Fox hunting is an activity involving the tracking, chase, and sometimes killing of a fox, traditionally a red fox, by trained foxhounds or other scent hounds, and a group of followers led by a master of foxhounds, who follow the hounds on foot or on horseback. The Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes) is a Mammal of the order Carnivora. A foxhound is a type of large hunting Hound. Foxhounds hunt in packs and like all Scent hounds have a strong sense of smell Scent hounds (Scenthounds are a type of Hound that primarily hunts by Scent rather than Sight. 
Fox hunting originated in the United Kingdom in the 16th century, but is practised all over the world, including Australia, Canada, France, India, Ireland, Italy, Russia, New Zealand, and the United States. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Australia topics. Country to "Dominion of Canada" or "Canadian Federation" or anything else please read the Talk Page This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Ireland (pronounced /ˈaɾlənd/ Éire) is the third largest island in Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world Italy (Italia officially the Italian Republic, (Repubblica Italiana is located on the Italian Peninsula in Southern Europe, and on the two largest Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending New Zealand is an Island country in the south-western Pacific Ocean comprising two main landmasses (the North Island and the South Island The United States of America —commonly referred to as the  In Australia, the term also refers to the hunting of foxes with firearms, in a manner very similar to deer stalking or spotlighting. A firearm is a Tool that projects either single or multiple Projectiles at high velocity through a controlled explosion Deer stalking is the art and craft of pursuing wild Deer for sporting purposes typically with a high powered Rifle fitted with a powerful Telescopic sight Spotlighting or shining is a method of Hunting Nocturnal animals using Off-road vehicles and high-powered lights Spotlights lamps or
The sport is controversial, particularly in the UK, where a ban was introduced in November 2004.  Proponents see it as an important part of rural culture, vital for conservation and pest control, while opponents argue that it is cruel and unnecessary. Rural areas can be large and isolated (also referred to as "the country" and/or "the countryside over the course of time The conservation movement also known as nature conservation is a political social and to some extent scientific movement that seeks to protect natural resources including Pest control refers to the regulation or management of a Species defined as a pest, usually because it is perceived to be detrimental to a person's Health Cruelty to animals refers to the infliction of unnecessary Suffering or Harm to animals 
The use of scenthounds to track prey dates back to Assyrian, Babylonian, and ancient Egyptian times, and is known as venery. Hunting is the practice of pursuing Animals for Food, Recreation, or Trade. Early history The most Neolithic site in Assyria is at Tell Hassuna, the center of the Hassuna culture Babylonia was an Amorite state in lower Mesopotamia (modern southern Iraq) with Babylon as its capital Ancient Egypt was an Ancient Civilization in eastern North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in what is now 
Many Greek- and Roman-influenced countries have long traditions of hunting with hounds. Hunting with Agassaei hounds was popular in Celtic Britain, even before the Romans arrived, with their Castorian and Fulpine hound breeds which they used to hunt. In Britain and Ireland the Iron Age lasted from about the 7th century BC until the Roman conquest and until the 5th century in non- Romanised Ancient Rome was a Civilization that grew out of a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 10th century BC  Norman hunting traditions were brought to Britain when William the Conqueror arrived, along with the Gascon and Talbot hounds. The Normans were the people who gave their names to Normandy, a region in northern France. William I of England ( 1027 His reign which brought Norman culture to England had an enormous impact on the subsequent course of England in the Middle Ages
Foxes were referred to as beasts of the chase by medieval times, along with the red deer (hart & hind), martens, and roes, but the earliest known attempt to hunt a fox with hounds was in Norfolk, England, in 1534, where farmers began chasing down foxes with their dogs for pest control. The Red Deer ( Cervus elaphus) is one of the largest Deer species For the Wiltshire village see Marten Wiltshire. For the town in Bulgaria see Marten Bulgaria. The European Roe Deer ( Capreolus capreolus) is a Deer species of Europe, Asia Minor, and Caspian coastal regions Norfolk (ˈnɔrfək is a low-lying county in East Anglia, England, United Kingdom.  The first use of packs specifically trained to hunt foxes was in the late 1600s, with the oldest fox hunt likely to be the Bilsdale in Yorkshire. Yorkshire is a historic county of Northern England and the largest in Great Britain.  By the end of the seventeenth century, deer hunting was in decline. The Inclosure Acts brought fences to separate open land into fields, deer forests were being cut down, and arable land was increasing. The Inclosure Acts were a series of United Kingdom Acts of Parliament which enclosed open fields and Common land in the country  With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, people began to move out of the country and into towns and cities to find work. The Industrial Revolution was a period in the late 18th and early 19th centuries when major changes in agriculture manufacturing and transportation had a profound effect on the Roads, rail, and canals split hunting countries, but also made hunting accessible to more people. Shotguns were improved during the nineteenth century and game shooting became more popular. A shotgun (also known as a scattergun) is a Firearm that is usually designed to be fired from the shoulder which uses the energy of a fixed shell to fire a number Game is any Animal hunted for Food or not normally domesticated (such as Venison)  Fox hunting developed further in the eighteenth century when Hugo Meynell developed breeds of hound and horse to address the new geography of rural England. Hugo Meynell (June 1735 &ndash 14 December, 1808) is generally seen as the father of modern Fox hunting became Master of Fox Hounds for the 
To protect pheasants for the shooters, gamekeepers culled foxes almost to extirpation in many areas, which caused the huntsmen to improve their coverts to preserve their quarry. The Common Pheasant ( Phasianus colchicus) is a bird in the Pheasant family (Phasianidae For the comic book series see Guy Ritchie's Gamekeeper. A gamekeeper (often abbreviated to keeper) is a person who looks after Local extinction is where a Species (or other Taxon) ceases to exist in the chosen area of study but still exists elsewhere  The Game Laws were relaxed in 1831, which meant that anyone could obtain a permit to take rabbits, hares, and game birds. The Game Act 1831 is an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom which was passed in order to protect Game birds by establishing a close season when they 
