is admitted Saint John the Baptist ( heb. Jochanan ben Sacharja, arab. يحيى Yaḥyā or يوحنا Yūḥanna, aram. When his father returned to Assisi, he was furious about this, as he did not want his son to be a man of the Church and decided to call him Francesco (an adjective meaning French in Italian), in honor of his commercial success and enthusiasm for all things French. 
As a youth, Francesco--or Francis in English--became a troubador and yearned to become a writer of French poetry. A troubadour ( IPA:, originally) was a composer and performer of Occitan Lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100&ndash1350  Although many biographers remark about his bright clothing, rich friends, street brawls, and love of pleasure; his displays of disillusionment toward the world that surrounded him became fairly early, as is shown in the "story of the beggar". In this account, he was selling cloth and velvet in the marketplace on behalf of his father when a beggar came to him and asked for alms. Alms or almsgiving exists in a number of religions In general it involves giving materially to another as an act of religious virtue At the conclusion of his business deal, Francis abandoned his wares and ran after the beggar. When he found him, Francis gave the man everything he had in his pockets. His friends quickly chided and mocked him for his act of charity. When he got home, his father scolded him in rage. 
In 1201, he joined a military expedition against Perugia, he was taken as a prisoner at Collestrada, and spent a year as a captive. Perugia is the capital City of the region of Umbria in central Italy, near the Tiber river and the capital of the Province of Perugia  It is probable that his conversion to more serious thoughts was a gradual process relating to this experience. After his return to Assisi in 1203, Francis recommenced his carefree life. In 1204, however, a serious illness started a spiritual crisis. In 1205 Francis left for Puglia to enlist in the army of the Count of Brienne. Apulia ( Italian: Puglia) is a region in southeastern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea in the east the Ionian Sea The County of Brienne was a medieval County in France centered on Brienne-le-Château. In Spoleto, a strange vision made him return to Assisi, deepening his spiritual crisis. For the festival in South Carolina see Spoleto Festival USA. Spoleto ( Latin Spoletium) is an ancient city in the 
It is said that thereafter he began to avoid the sports and the feasts of his former companions; in response, they asked him laughingly whether he was thinking of marrying, to which he answered "yes, a fairer bride than any of you have ever seen", meaning his "lady poverty". Jusepe de Ribera ( January 12, 1591 - 1652 was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and Printmaker, also known as José de Ribera in Spanish Sport is an Activity that is governed by a set of rules or Customs and often engaged in competitively Poverty (also called penury) is deprivation of common necessities that determine the quality of life including food clothing shelter and safe Drinking water, and He spent much time in lonely places, asking God for enlightenment. By degrees he took to nursing lepers, the most repulsive victims in the lazar houses near Assisi. A leper colony, leprosarium, or lazar house is a place to Quarantine leprous people Assisi (əˈsiːzi or /əˈsiːsi/ ( Latin: Asisium) is a Town in Italy in Province of Perugia, Italy, in the Umbria After a pilgrimage to Rome, where he begged at the church doors for the poor, he claimed to have had a mystical experience in the Church of San Damiano just outside of Assisi, in which the Icon of Christ Crucified came alive and said to him three times, "Francis, Francis, go and repair My house which, as you can see, is falling into ruins". A pilgrim is one who undertakes a Pilgrimage, literally 'far afield' Rome ( Roma ˈroma Roma is the capital city of Italy and Lazio, and is Italy's largest and most populous city with more than 2 San Damiano is a church with a monastery near Assisi Italy. It was the first monastery of the Order of Saint Clare, where Saint Clare built her community The San Damiano Cross is the icon cross that St Francis of Assisi was praying before when he received the commission from the Lord to rebuild the Church He thought this to mean the ruined church in which he was presently praying, and so sold his horse and some cloth from his father's store, to assist the priest there for this purpose. 
