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A charter member of the United Nations, France holds one of the permanent seats in the Security Council and is a member of most of its specialized and related agencies. This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. The Politics of France take place in a framework of a semi-presidential representative democratic Republic, whereby the President of France The current Constitution of France was adopted on October 4, 1958. The Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen (Déclaration des droits de l'Homme et du citoyen is a fundamental document of the French Revolution, defining The preamble of the Constitution of the French Fifth Republic, founded in 1958 recalls the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. See also Government of France The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on The government of France is a Semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, in which the nation declares The President of the French Republic (Président de la République française colloquially referred to in English as the President of France, is France 's elected Nicolas Sarkozy (pronounced, Second French Republic (1848-1852 President of the Provisional Government of the Republic Jacques Charles Dupont de l'Eure (24 February 1848 The Prime Minister of France ( Premier ministre français) in Fifth Republic is the functional Head of the government and Council of Ministers François Fillon (fʁɑ̃swa fijɔ̃ born 4 March 1954 in Le Mans, Sarthe) is the current Prime Minister of France, having been appointed to that Early Modern France Chief Ministers of the French Kings Armand Jean du Plessis Cardinal Richelieu 1624-1642 Jules Cardinal The Constitutional Council ( Conseil Constitutionnel) was established by the Constitution of the Fifth Republic on 4 October 1958 This article is for the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution The French National Assembly. The other is the Senate ( “Sénat”) The Senate (Sénat is the Upper house of the Parliament of France, presided over by a president. The French Congress (Congrès du Parlement français - Congress of the French Parliament is the name given to the body created when both houses of the present-day French This article is about the present-day French institution For institutions with the same name during the Ancien Régime in France see Conseil du Roi. The Court of Cassation ( Cour de cassation in French) is the main Court of last resort in France. Political parties in France lists political parties in France. Gaullism (Gaullisme is a French political ideology based on the thought and action of Charles de Gaulle. The Left in France at the beginning of the 20th century was represented by two main Political parties, the Republican Radical and Radical-Socialist Party France is a Representative democracy. Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens (directly or indirectly or appointed by elected The French presidential election of 1958 the first of the French Fifth Republic, took place on December 21, 1958. The 1965 French presidential election was the first presidential election by direct universal suffrage of the French Fifth Republic. The 1969 French presidential election took place on 1 June and 15 June 1969 French legislative elections took place on March 4 and 11 1973 to elect the 5th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. Presidential elections were held in France in 1974 following the death of President Georges Pompidou. The French legislative elections took place on March 12 and March 19, 1978 to elect the 6th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic The French presidential election of 1981 was won by François Mitterrand, the first Socialist President of the Fifth Republic. French legislative elections took place on June 14 and 21 1981 to elect the 7th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. The French legislative elections took place on March 16 1986 to elect the 8th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. Presidential elections were held in France on 24 April and 8 May 1988 French legislative elections took place on June 5 and 12 1988 to elect the 9th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, one month after the re-election of François French legislative elections took place on March 21 and 28 1993 to elect the 10th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. Presidential elections took place in France on 23 April and 7 May 1995 to elect the fifth president of the Fifth Republic. French legislative election took place in May 25 and June 1 1997 to elect the 11th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic. The 2002 French presidential election consisted of a first round election on 21 April 2002 and a runoff election between the top two candidates ( Jacques Chirac and The French legislative elections took place on June 9 and June 16, 2002 to elect the 12th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, The 2007 French presidential election, the ninth of the Fifth French Republic was held to elect the successor to Jacques Chirac as president of France The French legislative elections took place on 10 June and 17 June 2007 to elect the 13th National Assembly of the Fifth Republic, |||} Metropolitan France As of January 1, 2008, Metropolitan France is divided into 22 regions (including Corsica, although France is divided into 26 regions or régions (in French of which 21 are in continental Metropolitan France, one is the island of Corsica, In the context of the political and geographic organization of France and many of its former colonies a department (département depaʁtǝmɑ̃ is an Administrative division The European Union is a unique entity possessing elements of Intergovernmentalism, Supranationalism and a Multi-party Parliamentary democracy The Minister of Foreign Affairs in the Government of France, is the cabinet minister responsible for the Foreign relations of France. This is a list of major Political scandals in France: Until 1958 1816 - Shipwreck of and search for French Frigate Information on politics by country is available for every Country, including both De jure and De facto independent The United Nations ( UN) is an International organization whose stated aims are to facilitate cooperation in International law, International security
France is a power in Western Europe because of its size, location, strong economy, membership in European organizations, strong military posture and energetic diplomacy. Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' France generally has worked to strengthen the global economic and political influence of the EU and its role in common European defense and collective security. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Collective Security, according to Inis Claude's article "Collective Security as an Approach to Peace" is seen as a compromise between the concept of world government and a nation-state