In Germany, hunting with hounds was first banned on the orders of Hermann Goering on July 3, 1934, one of the first laws to be introduced by the Nazis when they came to power in 1933. Hermann Wilhelm Göring (also spelled Goering) (12 January 1893 15 October 1946 was a German Politician, Military leader and a leading member Events 324 - Battle of Adrianople Constantine I defeats Licinius, who flees to Byzantium. Year 1934 ( MCMXXXIV) was a Common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. Nazism, which was a short name for National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus refers primarily to the Ideology and practices of the National Socialist German  In 1939, the ban was extended to cover Austria after Germany's annexation of the country. Bernd Ergert, the director of Germany's hunting museum in Munich, said of the ban, "The aristocrats were understandably furious, but they could do nothing about the ban given the totalitarian nature of the regime. "
According to the Masters of Foxhounds Association of America, Englishman Robert Brooke was the first man to import hunting hounds to America, bringing his pack to Maryland in 1650 when he imported his horses, his slaves, and a pack of foxhounds. Alexandre-François Desportes (Champigneul Marne 24 February, 1661 — Paris 20 April, 1743) was a French painter and decorative Robert Brooke Sr (1602–55 was a colonial Governor of Maryland.  Also around this time, numbers of European red foxes were introduced into the Eastern seaboard of North America for hunting.  The first organised hunt for the benefit of a group (rather than a single patron) was started by Thomas, sixth Lord Fairfax in 1747. Thomas Fairfax 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron ( October 22, 1693 &ndash December 9, 1781) was the son of Thomas Fairfax 5th Lord Fairfax  In the United States, George Washington and Thomas Jefferson both kept packs of fox hounds before and after the American Revolutionary War. George Washington (February 22 1732 December 14 1799 served as the first President of the United States of America (1789&ndash1797 and led the Thomas Jefferson (April 13 1743 – July 4 1826 was the third President of the United States (1801–1809 the principal author of the Declaration of Independence In this article the inhabitants of the thirteen colonies that supported the American Revolution are primarily referred to as "Americans" with occasional references to "Patriots" 
In Australia, the European red fox was introduced solely for the purpose of fox hunting in 1855. The Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes) is a Mammal of the order Carnivora.  Native animal populations have been very badly affected, with the extinction of at least 10 species attributed to the spread of foxes.  Fox hunting continues in Australia, with thirteen clubs with over 1000 members, still hunting with horses and hounds, in the state of Victoria.  Fox hunting with hounds results in around 650 foxes being killed annually in Victoria, compared with over 90,000 shot over a similar period in response to a State government bounty. 
The controversy around fox hunting led to the passing of the Hunting Act 2004, in November of that year, which effectively outlawed the sport in England and Wales from February 18, 2005, after the House of Commons rejected the option of a licensed hunting under stricter conditions, advocated by then Prime Minister Tony Blair and members of the government's independent inquiry on fox hunting including its chairman Lord Burns, and the eminent veterinary surgeon and Conservative peer, Lord Soulsby, the latter who had worked for the Countryside Alliance's predecessor body, the British Field Sports Society before his appointment to the Burns Inquiry committee. The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act of the UK Parliament passed in 2004 Events 3102 BC - Epoch (origin of the Kali Yuga. 1229 - The Sixth Crusade: Frederick II Holy The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to The Burns Inquiry (or Committee of Inquiry into Hunting with Dogs in England and Wales was a Government committee set up to examine the facts in the debate in the United Kingdom Terence (Terry Burns Baron Burns, GCB (born 13 March 1944) is a British Economist. A veterinary surgeon is a Veterinarian qualified in the UK and some other English -speaking countries (See Commonwealth of Nations and Commonwealth The Conservative Party (officially the Conservative and Unionist Party) is a Political party in the United Kingdom. Ernest Jackson Lawson Soulsby Baron Soulsby of Swaffham Prior (born 23 June 1926) is a distinguished microbiologist and parasitologist. The Countryside Alliance  The passing of the Hunting Act was also notable as it was done through use of the Parliament Act, after the unelected House of Lords had refused to pass the legislation. Coming into force (also called enforcement or enactment) is a term that refers to the process by which Legislation, or part of legislation and The Parliament Acts are two Acts of Parliament of the United Kingdom, passed in 1911 and 1949 that form part of the Constitution of the United The House of Lords is the second house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as "the Lords"  Scotland, which has its own Parliament, banned fox hunting in 2002, over two years before the ban in England and Wales, whilst it remains legal in Northern Ireland. The Scottish Parliament ( Scottish Gaelic: Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: Scottish Pairlament) is the devlolved national unicameral 
After the ban on fox hunting, hunts say that they follow artificially laid trails, although the League Against Cruel Sports has alleged widespread law breaking. The League Against Cruel Sports (formerly abbreviated to LACS) is an Animal welfare organisation that campaigns against all Blood sports  Supporters of fox hunting claim that the number of foxes killed by dogs has increased since the ban, that hunts have reported an increase in membership, and that around 320,000 people (their highest recorded number) turned up to fox hunts on Boxing Day, 2006. 
In America, fox hunting is also called 'fox chasing,' as the purpose is not to actually kill the animal but to enjoy the thrill of the chase.  A hunt may go without a kill for several years, despite chasing two or more foxes in a single day's hunting.  As a rule, foxes are not pursued once they have 'gone to ground. ' American fox hunters undertake stewardship of the land, and endeavour to maintain fox populations and habitats as much as possible. 