His father Pietro, highly indignant, attempted to change his mind, first with threats and then with corporal chastisement. After a final interview in the presence of the bishop, Francis renounced his father and his patrimony, laying aside even the garments he had received from him. A bishop is an ordained or consecrated member of the Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight For the next couple of months he lived as a beggar in the region of Assisi. Returning to the town for two years this time, he restored several ruined churches, among them the Porziuncola, little chapel of St Mary of the Angels, just outside the town, which later became his favorite abode. Porziuncola, also called Portiuncula (in Latin or Porzioncula, is a small church in the Frazione of Santa Maria degli Angeli A chapel is a holy place or area of Worship for Christians, which may be attached to an institution such as a large church, a College, a For other uses see Santa Maria degli Angeli. The Basilica of Santa Maria degli Angeli (Saint Mary of the Angels is a church situated in the 
At the end of this period (according to Jordanus, on 24 February 1209), Francis heard a sermon that changed his life. Jordanus or Jordan Catalani (f 1321-1330 was a French Dominican Missionary and explorer in Asia known for his Mirabilia Events 303 - Galerius, Roman Emperor, publishes his edict that begins the persecution of Christians in his portion of the A sermon is an oration by a Prophet or member of the Clergy. Sermons address a Biblical, theological, or religious topic The sermon was about Matthew 10:9, in which Christ tells his followers that they should go forth and proclaim that the Kingdom of Heaven was upon them, that they should take no money with them, nor even a walking stick or shoes for the road. The Gospel of Matthew (Gk Κατά Ματθαίον Ευαγγέλιον is one of the four Canonical gospels in the New Testament and is a Synoptic gospel  Francis was inspired to devote himself to a life of poverty. 
Clad in a rough garment, barefoot, and, after the Evangelical precept, without staff or scrip, he began to preach repentance. Scrip is any Substitute for Currency which is not Legal tender and is often a form of credit.  He was soon joined by his first follower, a prominent fellow townsman, the jurist Bernardo di Quintavalle, who contributed all that he had to the work. JURIST is an online legal news service hosted by the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, written by founder Professor Bernard Hibbitts and a staff of more than Bernard son of Quintavalle son of Berardello (died 1241 was one of the first followers of St Within a year Francis had eleven followers. Francis chose never to be ordained a priest and the community lived as "lesser brothers," fratres minores in Latin. 
The brothers lived a simple life in the deserted lazar house of Rivo Torto near Assisi; but they spent much of their time wandering through the mountainous districts of Umbria, always cheerful and full of songs, yet making a deep impression on their hearers by their earnest exhortations. Simple living (or voluntary simplicity) is a lifestyle individuals choose to minimize the 'more-is-better' pursuit of Wealth and consumption. Umbria is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. The capital is Perugia. 
In 1209 Francis led his first eleven followers to Rome to seek permission from Pope Innocent III to found a new religious order. Pope Innocent III ( February 22, 1161 &ndash June 16, 1216) born Lotario de' Conti di Segni, was Pope from January  Upon entry to Rome, the brothers encountered Bishop Guido of Assisi, who had in his company the cardinal bishop of Sabina, Lord John of St Paul. The Cardinal, who was the confessor of Pope Innocent III, was immediately sympathetic to Francis and agreed to represent Francis to the pope. Reluctantly, Pope Innocent agreed to meet with Francis and the brothers the next day. After several days, the pope agreed to informally admit the group, adding that when God increased the group in grace and number, they could return for an official admittance. The group was tonsured and Francis was ordained as a deacon, allowing him to read Gospels in the church. 
From then on, his new order grew quickly with new vocations.  When hearing Francis preaching in the church of San Rufino in Assisi in 1209, Clare of Assisi became deeply touched by his message and she realized her calling. The Cathedral of San Rufino ( St Rufinus) is a major church in Assisi, Italy that has been important in the history of the Franciscan order Santa Chiara redirects here For the church in Rome of that name see Santa Chiara (church.  Her brother Rufino also joined the new order.
On Palm Sunday, 28 March 1211 Francis received Clare at the Porziuncola and hereby established the Order of Poor Dames, later called Poor Clares. Palm Sunday is a Christian Moveable feast which always falls on the Sunday before Easter. Events 37 - Roman Emperor Caligula accepts the titles of the Principate, entitled to him by the Senate. The Order of Poor Ladies, also known as the Order of St Clare, the Poor Clares, the Poor Clare Sisters, the Clarisse, the Minoresses  In the same year, Francis left for Jerusalem, but he was shipwrecked by a storm on the Dalmatian coast, forcing him to return to Italy. Dalmatia ( Croatian: Dalmacija, see names in other languages) is a region on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, situated mostly in modern
On 8 May 1213 he received the mountain of La Verna (Alverna) as a gift from the count Orlando di Chiusi who described it as “eminently suitable for whoever wishes to do penance in a place remote from mankind. Events 589 - Reccared summons the Third Council of Toledo 1450 - Jack Cade's Rebellion: Kentishmen La Verna, in Latin Alverna and geographically known as Monte Penna, is a locality on Mount Penna an isolated mountain of 1283 m situated in the centre ” The mountain would become one of his favorite retreats for prayer.  In the same year, Francis sailed for Morocco, but this time an illness forced him to break off his journey in Spain. Morocco (المغرب "al-Maghrib" officially the Kingdom of Morocco (المملكة المغربية is a country located in North Africa Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. Back in Assisi, several noblemen (among them Tommaso da Celano, who would later write the biography of St. Thomas of Celano (Tommaso da Celano c 1200 &ndash c 1260-1270 was an Italian Friar of the Franciscans (Order of Friars Minor a poet and the author Francis) and some well-educated men joined his order.