Messages on February 19, 2008 said France already had or soon would recognize the breakaway state of Kosovo. Events 197 - Roman Emperor Septimius Severus defeats usurper Clodius Albinus in the Battle of Lugdunum 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common 
It views Franco-German cooperation and the development of a European Security and Defence Identity (ESDI) as the foundation of efforts to enhance security in the European Union. The relations between France and Germany is embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Partnership (French Amitié franco-allemande; German The relations between France and Germany is embodied in a cooperation called Franco-German Partnership (French Amitié franco-allemande; German The European Security and Defence Policy or ESDP is a major element of the Common Foreign and Security Policy pillar of the European Union France cooperates closely with Germany and Spain, but relations with the United Kingdom are historically tense. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Spain () or the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España is a country located mostly in southwestern Europe on the Iberian Peninsula. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located
From the Middle Ages onwards, France and England (later Great Britain and later still, the UK) were often enemies, and occasionally allies. However, in the beginning of the 20th century a policy of entente cordiale (cordial agreement) was started. Flag of the United Kingdomsvg|right|70px]] The Entente cordiale is a series of agreements signed on 8 April 1904 between the United Kingdom France and the United Kingdom became allies, and despite occasional tensions (such as: the perception among some in France that the British abandoned France in 1940, see Battle of France and Mers-el-Kébir; the perception among some in Britain that the French wrongly opposed the 2003 Invasion of Iraq), remain so to the present day. Year 1940 ( MCMXL) was a Leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. In World War II, the Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries Mers-el-Kébir (المرسى الكبير “the Great Harbor” is a port town in northwestern Algeria, located by the Mediterranean Sea near Oran The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 20 to May 1 2003 was spearheaded by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia
A chronic point of contention is the future of the European Union. The European Union ( EU) is a political and economic union of twenty-seven member states, located primarily in Under French president Charles de Gaulle France opposed on several occasions the UK joining the European Economic Community (as the EU was then called). Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French De Gaulle argued that the UK had extensive alliances outside Europe, especially with the United States, and was famously suspicious of its European neighbours. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the After the UK joined the EEC, British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher argued for and won a reduction of its contributions to the EEC budget. Margaret Hilda Thatcher Baroness Thatcher LG, OM, PC, FRS (born 13 October 1925 As Prime Minister, Tony Blair expressed scepticism at French economic policies, but forged an alliance with President Nicolas Sarkozy. Anthony Charles Lynton "Tony" Blair (born 6 May 1953 is a British Politician who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 2 May 1997 to Nicolas Sarkozy (pronounced,
France established relations with the Middle East during the reign of Louis XIV. Early years Birth and ancestry Louis XIV was born in the Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye on September 5 1638 and bore the Heir apparent To keep Austria from intervening into its plans regarding Western Europe he lent limited support to the Ottoman Empire, though the victories of Prince Eugene of Savoy destroyed these plans. Austria (Österreich ( officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich Western Europe at its most general meaning means 'all the countries in the West of Europe ' The Ottoman Empire (1299–1923 ( Old Ottoman Turkish: دولتْ علیّه عثمانیّه Devlet-i Âliye-yi Osmâniyye, Late Ottoman and Modern Turkish This article refers to the Austrian Habsburg military leader for the stepson of Napoleon Bonaparte see Eugène de Beauharnais. In the nineteenth century France together with the United Kingdom tried to strengthen the Ottoman Empire, the now “Sick man of Europe”, to resist Russian expansion, culminating in the Crimean War. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom, the UK or Britain,is a Sovereign state located The term "Sick man of Europe" is a Nickname associated with a European country experiencing a time of economic difficulty and/or poverty Russia (Россия Rossiya) or the Russian Federation ( Rossiyskaya Federatsiya) is a transcontinental Country extending The Crimean War, also known in Russia as the Eastern War (Восточная война Vostochnaya Vojna) (March 1854–February 1856 was fought
France also pursued close relations with the semi-autonomous Egypt. In 1869 French workers completed the Suez Canal. Year 1869 ( MDCCCLXIX) is a Common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common year The Suez Canal is a Canal in Egypt. Opened in 1869 it allows Water transportation between Europe and Asia without circumnavigation A rivalry emerged between France and Britain for control of Egypt, and eventually Britain emerged victorious by buying out the Egyptian shares of the company before the French had time to act.
After the unification of Germany in 1871 Germany attempted to co-op France's relations with the Ottomans and was quite successful. Germany, officially the Federal Republic of Germany ( ˈbʊndəsʁepuˌbliːk ˈdɔʏtʃlant is a Country in Central Europe. Year 1871 ( MDCCCLXXI) was a Common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar of the Gregorian calendar (or a Common In World War I the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, and was defeated by France and the United Kingdom. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All The Central Powers ( German: "Mittelmächte" Hungarian: "Központi hatalmak" Turkish: "İttifak After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire France and Britain divided the Middle East between themselves. France received Syria and Lebanon. Syria ( سوريّة or) officially the Syrian Arab Republic (Arabic ar الجمهورية العربية السورية Lebanon (ˈlɛbənɒn Arabic: ar لبنان Lubnān) officially the Republic of Lebanon or Lebanese Republic (ar الجمهورية اللبنانية
These colonies were granted independence after the Second World War but France still tries to forge cultural and educational bonds between the areas, particularly with Lebanon. World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including Relationships with Syria are more strained, due to the policies of that country. In 2005, France, along with the United States, pressured Syria to evacuate Lebanon. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar.