In 2007, the Masters of Foxhounds Association of North America listed 171 registered packs in the U. S. and Canada.  This number does not include the nonregistered (also known as 'farmer' or 'outlaw') packs.  In some arid parts of the Western United States, where foxes in general are more difficult to locate, hunts track coyotes and, in some cases, bobcats. The Western United States &mdashcommonly referred to as the American West or simply the West &mdashtraditionally refers to the region comprising the westernmost The coyote (kaɪˈoʊti ˈkaɪoʊt ( Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora The Bobcat ( Lynx rufus) is a North American Mammal of the cat family Felidae.  Charles Dickens, in a short story titled Coyote Hunting and published in 1893, vividly describes hunting coyotes near Denver, Colorado. 
Fox hunting with hounds is practised in countries including Australia, Canada, France, India, Ireland, Italy, Russia and New Zealand, whereas the Burns Inquiry reported that fox hunting was "not practised or is largely banned" in Spain, Belgium, Germany, Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Norway. The Burns Inquiry (or Committee of Inquiry into Hunting with Dogs in England and Wales was a Government committee set up to examine the facts in the debate in the United Kingdom 
The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) is the normal prey animal of a fox hunt in the U. The Red Fox ( Vulpes vulpes) is a Mammal of the order Carnivora. S. and Europe. A small omnivorous predator, the fox lives in underground burrows called earths, and is predominantly active around twilight (making it a crepuscular animal). Omnivores (from Latin omne all everything vorare to devour are species that eat both Plants and Animals as their primary Crepuscular is a term used to describe animals that are primarily active during Twilight, hence at Dawn and at Dusk.  Adult foxes tend to range around an area of between 5 and 15 square kilometers (2–6 square miles) in good terrain, although in poor terrain, their range can be as much as 20 square kilometers (7. 7 sq mi).  The red fox can run at up to 48 km/h (30 mph).  The fox is also variously known as a Tod (old English word for fox), Reynard (the name of an anthropomorphic character in European literature from the twelfth century), or Charlie (named for the Whig politician Charles James Fox). Reynard the Fox, also known as Renard, Renart, Reinard, Reinecke, Reinhardus, Reynardt, Reynaerde Anthropomorphism is the attribution of uniquely Human characteristics to non-human creatures and beings natural and supernatural phenomena material states and objects The Whigs (with the Tories) are often described as one of two political parties in England and later the United Kingdom from the late 17th to The Right Honourable Charles James Fox ( 24 January 1749 &ndash 13 September 1806) was a prominent British Whig 
The coyote (Canis latrans) is one of the most prevalent game of North American hunts. The coyote (kaɪˈoʊti ˈkaɪoʊt ( Canis latrans) also known as the prairie wolf, is a Mammal of the order Carnivora  The coyote is an indigenous predator that did not range east of the Mississippi River until the latter half of the 20th century.  The coyote is faster (running at 65 km/h (40 mph)) and wider ranging (with a territory of up to 283 square kilometers (109 sq mi)) than the fox, so a much larger hunt territory is required to chase it. Coyotes can be challenging opponents for the dogs in physical confrontations, despite the size advantage of a large dog. Coyotes have larger canine teeth and are generally more practised in hostile encounters. 
The gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus), a very distant relative of the European red fox, which can be the subject of a fox hunt in North America, is an adept climber of trees, making it harder to hunt with hounds. The Gray Fox ( Urocyon cinereoargenteus) is a Mammal of the order Carnivora ranging throughout most of the southern half of North America  Hunts also pursue the bobcat (Lynx rufus), and the choice of quarry depends on the region and numbers of each quarry available. The Bobcat ( Lynx rufus) is a North American Mammal of the cat family Felidae.  In countries such as India, and in other areas formerly under British influence, such as Iraq, the golden jackal (Canis aureus) is often hunted. India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Iraq topics. The Golden Jackal ( Canis aureus) also called the Asiatic, Oriental or Common Jackal is a carnivorous Mammal of the 
Fox hunting is usually undertaken with a pack of scent hounds, and, in most cases, these are specially bred foxhounds. Scent hounds (Scenthounds are a type of Hound that primarily hunts by Scent rather than Sight. A foxhound is a type of large hunting Hound. Foxhounds hunt in packs and like all Scent hounds have a strong sense of smell  These dogs are trained to pursue the fox based on its scent. Olfaction (also known as olfactics or smell) refers to the Sense of smell. The two main types of foxhound are the English Foxhound and the American Foxhound. The American Foxhound is a breed of dog that is cousin to the English Foxhound.  It is possible to use a sight hound such as a Greyhound or lurcher to pursue foxes, though this practice is not common in organised hunting, and these dogs are more often used for coursing animals such as hares. Sighthounds, also called gazehounds, are Hounds that primarily hunt by speed and sight instead of by scent and endurance as Scent hounds do The lurcher is not a Dog breed, but rather a type of Dog. It is a hardy crossbred Sighthound that is generally a cross between Coursing is the pursuit of game or other animals by Dogs &mdashchiefly Greyhounds and other Sighthounds mdash catching the prey by speed running Hares and jackrabbits are Leporids belonging to the Genus Lepus.  There is also one pack of beagles in Virginia that hunt fox. The Beagle is a breed of medium-sized Dog. A member of the Hound Group, it is similar in appearance to the Foxhound but smaller They are unique in that they are the only hunting beagle pack in the U. S. to be followed on horseback. English Foxhounds are also used for hunting stag, otter, or mink. A deer is a Ruminant Mammal belonging to the family Cervidae. Otters are semi- aquatic (or in one case aquatic) fish-eating Mammals The otter subfamily Lutrinae forms part of the family There are two living species of " mink," the American Mink and the European Mink.