In 1215 Francis went again to Rome for the Fourth Lateran Council. The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Papal bull of April 19, 1213. During this time, he probably met Dominic de Guzman. Saint Dominic (Domingo also known as Dominic of Osma, often called Dominic de Guzmán and Domingo de Guzmán Garcés (1170 &ndash August 6 
In 1216 Francis received from the new pope Honorius III the confirmation of the indulgence of the Porziuncola, now better known as the Pardon of Assisi, which the Pope decreed to be a complete remission of their sins for all those who prayed in the Porziuncola. Pope Honorius III (1148 &ndash March 18 1227) born Cencio, was Pope from 1216 to 1227
In 1217 the growing congregation of friars was divided in provinces and groups were sent to France, Germany, Hungary, Spain and to the East. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Hungary (Magyarország 'mɔɟɔrorsaːg) officially in English the Republic of Hungary ( Magyar Köztársaság, literally Magyar (Hungarian Republic Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST internal designation HT-7U is an experimental Superconducting Tokamak Magnetic fusion energy
In 1219 Francis left, together with a few companions, on a pilgrimage of non-violence to Egypt. This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Crossing the lines between the sultan and the Crusaders in Damietta, he was received by the sultan Melek-el-Kamel. The Crusades were a series of military campaigns of a religious character waged by much of Christian Europe against external and internal opponents Damietta, Damiata, or Domyat (دمياط is a port and the capital of the governorate of Domyat, Egypt. Al-Kamil (الكامل ( epithet: al-Malik al-Kamel Naser al-Din Abu al-Ma'ali Muhammed) (1180-1238 was an Ayyubid Sultan of Kurdish  Francis challenged the Muslim scholars to a test of true religion by fire; but they retreated.  When Francis proposed to enter the fire first, under the condition that if he left the fire unharmed, the sultan would have to recognize Christ as the true God, the sultan was so impressed that he allowed Francis to preach to his subjects. Fire is the heat and light energy released during a Chemical reaction, in particular a combustion reaction.  Though Francis did not succeed in converting the sultan, the last words of the sultan to Francis of Assisi were, according to Jacques de Vitry, bishop of Acre, in his book "Historia occidentalis, De Ordine et praedicatione Fratrum Minorum (1221)" : “Pray for me that God may deign to reveal to me that law and faith which is most pleasing to him. Jacques de Vitry (c 1160/70 &ndash 1240 or 1244) was a theologian chronicler and cardinal from 1228 &ndash 40 The Bishop of Acre was a Suffragan bishop of the Crusader Archbishop of Tyre. ”. 
At Acre, the capital of what remained of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, he rejoined the brothers Elia and Pietro Cattini. This article is about the Christian kingdom For the history of the city see History of Jerusalem The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian Francis then most probably visited the holy places in Palestine in 1220. Palestine is a name which has been widely used since Roman times to refer to the region between the Mediterranean Sea and the Jordan River.
Although nativity drawings and paintings existed earlier, St Francis of Assisi celebrated Christmas by setting up the first known three-dimensional presepio or crèche (Nativity scene) in the town of Greccio near Assisi, around 1220. A nativity scene may be used to describe any depiction of the Nativity of Jesus in art, but in the sense covered here also called a crib or manger in the  He used real animals to create a living scene so that the worshipers could contemplate the birth of the child Jesus in a direct way, making use of the senses, especially sight.  Thomas of Celano, a biographer of Francis and Saint Bonaventure both tell how he only used a straw-filled manger (feeding trough) set between a real ox and donkey. Saint Bonaventure of Bagnoregio (San Bonaventura (1221 &ndash July 15, 1274) born John of Fidanza (Giovanni di Fidanza was the eighth Minister Oxen (singular ox) are Cattle trained as draft animals. Often they are adult castrated males The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse family and an odd-toed ungulate.  According to Thomas, it was beautiful in its simplicity with the manger acting as the altar for the Christmas Mass.