In the post-WWII era French relations with the Arab Middle East reached a very low point. The war in Algeria between Muslim fighters and French colonists deeply concerned the rest of the Muslim world. The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from The Algerian fighters received much of their supplies and funding from Egypt and other Arab powers, much to France's displeasure. Algeria ( ar [[Arabic]] الجزائر, Al Jaza'ir ælʤæˈzæːʔir Amazigh: ⴷⵥⴰⵢⴻⵔ Dzayer) officially the People's This article is about the country of Egypt For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Egypt topics. Most damaging to Franco-Arab relations, however, was the Suez Crisis. The Suez Crisis, also referred to as the Tripartite Aggression, (أزمة السويس - العدوان الثلاثي Crise du canal de Suez מבצע קדש Kadesh It greatly diminished France's reputation in the region. France openly supported the Israeli attack on the Sinai peninsula, and was working against Nasser, then a popular figure in the Middle East. The Sinai Peninsula or Sinai ( Coptic: sina; Egyptian Arabic: sina سينا Arabic, sina'a سيناء The Suez Crisis also made France and the United Kingdom look again like imperialist powers attempting to impose their will upon weaker nations.
Another hindrance to France's relations with the Arab Middle East was its close alliance with Israel during the 1950s. The 1950s Decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive
This all changed with the coming of Charles de Gaulle to power. Charles André Joseph Marie de Gaulle ( ( 22 November 1890 – 9 November 1970) was a French General and statesman who led the Free French De Gaulle's foreign policy was centered around an attempt to limit the power and influence of both superpowers, and at the same time increase France's international prestige. De Gaulle hoped to move France from being a follower of the United States to becoming the leading nation of a large group of non-aligned countries. The nations de Gaulle looked at as potential participants in this group were those in France's traditional spheres of influence: Africa and the Middle East. The former French colonies in eastern and northern Africa were quite agreeable to these close relations with France. These nations had close economic and cultural ties to France, and they also had few other suitors amongst the major powers. This new orientation of French foreign policy also appealed strongly to the leaders of the Arab nations. None of them wanted to be dominated by either of the superpowers, and they supported France's policy of trying to balance the US and the USSR and to prevent either from becoming dominant in the region. The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR was a constitutionally Socialist state that existed in Eurasia from 1922 to 1991 The Middle Eastern leaders wanted to be free to pursue their own goals and objectives, and did not want to be chained to either alliance block. De Gaulle hoped to use this common foundation to build strong relations between the nations. He also hoped that good relations would improve France's trade with the region. De Gaulle also imagined that these allies would look up to the more powerful French nation, and would look to it in leadership in matters of foreign policy.
The end of the Algerian conflict in 1962 accomplished much in this regard. Year 1962 ( MCMLXII) was a Common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar of the Gregorian calendar. France could not portray itself as a leader of the oppressed nations of the world if it still was enforcing its colonial rule upon another nation. The battle against the Muslim separatists that France waged in favour of the minority of white settlers was an extremely unpopular one throughout the Muslim world. With the conflict raging it would have been close to impossible for France to have had positive relations with the nations of the Middle East. The Middle Eastern support for the FLN guerillas was another strain on relations that the end of the conflict removed. The National Liberation Front ( Arabic: جبهة التحرير الوطني transliterated: Jabhat al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī French: Front Most of the financial and material support for the FLN had come from the nations of the Middle East and North Africa. This was especially true of Nasser's Egypt, which had long supported the separatists. Egypt is also the most direct example of improved relations after the end of hostilities. The end of the war brought an immediate thaw to Franco-Egyptian relations, Egypt ended the trial of four French officers accused of espionage, and France ended its trade embargo against Egypt.
In 1967 de Gaulle completely overturned France's Israel policy. De Gaulle and his ministers reacted very harshly to Israel's actions in the Six Day War. Background Suez Crisis aftermath The Suez Crisis of 1956 represented a military defeat but a political victory for Egypt The French government and de Gaulle condemned Israel's treatment of refugees, warned that it was a mistake to occupy the Palestinian areas, and also refused to recognize the Israeli control of Jerusalem. Palestinian people or Palestinians ( الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha`b al-filasTīni; الفلسطينيون, al-filasTīnīyyūn Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם, he-Latn Yerushaláyim; Arabic: ar القُدس, ar-Latn al-Quds) is the The French government continued to criticize Israel after the war and de Gaulle spoke out against other Israeli actions, such as the operations against the PLO in Lebanon. The Palestine Liberation Organization ( PLO) (منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية or Munazzamat al-Tahrir al-Filastiniyyah) is a political and paramilitary France began to use its veto power to oppose Israel in the UN, and France sided with the Arab states on almost all issues brought to the international body. Most importantly of all, however, de Gaulle's government imposed an arms embargo on the Israeli state. The embargo was in fact applied to all the combatants, but very soon France began selling weaponry to the Arab states again. As early as 1970 France sold Libya a hundred Dassault Mirage fighter jets. WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft. Please see WikipediaWikiProject Aircraft/page content for recommended layout However, after 1967 France continued to support Israel's right to exist, as well as Israel's many preferential agreements with France and the European Economic Community. The European Community (EC is one of the Three pillars of the European Union (EU created under the Maastricht Treaty (1992
In the second half of the 20th century, France increased its expenditures in foreign aid greatly, to become second only to the United States in total aid amongst the Western powers and first on a per capita basis. By 1968 France was paying out $855 million dollars per year in aid far more than either West Germany or the United Kingdom. West Germany ( Inf German: Westdeutschland or West-Deutschland) was the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany ( The vast majority of French aid was directed towards Africa and the Middle East, usually either as a lever to promote French interests or to help with the sale of French products (e. g. arms sales). France also increased its expenditures on other forms of aid sending out skilled individuals to developing countries to provide technical and cultural expertise.