Hunts may also use terriers to flush or kill foxes that are hiding underground, as they are small enough to pursue the fox through narrow earth passages. A working terrier is a small type of dog which pursues its quarry into the earth
The horses, called "field hunters" or hunters, ridden by followers of the hunt, are a prominent feature of many hunts, although others are conducted on foot (and those hunts with a field of horseback-mounted riders may also have foot followers). A field hunter, or a fox hunter, is a type of horse used in the hunt field for Foxhunting. The horse ( Equus caballus) is a hoofed ( Ungulate) Mammal, one of eight living species of the family Equidae. A field hunter, or a fox hunter, is a type of horse used in the hunt field for Foxhunting. Horses on hunts can range from specially bred and trained field hunters to casual hunt attendees riding a wide variety of horse and pony types. A field hunter, or a fox hunter, is a type of horse used in the hunt field for Foxhunting. A pony is a small Horse with a specific conformation and temperament Draft and Thoroughbred crosses are commonly used as hunters, although purebred Thoroughbreds and horses of many different breeds are also used. A draft horse, draught horse or dray horse (from the Anglo-Saxon dragan meaning to draw or haul is a large Horse bred for hard heavy tasks The Thoroughbred is a horse breed Purebreds, also called purebreeds, are cultivated varieties or cultivars of an animal Species, achieved through the process of Selective breeding Meyers b12 s0947bjpg|thumb|Heavy or draft horse breeds]] This page is a list of Horse and Pony breeds and also includes terms used to describe types of horses that are not Some hunts with unique territories favor certain traits in field hunters, for example, when hunting coyote in the western U. S. , a faster horse with more stamina is required to keep up, as coyotes are faster than foxes and inhabit larger territories. Hunters must be well-mannered, have the athletic ability to clear large obstacles such as wide ditches, tall fences, and rock walls, and have the stamina to keep up with the hounds. 
Dependent on terrain, and to accommodate different levels of ability, hunts generally have alternative routes that do not involve jumping. The hunt may be divided into two groups, with one group, the First Field, that takes a more direct but demanding route that involves jumps over obstacles while another group, the Second Field (also called Hilltoppers or Gaters), takes longer but less challenging routes that utilize gates or other types of access on the flat. 
In the United Kingdom, since the introduction of the hunting ban, a number of hunts have employed falconers to bring birds of prey to the hunt, due to the exemption in the Hunting Act for falconry. Birds of prey are Birds that hunt for food primarily on the wing using their keen senses especially vision The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act of the UK Parliament passed in 2004  The legality of this will be tested by a private prosecution being brought by the League Against Cruel Sports. The League Against Cruel Sports (formerly abbreviated to LACS) is an Animal welfare organisation that campaigns against all Blood sports 
Fox hunts are the setting for many social rituals, but the hunting itself begins when hounds are "cast" (put into) rough or brushy areas called coverts, where foxes often lay up during daylight hours or when they hear dogs moving toward them. Bedale is a small Market town and Civil parish in the district of Hambleton, North Yorkshire, England, at the foot of If the pack manages to pick up the scent of a fox, they will track it for as long as they are able. Scenting can be affected by temperature, humidity, and other factors. The hounds pursue the trail of the fox and the riders follow, by the most direct route possible. Since this may involve very athletic skill on the part of horse and rider alike, fox hunting is the origin of traditional equestrian sports including steeplechase and point to point racing. The steeplechase is a form of Horse racing (primarily conducted in the United Kingdom, United States, France, and Ireland) and derives  The hunt continues until either the fox evades the hounds, goes to ground or is overtaken and usually killed by the hounds. In the case of Scottish hill packs or the gun packs of Wales and upland areas of England, the fox is flushed to guns. Hunts in the Cumbrian fells and other upland areas are followed by supporters on foot rather than on horseback. Boundaries and divisions Cumbria is neighboured by Northumberland, County Durham, North Yorkshire, Lancashire, and the Lieutenancy Fell (from the Old Norse fjall, 'mountain' is a word used to refer to Mountains or certain types of mountainous landscape in Scandinavia In the UK, where the fox goes to ground, terriers may be entered into the earth to locate the fox so that it can be dug down to and killed. 
Social rituals are important to hunts, although many have fallen into disuse. One of the most notable was the act of blooding. This is a very old ceremony in which the master or huntsman would smear the blood of the fox or coyote onto the cheeks or forehead of a newly initiated hunt follower, often a young child. Initiation is a Rite of passage Ceremony marking entrance or acceptance into a group or society  Another practice of some hunts was to cut off the tail ('brush'), the feet ('pads') and the head ('mask') as trophies, with the carcass then thrown to the dogs.  Both of these practices were widely abandoned during the nineteenth century, although isolated cases may still have occurred to the modern day. 
In the autumn of each year (August-October in the UK), hunts take the young hounds out cub hunting or autumn hunting in order to cull weaker young foxes (which are full size by autumn season as they are born in spring , albeit not yet sexually mature until they are 10 months old and still living in their family group) and teach the young fox hounds to restrict their hunting to foxes.  In Britain, the activity consists of hunt supporters surrounding a covert, with riders and foot followers to drive back foxes attempting to escape, and then 'drawing' the covert with the puppies and some more experienced hounds, allowing them to find, attack and kill the young foxes within the surrounded wood.  A young hound is considered to be 'entered' into the pack once he or she has successfully joined in a hunt in this fashion. Only rarely, in about 1 in 50 cases, foxhounds do not show suitable aptitude, and must be removed from the pack. 
In the U. S. , some cubs are chased and allowed to escape to teach them better skills of evasion so that they may be tracked (preferably without being killed) again another day. Many foxes learn to evade the hounds by running up or down streams, running along the tops of fences, and other tactics to throw the hounds off the scent.