When receiving a report of the martyrdom of five brothers in Morocco, Francis returned to Italy via Venice. Venice ( Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venesia or Venexia) is a city in Northern Italy, the capital of the  Cardinal Ugolino di Conti was then nominated by the Pope as the protector of the order. Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from March 19, 1227 to August When problems arose in the order, a detailed rule became necessary. On 29 September 1220 Francis handed over the governance of the order to brother Pietro Cattini at the Porziuncola. Events 522 BC - Darius I of Persia kills the Magian usurper Gaumâta securing his hold as king of the Persian Empire. However, Brother Cattini died on 10 March 1221. Events 241 BC - First Punic War: Battle of the Aegates Islands - The Romans sink the Carthaginian fleet bringing He was buried in the Porziuncola. When numerous miracles were attributed to the late Pietro Cattini, people started to flock to the Porziuncola, disturbing the daily life of the Franciscans. Francis then prayed, asking Pietro to stop the miracles and obey in death as he had obeyed during his life. Death is the termination of the biological functions that define living Organisms It refers both to a specific The report of miracles ceased. Brother Pietro was succeeded by brother Elia as vicar of Francis.
During 1221 and 1222 Francis crossed Italy, first as far south as Catania in Sicily and afterwards as far north as Bologna. Catania ( Greek: &ndash Katánē; Latin: Catăna and Catĭna; Arabic: Bologna (boloɲa from Latin Bononia, Bulåggna in Bolognese dialect is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy
On 29 November 1223 the final rule of the order (in twelve chapters) was approved by Pope Honorius III. Events 1777 - San Jose California, is founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe
While he was praying on the mountain of Verna, during a forty day fast in preparation for Michaelmas, Francis is said to have had a vision on or about 14 September 1224, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, as a result of which he received the stigmata. Events 81 - Domitian becomes Emperor of the Roman Empire upon the death of his brother Titus. In the Christian Liturgical calendar, there are several different feasts known as Feasts of the Cross, all of which commemorate the cross used in the Stigmata are bodily marks sores or sensations of pain in locations corresponding to the Crucifixion wounds of Jesus.  Brother Leo, who had been with Francis at the time, left a clear and simple account of the event, the first definite account of the phenomenon of stigmata.  "Suddenly he saw a vision of a seraph, a six-winged angel on a cross. This angel gave him the gift of the five wounds of Christ. "
Suffering from these Stigmata and from an eye disease, he received care in several cities (Siena, Cortona, Nocera) to no avail. Siena is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the Province of Siena. Cortona is a town and comune in the Province of Arezzo, in Tuscany, Italy. Nocera Umbra is a town in the Province of Perugia, Italy, 15 kilometers east of Foligno, at an altitude of 520 m (1706 ft above sea-level In the end he was brought back to the Porziuncola. He was brought to the transito, the hut for infirm friars, next to the Porziuncola. Here, in the place where it all began, feeling the end approaching, he spent the last days of his life dictating his spiritual testament. He died on the evening of 3 October 1226 singing Psalm 141. Events 42 BC - First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar's Psalms ( Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים, or "praises" is a book of the Hebrew Bible (the Christian Old Testament) included His feast day is observed 4 October. Events 610 - Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas
On 16 July 1228 he was pronounced a saint by the next pope Gregory IX, the former cardinal Ugolino di Conti, friend and protector of St. Events 622 - The beginning of the Islamic calendar. 1054 - Three Roman legates fractured relations between the Western and Pope Gregory IX, born Ugolino di Conti, was Pope from March 19, 1227 to August Francis. The next day, the pope laid the foundation stone for the Basilica of Saint Francis in Assisi. The Basilica of San Francesco d'Assisi in Assisi, Italy is the burial place of St Francis and the mother church of the Franciscan Order
He was buried on 25 May 1230 under the Lower Basilica. His burial place remained inaccessible until it was rediscovered in 1818. Pasquale Belli then constructed for his remains a crypt in neo-classical style under the Lower Basilica. It was refashioned between 1927 and 1930 into its present form by Ugo Tarchi, stripping the wall of its marble decorations. In 1978 the remains of St. Francis were identified by a commission of scholars, appointed by pope Paul VI and put in a glass urn in the ancient stone tomb. Pope
St. Francis is considered the first Italian poet by literary critics. He believed commoners should be able to pray to God in their own language, and he wrote always in dialect of Umbria instead of Latin. His writings are considered to have great literary value, as well as religious. 