The combination of aid money, arms sales, and diplomatic alignments helped to erase the memory of the Suez Crisis and the Algerian War in the Arab world and France successfully developed amicable relationships with the governments of many of the Middle Eastern states. Nasser and de Gaulle, who shared many similarities, cooperated together on limiting American power in the region. Nasser proclaimed France as the only friend of Egypt in the West. France and Iraq also developed a close relationship with business ties, joint military training exercises, and French assistance in Iraq's nuclear program in the 1970s. France improved relations with its former colony Syria, and eroded cultural links were partially restored.
In terms of trade France did receive some benefits from the improved relations with the Middle East. French trade with the Middle East increased by over fifty percent after de Gaulle's reforms. The weaponry industries benefited most as France soon had lucrative contracts with many of the regimes in the Middle East and North Africa, though these contracts account for a negligible part of France's economy.
De Gaulle had hoped that by taking a moderate path and not strongly supporting either side France could take part in the Middle East peace process. However, peace negotiations between Israel, the Palestinians, and the Arab powers have almost always involved representatives of the one or both of the superpowers, but France has been universally excluded. In the Camp David accords between Sadat and Begin US President Jimmy Carter played an immense role, the French played virtually none. The French foreign minister complained that a separate peace between Israel and Egypt would not benefit Middle East peace, but none of the leaders involved were particularly concerned about what the French government thought. This pattern has repeated itself frequently. The Oslo Accords, the Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty, and others were all negotiated and written with no input at all from France.
France plays a significant role in Africa, especially in its former colonies, through extensive aid programs, commercial activities, military agreements, and cultural impact. France was a dominant empire in the world from the 1600s to the late 1960s possessing many colonies in various locations around the world In those former colonies where the French presence remains important, France contributes to political, military, and social stability. Many think that French policy in Africa - particularly where British interests are also involved - is susceptible to what is known as 'Fashoda syndrome'. Fashoda syndrome is the name given to a tendency within French foreign policy in Africa, giving importance to asserting French influence in areas which may be becoming susceptible Others have criticized the relationship as neocolonialism under the name Françafrique, stressing France's support of various dictatorships, among others: Omar Bongo, Idriss Déby, and Denis Sassou Nguesso. Neocolonialism is a term used by post-colonial critics of Developed countries ' involvement in the developing world Françafrique is a term that refers to France 's relationship with Africa. El Hadj Omar Bongo Ondimba (born Albert-Bernard Bongo on 30 December 1935) became President of Gabon in 1967 Lieutenant General Idriss Déby Itno (born 1952 is the President of Chad and the head of the Patriotic Salvation Movement. Denis Sassou Nguesso (born 1943 has been the President of the Republic of the Congo since 1997 he was previously President from 1979 to 1992
The French military has been present in Chad since 1986 in the frame of Operation Epervier. Chad (Tchad تشاد Tshād) officially known as the Republic of Chad, is a Landlocked country in Central Africa. Operation Epervier (Operation Sparrowhawk) is the Codename for the current French military presence in Chad.
In the period from 1990, until the Rwandan genocide, France (under Mitterrand) took a role sympathetic to the Habyarimana government. The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of hundreds of thousands of Rwanda 's minority Tutsis and the moderates of its Hutu majority François Maurice Adrien Marie Mitterrand ( 26 October 1916 8 January 1996 served as President of France from 1981 to 1995 elected as representative of the Socialist Juvénal Habyarimana ( March 8, 1937 &ndash April 6, 1994) was a Rwandan Hutu politician who was president of
In 2002 and 2003, France participated in military interventions in Côte d'Ivoire (see Operation Licorne and UNOCI, Liberia and the Democratic Republic of Congo, helping in the evacuation of foreign residents and the protection of civilians from warring factions. See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Year 2003 ( MMIII) was a Common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. Côte d'Ivoire (ˌkoʊt divˈwɑː(r ' in English, kot diˈvwaʀ in French) or Ivory Coast, officially the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a Opération Licorne ( Operation Unicorn) is the name of the French military operation in support of the United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire. The United Nations Operation in Côte d'Ivoire (" UNOCI " is a United Nations Peacekeeping mission Liberia, officially the Republic of Liberia, is a country on the west coast of Africa, bordered by Sierra Leone, Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo often referred to as DR Congo, DRC or RDC, and formerly known or referred to
Concerning European integration, France and Germany decided on a concerted military operation in the Democratic Republic of Congo. This operation included sending 1500 European troops to the DRC to support fair and regular presidential elections in June 2006. While Germany leads the mission, both France and Germany provide 500 soldiers each, with the rest of the soldiers coming from other European countries.
Many scholars of the European Common Foreign and Security Policy (CFSP) question whether the mission is of great use, and argue that it is rather symbolic in character. With 17. 000 United Nations forces already deployed in the DRC the purpose of such a small operation remains questionable. The European troops will be stationed in the capital-city Kinshasa only. It is probable however, that the expertise of former peace-building missions on the Balkans will be useful in order to prevent any major escalation during the elections.