Once the season proper starts (usually from early November in the northern hemisphere, or May in the southern hemisphere), the idea is to drive the fox from the covert and chase it for long distances over open countryside. The northern hemisphere season continues through to April, though a few hunts continue into early May. Fox cubs are born between January and May, dependent on their geographical range, which means that pregnant and nursing vixens may be hunted. In mammals pregnancy is the period of Reproduction during which a Female carries one or more live offspring from Implantation in the uterus through
Drag hunting, an equestrian sport which involves dragging an object over the ground to lay a scent for the hounds to follow, can also be popular, either instead of, or in addition to, live quarry hunting. Drag hunting is a Sport in which a group of Dogs (usually Foxhounds or Beagles chase a scent that has been laid (dragged over a terrain before For the Roman class see Equestrian (Roman Equestrianism refers to the skill of riding or driving Horses This broad description Drag hunts are often considered to be faster than standard fox hunts, with followers not having to wait while the hounds pick up a trail, and often covering an area far larger than a traditional hunt, which may even necessitate a change of horses half way through.  A non-equestrian variation, hound trailing, is practiced in the Lake District. The Lake District, also known as The Lakes or Lakeland, is a rural area in North West England.  Since the UK hunting ban, hunts claim to use a mixture of an odoriferous substance with an oil in order to improve the persistence of the scent trail, and then to lay the scent about 20 minutes in advance of the hunt. The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act of the UK Parliament passed in 2004  Bloodhounds are also used to hunt a human runner in the sport of Hunting the Clean Boot. A bloodhound (also known as the St Hubert hound) is a large breed of Dog bred for the specific purpose of tracking human beings Hunting the Clean Boot is a term that has been used in Britain to refer to the use of Bloodhounds to follow natural human scent 
In Australia, fox hunting also involves hunting foxes with firearms, much the same as deer or rabbit, although Australia also has mounted hunts with hounds. Feral red foxes are regarded as a serious problem for farmers in Australia, having been introduced by huntsmen in the nineteenth and twentieth century for sporting purposes; as such, their expedient removal is viewed by farmers as the priority, rather than the pomp and circumstance of a traditional fox hunt in the UK. A feral organism is one that has escaped from Domestication and returned partly or wholly to its wild state Alongside methods such as trapping and poisoning, hunters usually work at night with a spotlight and a 0. 222 calibre rifle, known as "spotlighting", or "lamping" in the UK and Ireland. A rifle is a Firearm designed to be fired from the shoulder with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves ("rifling" cut into the barrel walls Spotlighting or shining is a method of Hunting Nocturnal animals using Off-road vehicles and high-powered lights Spotlights lamps or 
As a social ritual, participants in a fox hunt fill specific roles, the most prominent of which is the master, often more than one and then called masters or joint masters. These individuals typically take much of the financial responsibility for the overall management of the sporting activities of the hunt and the care and breeding of the hunt's fox hounds, as well as control and direction of the its paid staff.
In addition to members of the hunt staff, a committee may run the Hunt Supporters Club to organise fundraising and social events and in America many hunts are incorporated and have parallel lines of leadership.
Britain, Ireland and America each have a Masters of Foxhounds Association (MFHA) which consists of current and past masters of foxhounds. This is the governing body for all foxhound packs and deals with disputes about boundaries between hunts.
Mounted hunt followers typically wear traditional hunting attire. Hunt seat is terminology used in the United States and Canada to refer to a style of forward seat riding commonly found at American Horse A prominent feature of hunts operating during the formal hunt season (between late October and the end of March) is that hunt members wear 'colours'. This attire consists of the traditional scarlet coats only worn by huntsmen, masters, former masters, whippers-in (regardless of sex) and other hunt staff members, and are also known as Pinks or Pinques; the ladies generally wearing scarlet tabs on their black or dark navy coats. These help them stand out from the rest of the field. Various theories about the derivation of this term have been given, ranging from the colour of a weathered scarlet coat to the name of a purportedly famous tailor. 
Some hunts, including most hare hunts, use green rather than red jackets. The colour of breeches (riding pants) vary from hunt to hunt and are generally of one colour, though two or three colours throughout the year may be permitted. Breeches (pronounced) are an item of male Clothing covering the body from the Waist down with separate coverings for each Leg, usually stopping just below  Unlike the jacket, the colours of the breeches remains the same throughout the cubbing and formal seasons. Boots are generally English dress boots (no laces). Riding boots are Boots made to be used for horseback riding. The classic boot comes high enough up the leg to prevent the leathers of the Saddle from For the men they are black with brown leather tops (called top boots), and for the ladies, black with a patent black leather top of similar proportion to the men.  Additionally, the number of buttons is significant. The Master of the hunt wears a scarlet coat with four brass buttons while the huntsman and other professional staff wear five. Amateur whippers-in also wear four buttons.
Another differentiation in dress between the amateur and professional staff is found in the ribbons at the back of the hunt cap. An Equestrian helmet is worn when riding Horses. This type of Helmet is specially designed to protect the rider's head if a person falls off These ribbons were designed to deflect rain over the collar of the coat rather than allowing it to drip down the back of the neck. The professional staff wear their hat ribbons down, while amateur staff and members of the field wear their ribbons up.  The traditional reason given for these differences is that the professional staff has no option but to remain out in inclement weather, whereas the amateur or field member may go home whenever they wish.
Those members who do not wear colours, tend to dress in a black hunt coat and unadorned black buttons for both men and ladies (called "ratcatcher"), with breeches the same as the other members. Boots are all English dress boots and have no other distinctive look.  Some hunts also further restrict the wear of formal attire to weekends and holidays and use ratcatcher all other times.