Many of the stories that surround the life of St Francis deal with his love for animals.  Perhaps the most famous incident that illustrates the Saint’s humility towards nature is recounted in the 'Fioretti' (The "Little Flowers"), a collection of legends and folk-lore that sprang up after the Saint’s death. A legend ( Latin, legenda, "things to be read" is a Narrative of human actions that are perceived both by teller and listeners to It is said that one day while Francis was traveling with some companions they happened upon a place in the road where birds filled the trees on either side. Francis told his companions to "wait for me while I go to preach to my sisters the birds".  The birds surrounded him, drawn by the power of his voice, and not one of them flew away. Francis spoke to them:
My sister birds, you owe much to God, and you must always and in everyplace give praise to Him; for He has given you freedom to wing through the sky and He has clothed you…you neither sow nor reap, and God feeds you and gives you rivers and fountains for your thirst, and mountains and valleys for shelter, and tall trees for your nests. And although you neither know how to spin or weave, God dresses you and your children, for the Creator loves you greatly and He blesses you abundantly. Therefore… always seek to praise God.
Another legend from the Fioretti tells that in the city of Gubbio, where Francis lived for some time, was a wolf “terrifying and ferocious, who devoured men as well as animals”. The Little Flowers of St Francis ( Italian Fioretti di San Francesco) is a Florilegium, divided into 53 short chapters on the life Gubbio is a town and Comune in the far northeastern part of the Italian Province of Perugia ( Umbria) It is located on the first slope of Mt See also Gray Wolf The Italian Wolf ( Canis lupus italicus) also known as the Apennine Wolf, is a subspecies of the Grey Wolf found Francis had compassion upon the townsfolk, and went up into the hills to find the wolf. Soon, fear of the animal had caused all his companions to flee, though the saint pressed on. When he found the wolf, he made the sign of the cross and commanded the wolf to come to him and hurt no one. Miraculously the wolf closed his jaws and lay down at the feet of St. Francis. “Brother Wolf, you do much harm in these parts and you have done great evil…” said Francis. “All these people accuse you and curse you…But brother wolf, I would like to make peace between you and the people. ” Then Francis led the wolf into the town, and surrounded by startled citizens made a pact between them and the wolf. Because the wolf had “done evil out of hunger”, the townsfolk were to feed the wolf regularly, and in return, the wolf would no longer prey upon them or their flocks. In this manner Gubbio was freed from the menace of the predator. Francis, ever the lover of animals, even made a pact on behalf of the town dogs, that they would not bother the wolf again.
These legends exemplify the Franciscan mode of charity and poverty as well as the saint's love of the natural world.  Part of his appreciation of the environment is expressed in his Canticle of the Sun, a poem written in Umbrian Italian in perhaps 1224 which expresses a love and appreciation of Brother Sun, Sister Moon, Mother Earth, Brother Fire, etc. The Canticle of the Sun, also known as the Laudes Creaturarum ("Praise of the Creatures" is a religious song composed by Saint Francis and all of God's creations personified in their fundamental forms. In "Canticle of the Creatures," he wrote: "All praise to you, Oh Lord, for all these brother and sister creatures. "
Francis's attitude towards the natural world, while poetically expressed, was conventionally Christian.  He believed that the world was created good and beautiful by God but suffers a need for redemption because of the primordial sin of man. He preached to man and beast the universal ability and duty of all creatures to praise God (a common theme in the Psalms) and the duty of men to protect and enjoy nature as both the stewards of God's creation and as creatures ourselves. 
Legend has it that St. Francis on his deathbed thanked his donkey for carrying and helping him throughout his life, and his donkey wept. The donkey or ass, Equus asinus, is a member of the Equidae or horse family and an odd-toed ungulate.
For an exhaustive list of sources, see .
For a complete list, see .
|NAME||St. Francis of Assisi|
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Bernardone, Giovanni di|
|SHORT DESCRIPTION||Catholic saint and founder of the Franciscan order|
|DATE OF BIRTH||1182|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Assisi, Italy|
|DATE OF DEATH||3 October 1226|
|PLACE OF DEATH||Assisi, Italy|