Relations between post-colonial Algeria and France have remained close through-out the years, although sometimes difficult. French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems The Algerian War ( French: Guerre d'Algérie; 1954-1962 also known as Algerian War of Independence, led to Algeria 's independence from In 1962, the Evian Accords peace treaty laid the foundations of a new Franco-Algerian relationship. The Évian Accords comprise a Treaty which was signed on March 18, 1962 in Évian-les-Bains, France by France and the In exchange for a generous coopération regime (massive financial, technical and cultural aid), France secured a number of economic and military privileges. Economically, France enjoyed a preferential treatment vis-à-vis the Saharan wealth of hydrocarbons. Militarily, it could keep the Mers-el-Kébir base for 15 years and use the Saharan nuclear test-sites for another five years. France had used these sites to carry out its first nuclear tests (Gerboise bleue) in 1960. Gerboise Bleue ("blue jerboa" was the name of the first French nuclear test. 90 % and more of Europeans established in Algeria (pieds-noirs), left the country in a massive exodus creating a difficult void in the bureaucratic, economic and educational structure of Algeria. Pied-Noir ("Black-Foot" plural Pieds-Noirs, pronounced /pje On the other hand, the issue of the harkis, the Arabs who had fought on the French side during the war, was still to solve at the turn of the 21st century, being somehow disconsiderated by the French while seen as outright traitors by the Algerian people. Harki (adjective from the Arabic harka, standard Arabic haraka حركة "war party" or "movement" i On the economical level, Algeria remained for some time the fourth largest importer of French goods, conducting all its transactions with France in the Franc zone. Many Algerians were encouraged by French authorities and businessmen to migrate to France in order to provide workforce during the Trente Glorieuses (Thirty Glorious) growth. Les Trente Glorieuses ("The Glorious Thirty" refers to the thirty years from 1945-1975 following the end of the Second World War in 1945 in Relations between France and Algeria have remained closely intertwined, and France could not entirely escape from the chaos which threatened Algeria during the civil war in the nineties. The Algerian Civil War was an armed conflict between the Algerian government and various Islamist rebel groups which began in 1991
Ahmed Ben Bella, the first President of Algeria was reported in a 2001 interview as saying that "The Algerian people have lived with blood. Mohamed Ahmed Ben Bella (Muhammad Ahmad Bin Balla (أحمد بن بلّة (born December 25 1918, Maghnia, Algeria) was the first President We brought De Gaulle to his knees. We struggled against French rule for 15 years under the leadership of Emir Abdel-Kader Al-Jazairi. French rule of Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962 under a variety of governmental systems `Abd al-Qādir al-Jazā'irī ( 6 September, 1808 - 26 May, 1883, in Arabic عبد القادر الجزائري was an The Algerian population was then four million. French repression cost us two million lives. It was genocide. We survived as a people. Barbaric French atrocities did not subdue our fighting spirit. "
On February 23, 2005 the French law on colonialism was an act passed by the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) conservative majority, which imposed on high-school (lycée) teachers to teach the "positive values" of colonialism to their students (article 4). Events 1455 - Traditional date for the publication of the Gutenberg Bible, the first Western Book printed from Movable Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. The February 23, 2005 French law on colonialism was an act passed by the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP conservative majority which imposed Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favour Tradition, where tradition refers to various religious cultural or nationally defined See Colony and Colonization for examples of colonialism which do not refer to Western colonialism The law created a public uproar and opposition from the whole of the left-wing, and was finally repealed by president Jacques Chirac (UMP) at the beginning of 2006, after accusations of historical revisionism from various teachers and historians. For the critical reexamination of historical facts see Historical revisionism.
Algerians feared that the French law on colonialism would hinder the task the French confronting the dark side of their colonial rule in Algeria because article four of the law decreed among other things that "School programmes are to recognise in particular the positive role of the French presence overseas, especially in North Africa, . . . " Benjamin Stora a leading specialist on French Algerian history and an opponent of the French law on colonialism, said "France has never taken on its colonial history. It is a big difference with the Anglo-Saxon countries, where post-colonial studies are now in all the universities. We are phenomenally behind the times. " In his opinion, although the historical facts were known to academics, they were not well known by the French public and this led to a lack of honesty in France over French colonial treatment of the Algerian people. 
During the period that the French law on colonialism was in force several Algerians and others raised issues and made comments to emphasise that there were many aspects of French colonial rule that were not widely known in France.  A senior Algerian official Mohamed El Korso said that "[French] repentance is seen by the Algerian people as a sine qua non before any Franco-Algerian friendship treaty can be concluded. * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * Please do NOT add the Battlestar Galactica episode " and with reference to the Setif massacre that "French and international public opinion must know that France committed a real act of genocide in May 1945" The Algerian president Abdelaziz Bouteflika said Algeria had "never ceased waiting for an admission from France of all the acts committed during the colonial period and the war of liberation. The Sétif massacre refers to widespread disturbances in and around the Algerian market town of Setif located to the west of Constantine in 1945 Abdelaziz Bouteflika (abdəlazɪz butəflika ( عبد العزيز بوتفليقة) (born March 2 1937 in Oujda, Morocco) has been the President " and drew comparisons between the burning of the bodies of the victims of the with Setif massacre with the crematoria in the Nazi death camps.  More recently on 17 April 2006, Bouteflika emphasised Algera's point of view when said in a speech in Paris that "Colonization brought the genocide of our identity, of our history, of our language, of our traditions". Events 69 - After the First Battle of Bedriacum, Vitellius becomes Roman Emperor. Year 2006 ( MMVI) was a Common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. 