Other members of the mounted field follow strict rules of clothing etiquette. Etiquette is a code that governs the expectations of Social behavior, according to the contemporary conventional norm within a Society, For example, those under eighteen will wear tweed jackets or ratcatcher all season. Those over eighteen will wear ratcatcher during Autumn hunting from late August until the Opening Meet, normally around November 1. From the Opening Meet they will switch to regular hunting kit where full subscribers will wear scarlet and the rest black or navy. (In American hunts, only Masters, staff and gentlemen members with colours wear scarlet. ) The highest honour is to be awarded the hunt button by the Hunt Master. This means you can then wear the hunt collar (colour varies from hunt to hunt) and buttons with the hunt crest on them. (In America male followers are awarded their colours, which includes the right to wear a scarlet coat. Female followers are usually awarded colours which allow them to wear the collar of the hunt but also often a dark navy coat with brass buttons. )
The nature of fox hunting, including the killing of the quarry animal and its strong associations with tradition and social class and its practice for sport have long made it a source of great controversy within the United Kingdom. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. In December 1999, the then Home Secretary, The Rt. Hon. Jack Straw MP, announced the establishment of a Government inquiry (the Burns Inquiry) into hunting with dogs, to be chaired by the retired senior civil servant Lord Burns. The Secretary of State for the Home Department, commonly known as the Home Secretary, is the minister in charge of the United Kingdom Home Office John Whitaker Straw (born 3 August 1946 most commonly known as Jack Straw, is a senior British Labour Party Politician. The Burns Inquiry (or Committee of Inquiry into Hunting with Dogs in England and Wales was a Government committee set up to examine the facts in the debate in the United Kingdom Terence (Terry Burns Baron Burns, GCB (born 13 March 1944) is a British Economist. The inquiry was to examine the practical aspects of different types of hunting with dogs and its impact, how any ban might be implemented and the consequences of any such ban. 
Amongst its findings, the Burns Inquiry committee analysed opposition to hunting in the UK and reported that:
Anti-hunting activists who chose to take action in opposing fox hunting can do so through legal means such as campaigning for fox hunting legislation and monitoring hunts for cruelty or illegal activities. Anti-hunting is a term which is (often informally used to identify or describe persons or groups generally in a Political context who stand in opposition to Hunting Fox hunting legislation refers to various laws and legislative history related to Fox hunting in the United Kingdom and elsewhere  Some activists choose to engage in direct intervention such as the sabotage of the hunt. A hunt saboteur is an Animal rights or Animal welfare Activist who takes Direct action to interfere with Hunting activity  Hunt Sabotage is illegal in a majority of the United States, and tactics used (such as trespass and criminal damage) are illegal in other countries. Trespass (Fr trespas a crime properly a stepping across from Lat 
Fox hunting has been undertaken since the 1500s, and in this time, strong traditions have built up around the activity, as have businesses and rural activities and hierarchies. Social hierarchy is a multi-tiered pyramid-like social or functional structure having an apex as the centralization of power For this reason, there are still large numbers of people who support fox hunting, and this can be for a variety of reasons. 
Foxes are considered vermin by some farmers who fear they might lose valuable livestock, whilst others consider them an ally in controlling rabbits, voles and other rodents. Livestock is the term used to refer (singularly or plurally to a Domesticated Animal intentionally reared in an agricultural setting to produce such as Food  A key reason for dislike of the fox by pastoral farmers is their tendency to commit acts of surplus killing toward animals such as chickens, yet eat only one of them. Surplus killing is the behavior Predators exhibit when they kill more prey than they can immediately use  Some anti-hunt campaigners maintain that provided it is not disturbed, the fox will remove all of the chickens it kills and conceal them in a safer place. 
Opponents of fox hunting claim that the activity is not necessary for fox control, arguing that the fox is not a pest species and that hunting does not and cannot make a real difference to fox populations.  They compare the number of foxes killed in the hunt to the many more killed on the roads. They also argue that wildlife management goals of the hunt can be met more effectively by other methods such as lamping (dazzling a fox with a bright light, then shooting by a competent shooter using an appropriate weapon and load). Wildlife management is the process of keeping certain Wildlife populations including endangered animals at desirable levels determined by wildlife managers Spotlighting or shining is a method of Hunting Nocturnal animals using Off-road vehicles and high-powered lights Spotlights lamps or 
Fox hunts claim to provide and maintain a good habitat for foxes and other game, and, in the U. S. , have been leaders in fostering conservation legislation and putting land into conservation easements. The conservation movement also known as nature conservation is a political social and to some extent scientific movement that seeks to protect natural resources including Anti hunting campaigners cite the widespread existence of artificial earths, and the historic practice by hunts of introducing foxes, as indicating that hunts do not believe foxes to be pests. 
It is also argued that hunting with dogs has the advantage of weeding out old, sick and weak animals because the strongest and healthiest foxes are those most likely to escape. Therefore, unlike other methods of controlling the fox population, it is argued that hunting with dogs resembles natural selection.  The counter-argument is given that hunting can not kill old foxes because foxes have a natural death rate of 65% per annum. 
As well as the economic defence of fox hunting that it is necessary to control the population of foxes, lest they cause economic cost to the farmers, it is also argued that fox hunting is a significant economic activity in its own right, providing recreation and jobs for those involved in the hunt and supporting it. The Burns Inquiry identified that between 6,000 and 8,000 full time jobs depend on hunting in the UK, of which about 700 result from direct hunt employment and 1,500 to 3,000 result from direct employment on hunting-related activities. The Burns Inquiry (or Committee of Inquiry into Hunting with Dogs in England and Wales was a Government committee set up to examine the facts in the debate in the United Kingdom 
Since the ban in the UK, there has been no evidence of significant job losses, and hunts have continued to operate along limited lines, either trail hunting, or claiming to use exemptions in the legislation. 