French authorities responded to the claims by President Bouteflika and others by playing down the comments, urging "mutual respect" French Foreign Minister Michel Barnier told Algeria in an official visit to make a common effort to search history "in order to establish a common future and overcome the sad pages". Michel Barnier (born 9 January 1951) is a conservative French politician In an interview with El Vatan, an Algerian newspaper, Barnier said that "Historians from two sides must be encouraged to work together. They must work on the common past".  French authorities asked president Abdelaziz Bouteflika to study with France the disarmed 150,000 Harkis killed without another reason that revenge, by his party, the National Liberation Front (FLN). Harki (adjective from the Arabic harka, standard Arabic haraka حركة "war party" or "movement" i The National Liberation Front ( Arabic: جبهة التحرير الوطني transliterated: Jabhat al-Taḩrīr al-Waţanī French: Front
French President Jacques Chirac, upon harsh reactions to the law encouraging the good sides of the French colonial history, made the statement, "Writing history is the job of the historians, not of the laws. " According to Prime Minister, Dominique de Villepin, "speaking about the past or writing history is not the job of the parliament. Dominique de Villepin (born Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (dɔminik də vilpɛ̃ &mdash) on 14 November 1953 in Rabat, Morocco "
The issue of the French human rights record in Algeria is also politically sensitive in Turkey. France recognized Armenian genocide by the Turks in 1998. In response to the action of the French parliament, making it an offense to deny the existence of such a genocide, the Grand National Assembly of Turkey drafted a bill in October 2006 to make it illegal to deny that the French committed genocide in Algeria. This article is for the post-Revolutionary and present-day institution The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi - TBMM, usually referred to simply as Meclis - "the Parliament" is the Unicameral October 2006 was a month that began on a Sunday The month was marked by a nuclear test by North Korea that prompted that passing of Resolution 1718  Turkish party leaders, including CHP, MHP, BBP and ANAP called France to recognize 'Algerian genocide'. However, the draft never became an official law.
France has extensive political and commercial relations with Asian countries, including the People's Republic of China, India, Pakistan, Japan, and Southeast Asia as well as an increasing presence in regional fora. Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES India, officially the Republic of India (भारत गणराज्य inc-Latn Bhārat Gaṇarājya; see also other Indian languages) is a country Pakistan () officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country located in South Asia, Southwest Asia, Middle East and For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic Japan topics. France was instrumental in launching the Asia-Europe Meeting (ASEM) process which could eventually emerge as a competitor to APEC. France is seeking to broaden its commercial presence in China and will pose a competitive challenge to U. S. business, particularly in aerospace, high-tech, and luxury markets. This article is about the field of research and industry for the corporation see The Aerospace Corporation Aerospace comprises the In Southeast Asia, France was an architect of the Paris Accords, which ended the conflict in Cambodia. The Kingdom of Cambodia ( formerly known as Kampuchea (, transliterated: Preăh Réachéanachâkr Kâmpŭchea) is a country in South East
France does not have formal diplomatic relationships with North Korea. North Korea is the commonly used short form name for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (or DPRK) a State located in East Asia, North Korea however maintains a delegation (not an embassy nor a consulate) near Paris. As most countries, France does not recognize, nor have formal diplomatic relationships with the Republic of China (Taiwan, capital Taipei), for it is impossible to recognize and have relationships with both the RoC and the People's Republic of China; however, Taiwan maintains a representation office in Paris which is similar to an embassy. REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Taiwan ( Taiwanese: Tâi-oân/Tāi-oân (historically 大灣/台員/大員/台圓/大圓/台窩灣 is an Island in East Asia. Taipei ( Taiwanese Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Tâi-pak-chhī Jhuyin Fuhao: ㄊㄞˊ ㄅㄟˇ ㄕˋ Hakka: Thòi-pet-sṳ has been the capital of Talk People's Republic of China) PEOPLE'S REPUBLIC OF CHINA ARTICLE GUIDELINES Likewise, the French Institute in Taipei has an administrative consular section that delivers visas and fulfills other missions normally dealt with by diplomatic outposts.
Recently France has been very involved in trade and cultural exchange initiatives with Japan. Some people see this as being a result of French leader Jacques Chirac being a Japanophile. Japanophilia (in Japanese: 親日派 shinnichiha) is an interest in or love of Japan and all things Japanese Chirac has visited Japan over 40 times, probably more than any other world leader outside of Japan, and is an expert on the country. France has started the export promotion campaign "Le Japon, c'est possible" and the international liaison personnel exchange program JET. JET, the Joint European Torus, is the largest Nuclear fusion experimental reactor yet built Together they built the Maison de la Culture du Japon à Paris.
France and Japan have also worked together to improve dire health situations from AIDS and underdevelopment in Djibouti, Madagascar, Uganda, and other countries.