Many animal welfare activists believe that fox hunting is unfair and cruel to animals, most especially the fox. Animal welfare refers to the viewpoint that it is morally acceptable for humans to use nonhuman animals for food in animal research, as clothing and in entertainment Activism, in a general sense can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change They argue that the chase itself causes fear and distress and that fox is not always killed instantly as hunters claim, but is torn to pieces by hounds. Animal rights campaigners also object to fox hunting, on the grounds of a belief that animals should enjoy the same rights as humans (such as the right to life). "Animal liberation" redirects here for other uses see Animal liberation (disambiguation. 
In the United States and Canada, pursuing the quarry for the sheer purpose of killing is strictly forbidden by the Masters of Foxhounds Association.  According to article 2 of the organisation's code:
There are times when a Fox or Coyote that is injured or sick is caught by the pursuing hounds, but hunts say that the occurrence of an actual kill of this is exceptionally rare. 
Supporters of hunting maintain that when a fox is hunted with dogs, it is either killed relatively quickly (instantly or in a matter of seconds) or escapes uninjured. Similarly, they say that the animal rarely endures hours of torment and pursuit by hounds, and research by Oxford University shows that the fox is normally killed after only an average of 17 minutes of chase.  They further argue that, while hunting with dogs may cause suffering, controlling fox numbers by other means is even more cruel. Depending on the skill of the shooter, the type of firearm used, the availability of good shooting positions and luck, shooting foxes can cause either an instant kill, or lengthy periods of agony for wounded animals which can die of the trauma within hours, or of secondary infection over a period of days or weeks. Research from wildlife hospitals, however, indicates that it is not uncommon for foxes with shot wounds to survive.  Hunt supporters further say that it is a matter of humanity to kill foxes rather than allow them to suffer malnourishment and mange. Mange (from Middle English manjeue, from Old French manjue, from mangier, meaning to eat is a parasitic infestation of 
Other methods include the use of snares, trapping and poisoning, all of which also cause considerable distress to the animals concerned, and may affect other species. The activity of animal trapping has two separate but related meanings The activity of animal trapping has two separate but related meanings This was considered in the Burns Inquiry (paras 6. The Burns Inquiry (or Committee of Inquiry into Hunting with Dogs in England and Wales was a Government committee set up to examine the facts in the debate in the United Kingdom 60–11), whose tentative conclusion was that lamping using rifles, if carried out properly and in appropriate circumstances, had fewer adverse welfare implications than hunting.  The committee believed that lamping was not possible without vehicular access, and hence said that the welfare of foxes in upland areas could be affected adversely by a ban on hunting with hounds, unless dogs could be used to flush foxes from cover (as is permitted in the Hunting Act 2004). The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act of the UK Parliament passed in 2004
Some opponents of hunting criticise the fact that the animal suffering in fox hunting takes place for sport, citing either that this makes such suffering unnecessary and therefore cruel, or else that killing or causing suffering for sport is immoral.  The Court of Appeal, in considering the British Hunting Act determined that the legislative aim of the Hunting Act was "a composite one of preventing or reducing unnecessary suffering to wild mammals, overlaid by a moral viewpoint that causing suffering to animals for sport is unethical. The Court of Appeal of England and Wales is the second most senior court in the English legal system, with only the Appellate Committee of the House of Lords above "
Anti-hunting campaigners also criticised UK hunts of which the Burns Inquiry estimated that fox hunts put down around 3,000 hounds, and the hare hunts who killed around 900 hounds per year, in each case after the dogs' working life had come to an end. Anti-hunting is a term which is (often informally used to identify or describe persons or groups generally in a Political context who stand in opposition to Hunting The Burns Inquiry (or Committee of Inquiry into Hunting with Dogs in England and Wales was a Government committee set up to examine the facts in the debate in the United Kingdom 
It is argued by some hunt supporters that no law should curtail the right of a person to do as they wish, so long as it does not harm others.  Philosopher Roger Scruton has said, "To criminalize this activity would be to introduce legislation as illiberal as the laws which once deprived Jews and Catholics of political rights, or the laws which outlawed homosexuality". Philosophy is the study of general problems concerning matters such as existence knowledge truth beauty justice validity mind and language Roger Vernon Scruton (born 27 February 1944) is an English Conservative Philosopher.  In contrast, liberal philosopher, John Stuart Mill wrote, "The reasons for legal intervention in favour of children apply not less strongly to the case of those unfortunate slaves and victims of the most brutal parts of mankind - the lower animals. John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 &ndash 8 May 1873 British Philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential " The UK's most senior court, the House of Lords has decided that a ban on hunting, in the form of the Hunting Act 2004, does not contravene the European Convention on Human Rights. The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function has a judicial function as a Court of last resort within the United Kingdom. The Hunting Act 2004 is an Act of the UK Parliament passed in 2004 The Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms (also called the "European Convention on Human Rights" and "ECHR" was adopted under the 
In its submission to the Burns Inquiry, the League Against Cruel Sports presented evidence of over 1,000 cases of trespass by hunts. The Burns Inquiry (or Committee of Inquiry into Hunting with Dogs in England and Wales was a Government committee set up to examine the facts in the debate in the United Kingdom The League Against Cruel Sports (formerly abbreviated to LACS) is an Animal welfare organisation that campaigns against all Blood sports Trespass (Fr trespas a crime properly a stepping across from Lat These included trespass on railway lines and into private gardens.  Trespass can occur as the hounds themselves do not recognise boundaries they are not allowed to cross, and may therefore follow their quarry wherever it goes unless successfully called off. In countries such as the United Kingdom, trespass is a largely civil matter when performed accidentally.