Japan and France are also known to share ideas with each other in the realms of art and cooking. Art refers to a diverse range of Human activities creations and expressions that are appealing to the Senses or Emotions of a human individual Cooking is the process of preparing Food by applying Heat, selecting measuring and combining of ingredients in an ordered procedure for producing safe and edible Japan has been heavily influenced by French cuisine within the past few decades, as seen on the television show Iron Chef. Iron Chef is a Japanese television program produced by FujiTV. Anime is popular in France, and French historical figures and settings from medieval, Renaissance, Napoleonic, and World War eras have served as models for certain popular stories in Japanese entertainment. (anime in Japanese, The Renaissance (from French Renaissance, meaning "rebirth" Italian: Rinascimento, from re- "again" and nascere Napoleon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821 was a French military and political leader who had a significant impact on the History of Europe. A world war is a War affecting the majority of the world's most powerful and populous nations The purity of Japanese painting and illustration, and likewise the modernity and elegance of French visual arts has resulted in hybrid styles in those creative fields.
For more on Franco-Japanese relations visit Japan-France Relations. (English)
France and India established diplomatic relationships soon after India achieved independence in 1947. India's strong diplomatic ties with France resulted in the peaceful cession of Pondicherry to India in November 1, 1954 without any military opposition from France. Puducherry (formerly; புதுச்சேரி or பாண்டிச்சேரி పాండిచెర్రి പുതുശ്ശേരി Pondichéry is a
France was the only country that did not condemn India's decision to go nuclear in 1998.  In 2003, France became the largest supplier of nuclear fuel and technology to India and remains a large military and economic trade partner. India's permanent member aspirations in the UN Security Council have found very strong support from former French President Chirac. The recent decision by the Indian government to purchase French Scorpène class submarines worth 3 billion USD and 43 Airbus aircraft for Indian Airlines worth 2. Scorpène characteristics The Scorpène class of ships has three subtypes: the Basic Basic-AIP (with the MESMA Air-independent propulsion) and Compact The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been Airbus SAS (ˈɛərbʌs in English, Airbus2ogg|/ɛʁbys/]] in French, and /ˈɛːɐbʊs/ in German) is an aircraft manufacturing Indian Airlines or Indian ( Hindi: इंडियन एयरलाइंस or इंडियन was an airline based in Delhi India and focused primarily 5 billion USD has further cemented the strategic, military and economic co-operation between India and France. The United States dollar ( sign: $; code: USD) is the unit of Currency of the United States; it has also been
Pakistan and France have high levels of diplomatic meetings and are in good terms with one another. However, these good relations haven't been around very long due to France's relations with Pakistans rival; India. Things are improving much between Pakistan and France and France donates large funds to help Pakistan with its economic problems.
Relations between Canada and France are friendly and stable, with the possible exception of issues surrounding Quebec's status in Canada. Modern Canada-France relations have been marked by high levels of military and economic cooperation but also by periods of diplomatic discord primarily over the status of Quebec Quebec (kwɨˈbɛk
Relations between the United States and France are active and cordial. Mutual visits by high-level officials are conducted on a regular basis and bilateral contact at the cabinet level is active. France and the United States cooperate closely on some issues (such as anti-terrorism) but differ on others (such as the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and a number of trade issues). Differences are discussed frankly. The largest current fallout between the United States and France involves the Iraq War, and some aspects of the post-September 11 War on Terror, e. The United States of America —commonly referred to as the The Iraq War, also known as the Second Gulf War, the Occupation of Iraq, or the War in Iraq, is an ongoing Military campaign The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is the common term for the military political and legal, and ideological conflict and specifically for U g. , CIA "extraordinary renditions". near as long as it used to be several months ago It has been actively summarized and split into sub-articles and there is a dynamic talk page discussion of all
Main Articles: Franco-Australian relations
Franco-New Zealand relations refers to international relations between New Zealand and the French Republic. Franco-New Zealand relations refers to international relations between New Zealand and the French Republic, which recently thanked New Zealand for helping it during Relations between France and New Zealand have been rocking at the best of times, but more recently become much closer. Bilateral relations have been good since WWI and WWII, with both countries working extremely closely during either conflicts, but the relationship was severely jeopardised by the sinking of the Rainbow Warrior in Auckland on July 10, 1985 by French Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE) agents. World War I (abbreviated WWI; also known as the First World War, the Great War, and the War to End All World War II, or the Second World War, (often abbreviated WWII) was a global military conflict which involved a majority of the world's nations, including The sinking of the Rainbow Warrior, codenamed Opération Satanique, was an operation by the "action" branch of the French foreign The Auckland metropolitan area or Greater Auckland, in the North Island of New Zealand, is the largest and most populous urban area in the country Events 48 BC - Battle of Dyrrhachium, Julius Caesar barely avoids a catastrophic defeat to Pompey in Macedonia. Year 1985 ( MCMLXXXV) was a Common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar) New Zealand was put under fierce economic strain by France following the attack with French Government demanding the agents who carried out the attack to be released by the New Zealand government. The government of France is a Semi-presidential system determined by the French Constitution of the fifth Republic, in which the nation declares Since then there has been some animosity among New Zealanders towards the French, but since the 20th anniversary of the bombing in 2005, there were signs that New Zealand had begun to warm to the French. Year 2005 ( MMV) was a Common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar of the Gregorian calendar. There has been speculation that this acceptance of the French by the New Zealand people has a lot to do with the historic rivalry between both countries' Rugby teams. The national Rugby union teams of France and New Zealand (the All Blacks have been playing each other for over
Relations with Colombia have been dimmed, by the Ingrid Betancourt issue since 2002; in that year, Ingrid a French citizen and candidate to the presidency of Colombia, was kidnapped by the terrorist organization FARC, France regularly pushes the Colombian government to liberate as many terrorists as it takes to get Ingrid; Colombia recently had to consent with this efforts and in June 4th. Ingrid Betancourt Pulecio (born December 25 1961) is a Colombian French politician former senator and anti- corruption See also 2002 (disambiguation Year 2002 ( MMII) was a Common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo also known by the Acronym of This article is about the country For a topic outline on this subject see List of basic France topics. 2007; 30 guerrillas were liberated, including the leader Rodrigo Granda, the FARC has not liberated Ingrid to this day though. Ricardo González also known as Rodrigo Granda is a Colombian Venezuelan member of Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo also known by the Acronym of France has renewed its plea to Colombian rebels to free more hostages, particularly politician Ingrid Betancourt, after the release in the week of February 25, 2008 of four captives. Events 138 - The Emperor Hadrian adopts Antoninus Pius, effectively making him his successor 2008 ( MMVIII) is the current year in accordance with the Gregorian calendar, a Leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common .
Shortly after taking office, President Sarkozy began negotiations with Colombian president Álvaro Uribe and the left-wing guerrilla FARC, regarding the release of hostages held by the rebel group, especially Franco-Colombian politician Ingrid Betancourt. See also Government of France The Fifth Republic is the fifth and current republican constitution of France, which was introduced on François Mitterrand's foreign policy emphasized European unity and the preservation of France's special relationships with its former colonies in the face of " Anglo-Saxon Nicolas Sarkozy, candidate of the conservative Union for a Popular Movement (UMP was elected President in May 2007, and became the sixth President of the French Colombia (kəˈlʌmbɪə officially the Republic of Colombia () is a country in northwestern South America. Álvaro Uribe Vélez ('alβ̞aɾo u'ɾiβ̞e 'β̞eles born July 4 1952 in Medellín) is a Colombian politician and lawyer who is currently the 39th President The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – People’s Army (Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo also known by the Acronym of Ingrid Betancourt Pulecio (born December 25 1961) is a Colombian French politician former senator and anti- corruption According to some sources, Sarkozy himself asked for Uribe to release FARC's "chancellor" Rodrigo Granda. Ricardo González also known as Rodrigo Granda is a Colombian Venezuelan member of Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC . Furthermore, he announced on 24 July, 2007, that French and European representatives had obtained the extradition of the Bulgarian nurses detained in Libya to their country. The HIV trial in Libya (or Bulgarian nurses affair) concerns the trials appeals and eventual release of six foreign medical workers charged with conspiring to deliberately infect In exchange, he signed with Gaddafi security, health care and immigration pacts — and a $230 million (168 million euros) MILAN antitank missile sale . Muammar Abu Minyar al-Gaddafi 1 (معمر القذافي) (born 7 June 1942) also known as Colonel Gaddafi Milan (Milano Milan (listen) is one of the largest cities in Italy, located in the plains of Lombardy. The contract was the first made by Libya since 2004, and was negotiated with MBDA, a subsidiary of EADS. MBDA is a missile manufacturer with operations in France, Germany, Italy and Britain. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS NV ( EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation formed by the merger on July 10, Another 128 million euros contract would have been signed, according to Tripoli, with EADS for a TETRA radio system. The European Aeronautic Defence and Space Company EADS NV ( EADS) is a large European aerospace corporation formed by the merger on July 10, "TETRA" redirects here For other uses see Tetra (disambiguation TErrestrial Trunked RAdio ( TETRA) (formerly known as The Socialist Party (PS) and the Communist Party (PCF) criticized a "state affair" and a "barter" with a "Rogue state" . The Socialist Party ( Parti Socialiste, PS is the largest left-wing political party in France. The French Communist Party ( French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of The leader of the PS, François Hollande, requested the opening of a parliamentary investigation . François Hollande (born August 12, 1954) is a French Politician.
On June 8, 2007, during the 33rd G8 summit in Heiligendamm, Sarkozy set a goal of reducing French CO2 emissions by 50% by 2050 in order to prevent global warming. The 33rd G8 summit took place at Kempinski Grand Hotel in Heiligendamm in the old Duchy of Mecklenburg in the Northern German state of The seaside resort Heiligendamm, situated on the Baltic Sea coast was founded in 1793. Global warming is the increase in the average measured temperature of the He then pushed forward the important Socialist figure of Dominique Strauss-Kahn as European nominee to the International Monetary Fund (IMF) . Dominique Strauss-Kahn, often referred to as DSK, (born 25 April 1949 in Neuilly-sur-Seine) is a French Economist, Lawyer, and The International Monetary Fund ( IMF) is an International organization that oversees the Global financial system by following the Macroeconomic Critics alleged that Sarkozy proposed to nominate Strauss-Kahn as managing director of the IMF to deprive the Socialist Party of one of its more popular figures.
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