Hunt saboteurs frequently trespass to monitor or disrupt the hunt, and this is referred to in their 'tactics' manuals, although many hunt monitors choose not to do so whilst they observe the hunts in progress. A hunt saboteur is an Animal rights or Animal welfare Activist who takes Direct action to interfere with Hunting activity  In the United Kingdom, attempts to disrupt hunts fall under the criminal offence of aggravated trespass, rather than being considered as civil trespass which the hunts may be guilty of. In the sociological field, crime is the breach of a rule or Law for which some governing authority or force may ultimately prescribe a Punishment Civil law, as opposed to Criminal law, refers to that branch of Law dealing with disputes between Individuals and/or Organizations, in which 
Anti hunting campaigners long urged hunts to retain their tradition and equestrian sport by drag hunting, following an artificial scent. Drag hunting is a Sport in which a group of Dogs (usually Foxhounds or Beagles chase a scent that has been laid (dragged over a terrain before  However, drag hunting is disliked by some advocates of quarry hunting due to the trail being pre-determined, thereby eliminating the uncertainty present in the live quarry hunt and because they tend to be faster.  While drag hunts can be fast, this need not be the case if the scent line is broken up so that the hounds have to search an area to pick up the line. 
Hunt supporters previously claimed that, in the event of a ban, hunts would not be able to convert and that many hounds would have to be put down. 
In the UK, supporters of fox hunting regard it as a distinctive part of British culture generally, the basis of traditional crafts and a key part of social life in rural areas, an activity and spectacle enjoyed not only by the riders but also by others such as the unmounted pack which may follow along on foot, bicycle or 4x4.  They see the social aspects of hunting as reflecting the demographics of the area; the Home Counties packs, for example, are very different from those in North Wales and Cumbria, where the hunts are very much the activity of farmers and the working class. " Home counties " is an informal phrase used to designate the group of counties that border or surround London, England. The Banwen Miners Hunt has been used as an example, founded in a small Welsh mining village, although its membership now is by no means limited to miners, with a cosmopolitan make up. 
Oscar Wilde, in his 1893 play A Woman of No Importance, once famously referred to "the English country gentleman galloping after a fox" as "the unspeakable in full pursuit of the uneatable. Oscar Fingal O'Flahertie Wills Wilde (16 October 1854 – 30 November 1900 was an Irish Playwright, Novelist, poet and Author of A Woman of No Importance is a play by Irish Playwright Oscar Wilde. " Even before the time of Wilde, much of the criticism of fox hunting has been couched in terms of social class. Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions (or stratification) between individuals or groups in Societies or Cultures. They argue that while more "working class" blood sports such as cock fighting and badger baiting were long ago outlawed, fox hunting persists, although this argument can be countered with the fact that hare coursing, a more 'working class' sport was outlawed simultaneously to fox hunting with hounds in the UK. Bloodsport or blood sport is any Sport or Entertainment that involves violence against animals A cockfight is a Blood sport between two Roosters held in a ring called a cockpit Badger-baiting is a Blood sport involving the baiting of Badgers Background The badger is a usually quiet and docile creature in its own Philosopher Roger Scruton believes that the analogy with cock fighting and badger baiting is unfair because these sports were more cruel and did not involve any element of pest control. 
John Leech had a series of "Mr. John Leech (August 29 1817&ndashOctober 29 1864 in London was an English Caricaturist. Briggs" cartoons in Punch during the 1850s, which illustrated class issues. Punch was a British weekly Magazine of Humour and Satire published from 1841 to 1992 and from 1996 to 2002  More recently the British anarchist group Class War has argued explicitly for disruption of fox hunts on class warfare grounds and even published a book The Rich at Play examining the subject. Class War was a UK Class struggle based group and Newspaper originally set up by Ian Bone and others in 1983  Other groups with similar aims, such as 'Revolutions per minute' have also published papers which disparage fox hunting on the basis of the social class of its participants. 
Polls in the UK have shown that the UK public equally divided as to whether or not hunt objectors hold their views based primarily on class grounds.  Some people point to evidence of class bias in the voting patterns in the British House of Commons during voting on the hunting bill 2000-2001, with traditionally working class Labour forcing legislation through against the votes of normally middle and upper class Conservative members. The House of Commons' is the Lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also comprises the Sovereign and the House of Lords 
Fox hunting has inspired artists in several fields to create works which involve the sport. The most famous usage is in the Daniel P Mannix 1967 novel titled The Fox and the Hound which follows a story of a fox called Tod and a hound called Copper. for others of similar name see Daniel Mannix (disambiguation Daniel Pratt Mannix IV, usually called Daniel P This story was subsequently used by Walt Disney Pictures to create the animated feature length film The Fox and the Hound in 1981, although the film differs from the novel in that Tod and Copper befriend each other and survive as friends. Walt Disney Pictures refers to several different entities associated with The Walt Disney Company: Walt Disney Pictures, the film banner was established The Fox and the Hound is a 1981 Animated feature produced by Walt Disney Productions, first released to Movie theatres in the U  Other children's books which involve fox characters becoming involved with a hunt or being hunted include The Animals of Farthing Wood, and Roald Dahl's Fantastic Mr Fox. The Animals of Farthing Wood is the first book of the Animals of Farthing Wood book series. Roald Dahl ( 13 September 1916 – 23 November 1990) was a British Novelist Short story Writer Fantastic Mr Fox is a children's Novel written by Roald Dahl, first published in the US by Alfred A
There have also been several musical artists who have used fox hunting, with both Ray Noble and George Formby recording Tan Tan Tivvy Tally Ho!, a comic song about fox hunting, in 1932 and 1938 respectively. Ray Noble ( December 17, 1903 &ndash April 3, 1978) was a British Bandleader, Composer, arranger and Actor George Formby may refer to George Formby Jr, banjolele player singer and comedian 1904 - 1961 George Formby Sr  More recently Dizzee Rascal used the concept of a fox-hunt for his video of Sirens, showing a stylised urban hunt. Dylan Mills (born 1985 in Bow, East London) known professionally as Dizzee Rascal, is a British Rapper, Record producer and " Sirens " is the seventh single release from British rapper Dizzee Rascal, and the Lead single from his third studio album